Miller James Huggins was an American professional baseball player and manager. Huggins played second base for St. Louis Cardinals, he managed the Cardinals and New York Yankees, including the Murderers' Row teams of the 1920s that won six American League pennants and three World Series championships. Huggins was born in Cincinnati, he received a degree in law from the University of Cincinnati, where he was captain on the baseball team. Rather than serve as a lawyer, Huggins chose to pursue a professional baseball career, he played semi-professional and minor league baseball from 1898 through 1903, at which time he signed with the Reds. As a player, Huggins was adept at getting on base, he was an excellent fielding second baseman, earning the nicknames "Rabbit", "Little Everywhere", "Mighty Mite" for his defensive prowess and was considered an intelligent manager who understood the fundamentals of the game. Despite fielding successful teams for the Yankees in the 1920s, he continued to make personnel changes in order to maintain his teams' superiority in the AL.
He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1964. Huggins was born in Cincinnati, where an Englishman, worked as a grocer, his mother was a native of Cincinnati. He had one sister. Huggins attended Woodward High School, Walnut Hills High School, the University of Cincinnati. Where he studied law and played college baseball for the Cincinnati Bearcats baseball team. A shortstop, he was named team captain of the Bearcats in 1900. Seeing him consumed with baseball, his law professors summoned him to justify why they should keep him in the law program. Huggins' father, a devout Methodist, objected to his son playing baseball on Sundays, but Huggins played semi-professional baseball in 1898 for the Cincinnati Shamrocks, a team organized by Julius Fleischmann, where he played under the pseudonym "Proctor" due to his father's opposition and his amateur status. In 1900, he played for Fleischmann's semiprofessional team based in the Catskill Mountains, the Mountain Tourists, leading the team with a.400 batting average.
After receiving his law degree from Cincinnati, Huggins realized that he could make more money playing baseball, as such William Howard Taft, one of Huggins' law professors, advised him to play baseball. He never practiced law. Huggins began his playing career in minor league baseball with the Mansfield Haymakers of the Class B Interstate League in 1899, he continued his minor league apprenticeship with the St. Paul Saints of the American Association from 1901 through 1903. After starting his career as an right-handed hitter, he began to bat from the left side in 1902 in response to his offensive struggles in the 1901 season while moving to second base during his time at St. Paul. Huggins handled 19 fielding chances, 11 putouts and nine assists, without committing an error in a game with the Saints in 1902. In 1903, he pulled off the first delayed steal in recorded baseball history. Fleischmann, part-owner of the Cincinnati Reds of the National League, kept an eye on Huggins while he played for St. Paul.
The Reds duly purchased his contract from the Saints before the 1904 season. He made his MLB debut on April 15, 1904, proved adept at getting on base, he batted.264 with the Reds that season and improved in the 1906 season, finishing with a.292 batting average and 41 stolen bases, while spending considerable time developing his upper-body strength. Although Huggins hoped to be selected as Ned Hanlon's successor as Cincinnati's manager after the 1907 season, the Reds instead went with John Ganzel. In 1908, He played with the Reds in the Cuban-American Major League Clubs Series. Hampered by a broken ankle and torn ligaments in his shoulder, he slumped to.209 in 1909. Before the 1910 season, the Reds traded Huggins, along with Frank Corridon and Rebel Oakes, to the St. Louis Cardinals in return for Fred Beebe and Alan Storke, he set an MLB record on June 1, 1910 with six plate appearances but no at bats, with four walks and two sacrifice flies. In the same year, he led the NL in walks. On July 13, 1911, he tied the NL record for successful fielding chances in a game with 16.
