Conch is a common name applied to a number of different medium to large-sized shells. The term applies to large snails whose shell has a high spire and a noticeable siphonal canal. In North America, a conch is identified as a queen conch, indigenous to the waters of the Bahamas. Queen conchs are valued for seafood, are used as fish bait; the group of conchs that are sometimes referred to as "true conchs" are marine gastropod molluscs in the family Strombidae in the genus Strombus and other related genera. For example, see Lobatus gigas, the queen conch, Laevistrombus canarium, the dog conch. Many other species are often called "conch", but are not at all related to the family Strombidae, including Melongena species, the horse conch Triplofusus papillosus. Species referred to as conchs include the sacred chank or more shankha shell and other Turbinella species in the family Turbinellidae; the English word "conch" is attested in Middle English, coming from Latin concha, which in turn comes from Greek konchē from Proto-Indo-European root *konkho-, cognate with Sanskrit śaṅkha.
The meat of conchs is eaten raw in salads, or cooked, as in burgers, chowders and gumbos. All parts of the conch meat are edible. Conch is most indigenous to the Bahamas, is served in fritter and soup forms. Conch is eaten in the West Indies. Restaurants all over the islands serve this particular meat. In the Dominican Republic and Haiti, conch is eaten in curries or in a spicy soup, it is locally referred to as lambi. In the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Annual Conch Festival is held in November each year, located at the Three Queens Bar/Restaurant in Blue Hills. Local restaurateurs compete for the best and most original conch dishes, which are judged by international chefs. Free sampling of the dishes follows the judging. In Puerto Rico, conch is served as a ceviche called ensalada de carrucho, consisting of raw conch marinated in lime juice, olive oil, garlic, green peppers, onions, it is used to fill empanadas. In Panama, conch is known as cambombia and is served as ceviche de cambombia consisting of raw conch marinated in lime juice, chopped onions, finely chopped habaneros, vinegar.
Conch is popular in Italy and among Italian Americans. Called scungille, it is eaten in a variety of ways, but most in salads or cooked in a sauce for pasta, it is included as one of the dishes prepared for the Feast of the Seven Fishes. In East Asian cuisines, this seafood is cut into thin slices and steamed or stir-fried. Eighty-percent of the queen conch meat in international trade is imported into the United States; the Florida Keys were a major source of queen conchs until the 1970s, but the conchs are now scarce and all harvesting of them in Florida waters is prohibited. Conch shells can be used as wind instruments, they are prepared by cutting a hole in the spire of the shell near the apex, blowing into the shell as if it were a trumpet, as in blowing horn. Sometimes, a mouthpiece is used. Pitch is adjusted by moving one's hand out of the aperture. Various species of large marine gastropod shells can be turned into "blowing shells", but some of the best-known species used are the sacred chank or shankha Turbinella pyrum, the Triton's trumpet Charonia tritonis, the queen conch Strombus gigas.
Many different kinds of mollusks can produce pearls. Pearls from the queen conch, S. gigas, are rare and have been collectors' items since Victorian times. Conch pearls occur in a range of hues, including white and orange, with many intermediate shades, but pink is the colour most associated with the conch pearl, such that these pearls are sometimes referred to as "pink pearls". In some gemological texts, non-nacreous gastropod pearls used to be referred to as "calcareous concretions" because they were "porcellaneous", rather than "nacreous", sometimes known as "orient"; the GIA and CIBJO now use the term "pearl"—or, where appropriate, the more descriptive term "non-nacreous pearl"—when referring to such items, under Federal Trade Commission rules, various mollusc pearls may be referred to as "pearls" without qualification. Although not nacreous, the surfaces of fine conch pearls have a unique and attractive appearance of their own; the microstructure of conch pearls comprises aligned bundles of microcrystalline fibres that create a shimmering iridescent effect known as "flame structure".
