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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone and rhythm. Such elements are known as suprasegmentals. Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker, it may otherwise reflect other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or by choice of vocabulary. In the study of prosodic aspects of speech, it is usual to distinguish between auditory measures and acoustic measures. Auditory and acoustic measures of prosody do not correspond in a linear way. Most studies of prosody have been based on auditory analysis using auditory scales. There is no agreed number of prosodic variables. In auditory terms, the major variables are: the pitch of the voice length of sounds loudness, or prominence timbre In acoustic terms, these correspond reasonably to: fundamental frequency duration intensity, or sound pressure level spectral characteristics Different combinations of these variables are exploited in the linguistic functions of intonation and stress, as well as other prosodic features such as rhythm and tempo.

Additional prosodic variables have been studied, including voice pausing. Prosodic features are said to be suprasegmental, since they are properties of units of speech larger than the individual segment, it is necessary to distinguish between the personal, background characteristics that belong to an individual's voice and the independently variable prosodic features that are used contrastively to communicate meaning. Personal characteristics are not linguistically significant, it is not possible to say with any accuracy which aspects of prosody are found in all languages and which are specific to a particular language or dialect. Some writers have described intonation in terms of pitch, while others propose that what is referred to as intonation is in fact an amalgam of several prosodic variables; the form of English intonation is said to be based on three aspects: The division of speech into units The highlighting of particular words and syllables The choice of pitch movement These are sometimes known as tonality and tone.

An additional pitch-related variation is pitch range: speakers are capable of speaking with a wide range of pitch, at other times with a narrow range. English has been said to make use of changes in key: shifting one's intonation into the higher or lower part of one's pitch range is believed to be meaningful in certain contexts. From the perceptual point of view, stress functions as the means of making a syllable prominent. Stressed syllables are made prominent by themselves or in combination. Stress is associated with the following: pitch prominence, that is, a pitch level, different from that of neighbouring syllables, or a pitch movement increased length increased loudness differences in timbre: in English and some other languages, stress is associated with aspects of vowel quality. Unstressed vowels tend to be centralized relative to stressed vowels, which are more peripheral in qualityThese cues to stress are not powerful. Cruttenden, for example, writes "Perceptual experiments have shown that, in English at any rate, the three features form a scale of importance in bringing syllables into prominence, pitch being the most efficacious, loudness the least so".

When pitch prominence is the major factor, the resulting prominence is called accent rather than stress. There is considerable variation from language to language concerning the role of stress in identifying words or in interpreting grammar and syntax. Although rhythm is not a prosodic variable in the way that pitch or loudness are, it is usual to treat a language's characteristic rhythm as a part of its prosodic phonology, it has been asserted that languages exhibit regularity in the timing of successive units of speech, a regularity referred to as isochrony, that every language may be assigned one of three rhythmical types: stress-timed, syllable-timed and mora-timed. As explained in the isochrony article, this claim has not been supported by scientific evidence. Voi

McCain Institute

The McCain Institute for International Leadership is a Washington, D. C.-based think tank in cooperation with Arizona State University whose mission is to "advance leadership based on security, economic opportunity and human dignity, in the United States and around the world." The institute was formed in 2012 and is named after U. S. Senator and 2008 Republican Party presidential nominee John McCain from Arizona. Based in Washington, D. C. the McCain Institute is part of Arizona State University. The acting executive director of the McCain Institute is Nick Rasmussen, its work is focused on achieving immediate and long-range impact, through activities that improve the ability of leaders to make enlightened decisions in pursuit of the American and global interest. The work has four central themes: Provide decision recommendations for leaders through open debate and rigorous analysis, by convening experts, publishing policy-relevant research, holding decision-making exercises using advanced technology.

Identify and train new national security leaders, both American and foreign, in the public, private enterprise, military spheres, including through fellowships and targeted training. Play a unique role in a crowded intellectual space, including through the Sedona Forum and the McCain Debates and by serving as a Washington "decision tank". Promote and preserve the McCain family spirit of character-driven leadership and national service, including hosting the McCain family archives. Funding of the institute comes from a variety of individuals and corporations, including Wal-Mart Stores, FedEx, Saudi Arabia, hedge fund owner Paul E. Singer; some of the funders have business before Congress, but McCain's representative has said such actions would not affect his votes. The Sedona Forum is the institute’s annual high-level gathering of national and international leaders held each spring at the Enchantment Resort in the red-rock country of Sedona, Arizona; the forum convenes global leaders, decision-makers, high-level executives and diverse experts to discuss solutions to real-world problems—all from the starting assumption of character-driven leadership and core democratic values.