At the end of the season, he finished sixth in the voting for the Chalmers Award for Most Valuable Player. In 1912, he hit over.300 for the first time in his career. Huggins became player-manager for the Cardinals after the 1912 season, succeeding Roger Bresnahan, with team owner Helene Hathaway Britton preferring his "gentlemanly" manner over Bresnahan's rougher personality. With the acquisition of speed in a trade with the Pittsburgh Pirates, including Dots Miller, Art Butler, Cozy Dolan and Chief Wilson, the Cardinals contended for the NL pennant in 1914. Finishing in third place, it was the Cardinals' best finish since 1876, but they fell back to sixth in 1915 and last in 1916; when Britton sold the team after that season, she offered Huggins a chance to buy a part of the team. While he was attempting to raise money from the Fleischmann family, Britton sold the team to a group headed by Samuel Breadon, who hired Branch Rickey to run the team's day-to-day operations in the front office. Huggins had coached the young Rogers Hornsby, helping him to correct his batting stance, Hornsby duly succeeded him as the team's starting second baseman in 1917 as Huggins ended his playing career.
He was not retained. With the New York Yankees of the American League not performing well, Yankees owners
Slavoj Žižek is a Slovenian philosopher. He is a professor at the Institute for Sociology and Philosophy at the University of Ljubljana and international director of the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities of the University of London, he works in subjects including continental philosophy, political theory, cultural studies, film criticism, Marxism and theology. In 1989, Žižek published his first English text, The Sublime Object of Ideology, in which he departed from traditional Marxist theory to develop a materialist conception of ideology that drew on Lacanian psychoanalysis and Hegelian idealism, his early theoretical work became eclectic and political in the 1990s, dealing in the critical analysis of disparate forms of popular culture and making him a popular figure of the academic left. A critic of capitalism and political correctness, Žižek calls himself a political radical, his work has been characterized as challenging orthodoxies of both the political right and the social-liberal universities.Žižek's idiosyncratic style, popular academic works, frequent magazine op-eds, critical assimilation of high and low culture have gained him international influence, criticism and a substantial audience outside academe.
In 2012, Foreign Policy listed Žižek on its list of Top 100 Global Thinkers, calling him "a celebrity philosopher" while elsewhere he has been dubbed the "Elvis of cultural theory" and "the most dangerous philosopher in the West". Žižek's work was chronicled in a 2005 documentary film entitled Zizek! A journal, the International Journal of Žižek Studies, was founded to engage his work. Žižek was born in Ljubljana, SR Slovenia, into a middle-class family. His father Jože Žižek was an economist and civil servant from the region of Prekmurje in eastern Slovenia, his mother Vesna, native of the Gorizia Hills in the Slovenian Littoral, was an accountant in a state enterprise. His parents were atheists, he spent most of his childhood in the coastal town of Portorož, where he was exposed to Western film and popular culture. When Slavoj was a teenager his family moved back to Ljubljana where he attended Bežigrad High School. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Slavoj encountered western philosophy in Zagreb.
In 1967, during an era of liberalization in Titoist Yugoslavia, Žižek enrolled at the University of Ljubljana and studied philosophy and sociology. He had begun reading French structuralists prior to entering university, in 1967 he published the first translation of a text by Jacques Derrida into Slovenian. An early influence at university, Božidar Debenjak, taught the philosophy of German idealism and introduced the thought of the Frankfurt School to Slovenia. Debenjak's reading of Marx's Das Kapital from the perspective of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit influenced many future Slovenian philosophers, including Žižek.Žižek frequented the circles of dissident intellectuals, including the Heideggerian philosophers Tine Hribar and Ivo Urbančič, published articles in alternative magazines, such as Praxis and Problemi, which he edited. In 1971 he accepted a job as an assistant researcher with the promise of tenure, but was dismissed after his Master's thesis was denounced by the authorities of being "non-Marxist".