The effect is a form of chatoyancy, caused by the interaction of light rays with the microcrystals in the pearl's surface, it somewhat resembles moiré silk. Conch shells are sometimes used as decoration, as decorative planters, in cameo making. In classic Maya art, conchs are shown being used in many ways, including as paint and ink holders for elite scribes, as bugles or trumpets, as hand weapons. Conch shells have been used as shell money in several cultures; some American Aboriginals used cylindrical conch columella beads as part of breastplates and other personal adornment. In India, the Bengali bride-to-be is adorned with conch shell and coral bangles
Pulmonata, or "pulmonates", is an informal group of snails and slugs characterized by the ability to breathe air, by virtue of having a pallial lung instead of a gill, or gills. The group includes many land and freshwater families, several marine families; the taxon Pulmonata as traditionally defined was found to be polyphyletic in a molecular study per Jörger et al. dating from 2010. Pulmonata are known from the Carboniferous Period to the present. Pulmonates have a single atrium and kidney, a concentrated, nervous system; the mantle cavity is located on the right side of the body, lacks gills, instead being converted into a vascularised lung. Most species have a shell, but no operculum, although the group does include several shell-less slugs. Pulmonates are hermaphroditic, some groups possess love darts; the taxonomy of this group according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda was as follows: Order Pulmonata Cuvier in Blainville, 1814 - pulmonates Suborder Systellommatophora Pilsbry, 1948 Superfamily Onchidioidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Otinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855 Superfamily Rathouisioidea Sarasin, 1889 Suborder Basommatophora Keferstein in Bronn, 1864 - freshwater pulmonates, pond snails Superfamily Acroloxoidea Thiele, 1931 Superfamily Amphiboloidea J.
E. Gray, 1840 Superfamily Chilinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855 Superfamily Glacidorboidea Ponder, 1986 Superfamily Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Planorboidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Siphonarioidea J. E. Gray, 1840 Suborder Eupulmonata Haszprunar & Huber, 1990 Infraorder Acteophila Dall, 1885 = Archaeopulmonata Superfamily Melampoidea Stimpson, 1851 Infraorder Trimusculiformes Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 Superfamily Trimusculoidea Zilch, 1959 Infraorder Stylommatophora A. Schmidt, 1856 - land snails Subinfraorder Orthurethra Superfamily Achatinelloidea Gulick, 1873 Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Pupilloidea Turton, 1831 Subinfraorder Sigmurethra Superfamily Acavoidea Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Achatinoidea Swainson, 1840 Superfamily Aillyoidea Baker, 1960 Superfamily Arionoidea J. E. Gray in Turnton, 1840 Superfamily Buliminoidea Clessin, 1879 Superfamily Camaenoidea Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Clausilioidea Mörch, 1864 Superfamily Dyakioidea Gude & Woodward, 1921 Superfamily Gastrodontoidea Tryon, 1866 Superfamily Helicoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Helixarionoidea Bourguignat, 1877 Superfamily Limacoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Oleacinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855 Superfamily Orthalicoidea Albers-Martens, 1860 Superfamily Plectopylidoidea Moellendorf, 1900 Superfamily Polygyroidea Pilsbry, 1894 Superfamily Punctoidea Morse, 1864 Superfamily Rhytidoidea Pilsbry, 1893 Superfamily Sagdidoidera Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Staffordioidea Thiele, 1931 Superfamily Streptaxoidea J.