Previous guests have included Vice President Joe Biden, Ben Affleck, former U. S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton; the McCain Institute publishes an “Agenda for Action” reflecting the ideas discussed during the forum. Each year, the forum identifies a theme broad enough to incorporate a variety of views and produce practical recommendations; the 2013 forum focused on “How to Promote Freedom and Democracy Effectively.” Vice President Biden headlined the event, taking part in conversation with Senator McCain on national and international issues, from gun control to immigration to the global economy. The institute sponsors a series of debates. Among the issues debated include U. S. policy on: Syria, Iran, the defense budget and the Arab Spring, drone warfare, Russia. The debates are followed by a private, non-attribution discussion among the debaters and the senior policymakers present; this creates a “safe environment” for political leaders to discuss issues and without fear of political vulnerability or backlash.

The debates have been expanded to other cities including Phoenix. Each debate brings in about 250 audience members and reaches thousands of people via live-streaming and online viewers; the debates have featured speakers from the Brookings Institution, the American Enterprise Institute, The New Republic, the Atlantic Monthly, CNN, Fox News, the Wilson Center, Pepperdine University, Human Rights Watch, the Cato Institute, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and the RAND Corporation. The McCain Institute invites senior leaders from the United States and around the world to share personal insights; the institute is creating a digital archive of these events, available online for students and scholars. Among the participants are New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, President Bill Clinton, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, former Latvian Defense Minister Artis Pabriks, former Georgian Foreign Minister Eka Tkeshelashvili, former President of Colombia Álvaro Uribe; the Washington Policy Design Studio brings Arizona State University students to Washington, D.

C. for a semester of intensive class work on the art of foreign policy-making, combined with a D. C. internship. Official website

VitskĂžl Abbey

Vitskøl Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery near Ranum in Himmerland in Region Nordjylland, active from mid 12th-century until 1563, one of the oldest existing monastic complexes in northern Europe. Vitskøl Abbey was founded by Cistercian monks under Abbot Henrik while in exile from Varnhem Abbey in Sweden during a conflict with Queen Christina Björnsdotter of Sweden; the monks from Varnhem were replaced by monks from Esrum Abbey, reckoned the mother house of Vitskøl. It stood on an ancient trade route through north central Denmark on land given to the Cistercians by King Valdemar I the Great after his victory over King Sweyn III at the Battle of Grathe Heath, with the intent of building the largest church in Scandinavia; the exact date of the foundation is not known, but work on the buildings commenced in 1158. As early as 1165 the community of Vitskøl had grown sufficiently to attempt to found a daughter house at Sabro; the soil conditions prevented the monks from farming and they moved to Sminge, but faced the same conditions and moved on to the abandoned Veng Abbey, which disputes about land claims forced them to leave.

They next attempted to settle on the isle of Kalvø in Skanderborg Lake, but it too failed because of the poor soil. Lastly the monks moved to the site of Øm Abbey; the buildings at Vitskøl were in the usual Cistercian layout, but the cruciform church, with three aisles, a transept and an apse, was intended to be unusually large, in accordance with the founder's wishes. Work on the choir and transept continued until 1287. Another feature of the early building was a large cloister with several apses built into it, a local extravagance; the work on the great church was abandoned, a smaller abbey church was built to take care of the needs of the community. With royal protection and the gifts of the local nobility, the abbey became the major landowner in the area, as well as a centre of cultural life and economy; the abbey owned the island of Livø and had the right to hold a market on Trend Strand. Vitskøl became well known for its school; the abbey reached its high point in the 14th century. When during the Reformation Denmark became Lutheran in October 1536, Vitskøl Abbey became crown property, but remained in operation for a while, although it was forbidden to accept any new monks.

The last monks left in 1563. In 1573 the estate was given to Bjørn Andersen, a powerful noble, after whom it was renamed Bjørnsholm, who converted two of the conventual buildings for residential use; the church remained in use as the parish church until the early 17th century, when it was deemed too large to keep in repair, at which point the west wing of the abbey was converted to a parish church instead. The abbey church was abandoned in 1668, was used by local people as a quarry for building materials; the property remained in private ownership until 1934 and 1942, when it was acquired by the state in two parcels. The principal residential building has been renamed Vitskøl Kloster, but the farm retains the name Bjørnsholm; the remaining abbey buildings have now been restored and are used for conferences and educational purposes. The remaining ruins, consisting of foundation stones and a few remnants of the abbey church, have been given protected status and stabilized. A reminder of the abbey's past can be found in the abbey herb garden.