E. Gray, 1806 Superfamily Strophocheiloidea Thiele, 1926 Superfamily Trigonochlamydoidea Hese, 1882 Superfamily Zonitoidea Mörch, 1864? Superfamily Athoracophoroidea P. Fischer, 1883 = Tracheopulmonata? Superfamily Succineoidea Beck, 1837 = Heterurethra The taxonomy of this group according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda was as follows: Contains the informal group Basommatophora and the clade Eupulmonata Contains the clade Hygrophila Superfamily Amphiboloidea Family Amphibolidae Superfamily Siphonarioidea Family Siphonariidae † Family Acroreiidae Superfamily Chilinoidea Family Chilinidae Family Latiidae Superfamily Acroloxoidea Family Acroloxidae Superfamily Lymnaeoidea Family Lymnaeidae Superfamily Planorboidea Family Planorbidae Family Physidae Contains the clades Systellommatophora and Stylommatophora Superfamily Trimusculoidea Family Trimusculidae Superfamily Otinoidea Family Otinidae Family Smeagolidae Superfamily Ellobioidea Family Ellobiidae Superfamily Onchidioidea Family Onchidiidae Superfamily Veronicelloidea Family Veronicellidae Family Rathouisiidae Contains the subclades Elasmognatha and the informal group Sigmurethra Superfamily Succineoidea Family Succineidae Superfamily Athoracophoroidea Family Athoracophoridae Superfamily Partuloidea Family Partulidae Family Draparnaudiidae Superfamily Achatinelloidea Family Achatinellidae Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Family Cochlicopidae Family Amastridae Superfamily Pupilloidea Family Pupillidae Family Argnidae Family Chondrinidae † Family Cylindrellinidae Family Lauriidae Family Orculidae Family Pleurodiscidae Family Pyramidulidae Family Spelaeodiscidae Family Strobilopsidae Family Valloniidae Family Vertiginidae Superfamily Enoidea Family Enidae Family Cerastidae Superfamily Clausilioidea Family Clausiliidae † Family Anadromidae † Family Filholiidae † Family Palaeostoidae Superfamily Orthalicoidea Family Orthalicidae Family Cerionidae Family Coelociontidae † Family Grangerellidae Family Megaspiridae Family Placostylidae Family Urocoptidae Superfamily Achatinoidea Family Achatinidae Family Ferussaciidae Family Micractaeonidae Family Subulinidae Superfamily Aillyoidea Family Aillyidae Superfamily Testacelloidea Family Testacellidae Family Oleacinidae Family Spiraxidae Superfamily Papillodermatoidea Family Papillodermatidae Superfamily Streptaxoidea Family Streptaxidae Superfamily Rhytidoidea Family Rhytididae Family Chlamydephoridae Family Haplotrematidae Family Scolodontidae Superfamily Acavoidea Family Acavidae Family Caryodidae Family Dorcasiidae Family Macrocyclidae Family Megomphicidae Family Strophocheilidae Superfamily Punctoidea Family Punctidae † Family Anastomopsidae Family Charopidae Family Cystopeltidae Family Discidae Family Endodontidae Family Helicodiscidae Family Oreohelicidae Family Thyrophorellidae Superfamily Sagdoidea Family Sagdidae Superfamily Staffordioidea Family Staffordiidae Superfamily Dyakioidea Family Dyakiidae Superfamily Gastrodontoidea Family Gastrodo
Malacologia is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of malacology, the study of mollusks. The journal publishes articles in the fields of molluscan systematics, population ecology, molecular genetics and phylogenetics; the journal specializes in publishing long monographs. The journal publishes at least one, sometimes two, volumes of about 400 pages per year, which may consist of 1 or 2 issues. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2010 impact factor is 1.024. This ranks Malacologia 66th out of 145 listed journals in the category "Zoology"; the journal started publication in 1962. Journal of Molluscan Studies Official website
Torsion is a gastropod synapomorphy which occurs in all gastropods during larval development. Torsion is the rotation of the visceral mass and shell 180˚ with respect to the head and foot of the gastropod; this rotation brings the anus to an anterior position above the head. In some groups of gastropods there is a degree of secondary detorsion or rotation towards the original position; the torsion or twisting of the visceral mass of larval gastropods is not the same thing as the spiral coiling of the shell, present in many shelled gastropods. There are two different developmental stages; the first stage is caused by the development of the asymmetrical velar/foot muscle which has one end attached to the left side of the shell and the other end has fibres attached to the left side of the foot and head. At a certain point in larval development this muscle contracts, causing an anticlockwise rotation of the visceral mass and mantle of 90˚; this process is rapid, taking from a few minutes to a few hours.
After this transformation the second stage of torsion development is achieved by differential tissue growth of the left hand side of the organism compared to the right hand side. This second stage is much slower and rotates the visceral mass and mantle a further 90˚. Detorsion is brought about by reversal of the above phases. During torsion the visceral mass remains unchanged anatomically. There are, other important changes to other internal parts of the gastropod. Before torsion the gastropod has an euthyneural nervous system, where the two visceral nerves run parallel down the body. Torsion results in a streptoneural nervous system, where the visceral nerves cross over in a figure of eight fashion; as a result, the parietal ganglions end up at different heights. Because of differences between the left and right hand sides of the body, there are different evolutionary pressures on left and right hand side organs and as a result in some species there are considerable differences; some examples of this are: in the ctenidia in some species, one side may be absent.
The original advantage of torsion for gastropods is unclear. It is further complicated by potential problems. For example, having the place where wastes are excreted positioned above the head could result in fouling of the mouth and sense organs; the diversity and success of the gastropods suggests torsion is advantageous, or at least has no strong disadvantages. One candidate for the original purpose of torsion is defence against predators in adult gastropods. By moving the mantle cavity over the head, the gastropod can retract its vulnerable head into its shell; some gastropods can close the entrance to their shell with a tough operculum, a door-like structure, attached to the dorsal surface of their foot. In evolutionary terms, the appearance of an operculum occurred shortly after that of torsion, which suggests a possible link with the role of torsion, though there is not sufficient evidence for or against this hypothesis; the English zoologist Walter Garstang wrote a famous poem in 1928, The Ballad of the Veliger, in which he argued with gentle humour in favour of the defence theory, including the lines Predaceous foes, still drifting by in numbers unabated,Were baffled now by tactics which their dining plans frustrated.
Their prey upon alarm collapsed, but promptly turned about,With the tender morsel safe within and the horny foot without! Torsion can provide other advantages. For aquatic gastropods, anterior positioning of the mantle cavity may be useful for preventing sediment getting into the mantle cavity, an event, more with posterior positioning because sediment can be stirred up by the motion of the gastropod. Another possible advantage for aquatic species is that moving the osphradium to an anterior position means they are sampling water the gastropod is entering rather than leaving; this may avoid predators. In terrestrial species, ventilation is better with anterior positioning; this is due to the back and forth motion of the shell during movement, which would tend to block the mantle opening against the foot if it was in a posterior position. The evolution of an asymmetrical conispiral shell allowed gastropods to grow larger, but resulted in an unbalanced shell. Torsion allows repositioning of the shell, bringing the centre of gravity back to the middle of the gastropod’s body, thus helps prevent the animal or the shell from falling over.
Whatever original advantage resulted in the initial evolutionary success of torsion, subsequent adaptations linked to torsion have provided modern gastropods with further advantages. Brusca, R. C.. J. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Massachusetts. Page L. R. "Modern insights on gastropod development: Reevaluation of the evolution of a novel body plan". Integrative and Comparative Biology 46: 134-143. Doi:10.1093/icb/icj018. Ruppert, E. E. et al. Invertebrate Zoology. Seventh edition. Brooks/Cole – Thompson Learning. Belmont, California
Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997)
The taxonomy of the Gastropoda, as revised by Winston Ponder and David R. Lindberg in 1997, is an older taxonomy of the class Gastropoda, the class of molluscs consisting of all snails and slugs; the full name of the work in which this taxonomy was published is Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. This taxonomy assigns the various Gastropods into ranked categories, such as sub-orders and families, but does not address the classification of genera or individual species; this classification scheme is based on the molluscs' internal and external shapes and forms, but did not take into account any analysis of their DNA or RNA. The classification below was the most recent until Bouchet and Rocroi published their revised taxonomy in 2005, which differs in that the higher taxa are expressed as unranked clades where known, termed "informal groups" or groups" where monophyly has not yet been determined, where polyphyly is suspected. Ponder & Lindberg used only four families to analyze the Euthyneura.