The abandoned gardens were allowed to grow wild and researchers found that many of the plants used by monks in the distant past could still be found on the abbey grounds. The gardens have been restored by local organizations and used for plant research. Vitskøl Kloster herb garden: detailed catalogue of plants Vitskøl Kloster events Ranum website: pictures Local interest website: pictures

2002 United States Senate election in New Jersey

The 2002 United States Senate election in New Jersey was held on November 5, 2002. The race was to feature Democrat Robert Torricelli, running for a second term in the seat he had won when former Senator Bill Bradley elected not to run for a fourth term in 1996 and, the state's senior senator following Frank Lautenberg's retirement at the end of the 106th United States Congress, against former West Windsor Township mayor Douglas Forrester, who had won the Republican nomination. Torricelli, had been the target of an ethics probe and dropped out of the race in late September 2002. After legal proceedings aimed as forcing Torricelli's name to remain on the ballot were filed by Forrester's campaign, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that Lautenberg, with whom the Democrats sought to replace him, could remain on the ballot. In the general election, Lautenberg defeated Forrester by a 9.9% margin. At 78, Lautenberg became the oldest person to win an open Senate election. Lautenberg became the state's junior senator for the second time when he was sworn in on January 3, 2003.

Robert Torricelli, incumbent U. S. SenatorAlthough Torricelli would withdraw from the race, he was unopposed for the Democratic nomination on June 4. Diane Allen, State Senator Douglas Forrester, former Mayor of West Windsor John J. Matheussen, State Senator As noted above, Torricelli dropped out of the race on September 30 due to ethical problems and poor poll numbers against Forrester, a unknown opponent; the New Jersey Democratic Party convinced the retired Lautenberg to join the race after Torricelli dropped out. In the case of The New Jersey Democratic Party v. Samson, 175 N. J. 178, Forrester sued to stop Democratic Party efforts to have Lautenberg replace Torricelli. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled unanimously on October 2 that the party could switch Lautenberg's name in for Sen. Torricelli's on the ballot. Forrester received the endorsement of President George W. Bush. Complete video of debate, September 5, 2002 Complete video of debate, September 12, 2002 Complete video of debate, October 30, 2002 Complete video of debate, November 2, 2002

Cyclotropia

Cyclotropia is a form of strabismus in which, compared to the correct positioning of the eyes, there is a torsion of one eye about the eye's visual axis. The visual fields of the two eyes appear tilted relative to each other; the corresponding latent condition – a condition in which torsion occurs only in the absence of appropriate visual stimuli – is called cyclophoria. Cyclotropia is associated with other disorders of strabism, can result in double vision, can cause other symptoms, in particular head tilt. In some cases and objective cyclodeviation may result from surgery for oblique muscle disorders; the role of cyclotropia in vision disorders is not always identified. In several cases of double vision, once the underlying cyclotropia was identified, the condition was solved by surgical cyclotropia correction. Conversely, artificially causing cyclotropia in cats leads to reduced vision acuity, resulting in a defect similar to strabismic amblyopia. Cyclotropia can be detected using subjective tests such as the Maddox rod test, the Bagolini striated lens test, the phase difference haploscope of Aulhorn, or the Lancaster red-green test.

Among these, the LRGT is the most complete. Cyclotropia can be diagnosed using a combination of subjective and objective tests. Before surgery, both subjective and objective torsion should be assessed. Experiments have been made on whether cyclic deviations can be assessed by purely photographic means. If only small amounts of torsion are present, cyclotropia may be without symptoms and may not need correction, as the visual system can compensate small degrees of torsion and still achieve binocular vision; the compensation can take place during signal processing in the brain. In patients with cyclotropia of vascular origin, the condition improves spontaneously. Cyclotropia cannot be corrected with prism spectacles in the way other eye position disorders are corrected. For cyclodeviations above 5 degrees, surgery has been recommended. Depending on the symptoms, the surgical correction of cyclotropia may involve a correction of an associated vertical deviation, or a Harada–Ito procedure or another procedure to rotate the eye inwards, or yet another procedure to rotate it outwards.

A cyclodeviation may thus be corrected at the same time with a correction of a vertical deviation. Lemos, João.

Jake Fishman

Jake Layton Fishman is an American-Israeli professional baseball pitcher in the Toronto Blue Jays organization and for Team Israel. In high school, in 2013 he was named to the Hockomock League All-Star First Team, was named to the Massachusetts All-Star Team. In college, in his junior season with the Union Dutchmen, in 2016 Fishman led all of college baseball with a 0.41 ERA. He was named the Liberty League's Pitcher of the Year, Player of the Year, All-Liberty League First Team both as a pitcher and as a utility player, a D3baseball.com All-American. Fishman was selected in the 30th round of the 2016 Major League Baseball draft by the Toronto Blue Jays, he was on the roster for Team Israel at the 2017 World Baseball Classic. In November 2019, he obtained Israeli citizenship so that he could play for Team Israel in baseball at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Fishman was born in Newton, Massachusetts, to Hutch Fishman and Cindy Layton, is Jewish. Fishman attended Sharon High School in Massachusetts, where he was an pitcher.