Further work by Dayrat & Tillier provided a great deal of detail about the relationships between within the Euthyneura. Ponder & Lindberg did not use Linnean taxonomical ranks in their work, but the results of their paper were adapted and used with Linnean taxonomical ranks by other authors. An example of such taxonomy follows: Class Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797Incertæ sedis Order Bellerophontinaka Order Mimospirina Subclass Eogastropoda Ponder & David R. Lindberg, 1996 Order Euomphalida de Koninck 1881 Superfamily Macluritoidea Superfamily Euomphaloidea Superfamily Platyceratoidea Order Patellogastropoda Lindberg, 1986 Suborder Patellina Van Ihering, 1876 Superfamily Patelloidea Rafinesque, 1815 Suborder Nacellina David R. Lindberg, 1988 Superfamily Acmaeoidea Carpenter, 1857 Superfamily Nacelloidea Thiele, 1891 Suborder Lepetopsina McLean, 1990 Superfamily Lepetopsoidea McLean, 1990Subclass Orthogastropoda Ponder & David R. Lindberg, 1996 Incertæ sedis Order Murchisoniina Cox & Knight, 1960 Superfamily Murchisonioidea Koken, 1889 Superfamily Loxonematoidea Koken, 1889 Superfamily Lophospiroidea Wenz, 1938 Superfamily Straparollinoidea Grade Subulitoidea Lindström, 1884Superorder Cocculiniformia Haszprunar, 1987 Superfamily Cocculinoidea Dall, 1882 Superfamily Lepetelloidea Dall, 1882 Superorder "Hot Vent Taxa" Ponder & David R. Lindberg, 1997 Order Neomphaloida Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1983 Superfamily Neomphaloidea McLean, 1981 Superfamily Peltospiroidea McLean, 1989Superorder Vetigastropoda Salvini-Plawen, 1989 Superfamily Fissurelloidea Fleming, 1822 Superfamily Haliotoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Lepetodriloidea McLean, 1988 Superfamily Pleurotomarioidea Swainson, 1840 Superfamily Seguenzioidea Verrill, 1884 Superfamily Trochoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superorder Neritaemorphi Koken, 1896 Order Cyrtoneritomorpha Order Neritopsina Cox & Knight, 1960 Superfamily Neritoidea Lamarck, 1809Superorder Caenogastropoda Cox, 1960 Order Architaenioglossa Haller, 1890 Superfamily Ampullarioidea J.
E. Gray, 1824 Superfamily Cyclophoroidea J. E. Gray, 1847 Order Sorbeoconcha Ponder & David R. Lindberg, 1997 Suborder Discopoda P. Fischer, 1884 Superfamily Campaniloidea Douvillé, 1904 Superfamily Cerithioidea Férussac, 1822 Suborder Hypsogastropoda Ponder & David R. Lindberg, 1997 Infraorder Littorinimorpha Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 Superfamily Calyptraeoidea Lamarck, 1809 Superfamily Capuloidea J. Fleming, 1822 Superfamily Carinarioidea Blainville, 1818 Superfamily Cingulopsoidea Fretter & Patil, 1958 Superfamily Cypraeoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Ficoidea Meek, 1864 Superfamily Laubierinoidea Warén & Bouchet, 1990 Superfamily Littorinoidea, 1834 Superfamily Naticoidea Forbes, 1838 Superfamily Rissooidea J. E. Gray, 1847 Superfamily Stromboidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Tonnoidea Suter, 1913 Superfamily Trivioidea Troschel, 1863 Superfamily Vanikoroidea J. E. Gray, 1840 Superfamily Velutinoidea J. E. Gray, 1840 Superfamily Vermetoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Xenophoroidea Troschel, 1852 Infraorder Ptenoglossa J.