He was captain of his high school baseball team during both his senior years. The now-6' -3" pitcher said. In his senior year he was named to the Hockomock League All-Star First Team, was runner-up to be the Hockomock League MVP, was named to the Massachusetts All-Star Team, he graduated in 2013. Undrafted out of high school, Fishman didn't receive an NCAA Division I offer. Fishman attended NCAA Division III Union College for three years. In his freshman season, he pitched to a 7–0 win–loss record with a 2.29 earned run average and 49 strikeouts in 63 innings pitched. Fishman was named Division III Upstate Baseball Pitcher of the Week after pitching a no-hitter in his second college start on March 29, 2014. Fishman played first base and designated hitter and batted for Union, hitting.400 with 24 runs batted in and 12 stolen bases. In the off-season, he played for the Brockton Rox of the Futures Collegiate Baseball League. In 2015, Fishman went 43 strikeouts in 42 2⁄3 innings. At the plate, he hit.477 with 10 stolen bases.

He was named to the NCAA 2015 Academic All-District 3 Baseball Team as a designated hitter, with a 3.32 GPA and a major in Managerial Economics. He was named a 2015 Jewish Sports Review College Baseball All-American with, among others, first baseman Simon Rosenbaum and first baseman/outfielder Jeremy Wolf. In his junior, final, season with the Dutchmen, in 2016 Fishman led all of college baseball with a 0.41 ERA, had a 7–0 record with 85 strikeouts in 66 innings pitched. He threw a fastball in the low-90s, he batted.361 with 14 RBIs. At the end of the season he was named the Liberty League's Pitcher of the Year, Player of the Year, All-Liberty League First Team both as a pitcher and as a utility player. Fishman was selected to the 2016 USA Baseball Golden Spikes Award Midseason Watch List, the only NCAA Division III baseball player named to the list, he was the first Union player to receive D3baseball.com All-American honors at pitcher, was chosen as an American Baseball Coaches Association Second-Team All-American at utility.

In his three years pitching for Union, he went 18-2 with a 1.36 ERA, as a hitter he batted.410. After the college season, he pitched during the summer for the Wareham Gatemen of the Cape Cod League. Fishman planned to continue attending classes for his Union College degree in the fall of 2016, to finish his degree requirements. Fishman was selected in the 30th round of the 2016 Major League Baseball draft by the Toronto Blue Jays. In being selected, he became the first Union College player to be taken in an MLB draft, he signed with the Blue Jays on June 17, for a signing bonus of $50,000 and payment of his senior year tuition $65,000. Fishman was assigned to the Rookie-level Gulf Coast League Blue Jays. In seven appearances, including one start, he posted a 0–1 record, 4.80 ERA, 13 strikeouts in 15 innings pitched. He was promoted to the Bluefield Blue Jays of the Rookie Appalachian League on August 20, but did not appear for the team before the end of the season. In 2017, Fishman pitched one scoreless inning for the Gulf Coast League Blue Jays, pitched in 14 relief appearances for the Vancouver Canadians of the Class A- Northwest League for whom he was 1-0 with 1 save and a 1.17 ERA and 4 walks and 23 strikeouts in 23 innings, pitched four times in relief for the Lansing Lugnuts of the Class A Midwest League, for whom he was 0-1 with a 4.05 ERA and zero walks and 15 strikeouts in 6.2 innings.

Fishman began the 2018 season pitching for the Dunedin Blue Jays of the Class A-Advanced Florida State League, for whom he was 2-3 with 8 saves and a 2.68 ERA, as in 44 games he pitched 57 innings, walked 11, struck out 56 batters, as he had the best WHIP on the team. He pitched in one game for the Buffalo Bisons of the Class AAA International League, pitching 1.1 perfect innings with one strikeout. Blue Jays pitching coordinator Jeff Ware described Fishman as "the kind of pitcher that gives lefties nightmares at the dish."In 2019, Fishman pitched for the New Hampshire Fisher Cats of the Class AA Eastern League. He was 1-1 with 4 saves and a 3.45 ERA in 42 relief appearances, as he pitched 62.2 innings with 74 strikeouts, induced ground balls 50.9% of the time. Fishman was on the roster to play for Team Israel at the 2017 World Baseball Classic in South Korea. Team Israel coach Jerry Weinstein had been Fishman's coach when he played for the Wareham Gatemen of the Cape Cod League in 2016. In November 2019, he obtained Israeli citizenship so that he could play