E. Gray, 1853 Superfamily Eulimoidea Philippi, 1853 Superfamily Janthinoidea Lamarck, 1812 Superfamily Triphoroidea J. E. Gray, 1847 Infraorder Neogastropoda Thiele, 1929 Superfamily Buccinoidea Superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes & Hanley, 1851 Superfamily Conoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Superfamily Muricoidea Rafinesque, 1815Superorder Heterobranchia J. E. Gray, 1840 Order Heterostropha P. Fischer, 1885 Superfamily Architectonicoidea J. E. Gray, 1840 Superfamily Nerineoidea Zittel, 1873 Superfamily Omalogyroidea G. O. Sars, 1878 Superfamily Pyramidelloidea J. E. Gray, 1840 Superfamily Rissoelloidea J. E. Gray, 1850 Superfamily Valvatoidea J. E. Gray, 1840 Order Opisthobranchia Milne-Edwards, 1848 Suborder Cephalaspidea P. Fischer, 1883 Superfamily Acteonoidea D'Orbigny, 1835 Superfamily Bulloidea Lamarck, 1801 Superfamily Cylindrobulloidea Thiele, 1931 Superfamily Diaphanoidea Odhner, 1914 Superfamily Haminoeoidea Pilsbry, 1895 Superfamily Philinoidea J. E. Gray, 1850 Superfamily Ringiculoidea Philippi, 1853 Suborder Sacoglossa Von Ihering, 1876 Superfamily Oxynooidea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 Suborder Anaspidea P. Fischer, 1883 Superfamily Akeroidea Pilsbry, 1893 Superfamily Aplysioidea Lamarck, 1809 Suborde
Whelk is a common name, applied to various kinds of sea snail. Although a number of whelks are large and are in the family Buccinidae, the word whelk is applied to some other marine gastropod species within several families of sea snails that are not closely related. Many have been used, or are still used, by humans and other animals for food. Dog whelks were used in antiquity to make a rich red dye ages. True whelks are carnivorous, feeding on worms, crustaceans and other molluscs, drilling holes through shells to gain access to the soft tissues. Whelks use chemoreceptors to locate their prey; the common name "whelk" is spelled welk or wilk. The species and families referred to by this common name vary a great deal from one geographic area to another. In the United States, whelk refers to several large edible species in the genera Busycon and Busycotypus, which are now classified in the family Buccinidae; these are sometimes called Busycon whelks. In addition, the unrelated invasive murex Rapana venosa is referred to as the Veined rapa whelk or Asian rapa whelk in the family Muricidae.
In the British Isles and the Netherlands, the word is used for a number of species in the family Buccinidae Buccinum undatum, an edible European and Northern Atlantic species. In the British Isles, the common name "dog whelk" is used for Nucella lapillus and for Nassarius species. In Scotland, the word "whelk" is used to mean the periwinkle, family Littorinidae. In the English-speaking islands of the West Indies, the word whelks or wilks is applied to a large edible top shell, Cittarium pica known as the magpie or West Indian top shell, family Trochidae. In Japan, whelks are used in sashimi and sushi. In Vietnam, they are served in a dish called Bún ốc - vermicelli with sea snails. Golbaengi-muchim is a Korean dish consisting of whelks and with chili sauce in a salad with cold noodles, it has been a popular side dish with alcohol for many generations. In Australia and New Zealand, species of the genus Cabestana are called predatory whelks, species of Penion are called siphon whelks. Channeled whelk Common whelk Knobbed whelk, the state shell of Georgia and New Jersey Lightning whelk Red whelk Speckled whelk "Triton whelk", an Australian common name for Charonia species "Wrinkled whelk", a common name for both Neptunea lyrata and Nucella lamellosa Conch, another common name used for a wide variety of large sea snails or their shells The Georgia Shell Club webpage entry for whelk, Busycon species Nutrition facts for "whelk" as a food source The Marine Life Information Network - The Common Whelk
Corneous is a biological and medical term meaning horny, in other words made out of a substance similar to that of horns and hooves in some mammals. The word is used to describe natural or pathological anatomical structures made out of a hard layer of protein. In mammals this protein would be keratin; the word corneous is often used to describe the operculum of a snail, a gastropod mollusc. Not all gastropods have opercula, but in the great majority of those that do have one, the operculum is corneous. Corneous opercula are made out of the protein conchiolin. Corneous at dictionary.com