He graduated from the University of Ljubljana in 1981 with a Doctor of Arts in Philosophy for his dissertation entitled The Theoretical and Practical Relevance of French Structuralism. He spent the next few years undertaking national service in the Yugoslav army in Karlovac. During the 1980s, Žižek edited and translated Jacques Lacan, Sigmund Freud, Louis Althusser, he used Jacques Lacan's work to interpret Marxist philosophy. In 1985, Žižek completed a second doctorate at the University of Paris VIII under Jacques-Alain Miller and François Regnault, he wrote the introduction to Slovene translations of G. K. Chesterton's and John Le Carré's detective novels. In 1988, he published his first book dedicated to film theory, he achieved international recognition as a social theorist with the 1989 publication of his first book in English, The Sublime Object of Ideology.Žižek has been publishing in journals such as Lacanian Ink and In These Times in the United States, the New Left Review and The London Review of Books in the United Kingdom, with the Slovenian left-liberal magazine Mladina and newspapers Dnevnik and Delo.
He cooperates with the Polish leftist magazine Krytyka Polityczna, regional southeast European left-wing journal Novi Plamen, serves on the editorial board of the psychoanalytical journal Problemi. Žižek is a series editor of the Northwestern University Press series Diaeresis that publishes works that "deal not only with philosophy, but will intervene at the levels of ideology critique and art theory." In the late 1980s, Žižek came to public attention as a columnist for the alternative youth magazine Mladina, critical of Tito's policies, Yugoslav politics the militarization of society. He was a member of the Communist Party of Slovenia until October 1988, when he quit in protest against the JBTZ trial together with 32 other Slovenian intellectuals. Between 1988 and 1990, he was involved in several political and civil society movements which fought for the democratization of Slovenia, most notably the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights. In the first free elections in 1990, he ran as the Liberal Democratic Party's candidate for Slovenian presidency.
Despite his activity in liberal democratic projects, Žižek has remained committed to the communist ideal and has b
New York Yankees
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The Yankees compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division, they are one of two major league clubs based in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. In the 1901 season, the club began play in the AL as the Baltimore Orioles. Frank Farrell and Bill Devery purchased the franchise and moved it to New York City, renaming the club the New York Highlanders; the Highlanders were renamed the Yankees in 1913. The team is owned by Yankee Global Enterprises, an LLC controlled by the family of the late George Steinbrenner, who purchased the team in 1973. Brian Cashman is the team's general manager, Aaron Boone is the team's field manager; the team's home games were played at the original Yankee Stadium from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008. In 1974 and 1975, the Yankees shared Shea Stadium with the Mets, in addition to the New York Jets, New York Giants.
In 2009, they moved into a new ballpark of the same name after the previous facility was closed and demolished. The team is perennially among the leaders in MLB attendance; as arguably the most successful sports club in the United States, the Yankees have won 40 AL pennants, 27 World Series championships, all of which are MLB records. The Yankees have won more titles than any other franchise in the four major North American sports leagues. Forty-four Yankees players and eleven Yankees managers have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, including Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Yogi Berra, Whitey Ford. In pursuit of winning championships, the franchise has used a large payroll to attract talent during the Steinbrenner era. According to Forbes, the Yankees are the second highest valued sports franchise in the United States and the fifth in the world, with an estimated value of $4 billion; the Yankees have garnered enormous popularity and a dedicated fanbase, as well as widespread enmity from fans of other MLB teams.
The team's rivalry with the Boston Red Sox is one of the most well-known rivalries in U. S. sports. From 1903-2018, the Yankees overall win-loss record is 10275-7781. In 1900, Ban Johnson, the president of a minor league known as the Western League, changed the Western League name to the American League and asked the National League to classify it as a major league. Johnson held that his league would operate in friendly terms with the National league, but the National league ridiculed the plan. Johnson declared official major league status for his league in 1901. Plans to add a team in New York City were blocked by the NL's New York Giants. A team was instead placed in Baltimore, Maryland in 1901. Between 1901 and 1903, many players and coaches on the Orioles roster jumped to the Giants. In January 1903, a "peace conference" was held between the two leagues to settle disputes and try to coexist. At the conference, Johnson requested that an AL team be put in New York, to play alongside the NL's Giants.
It was put to a vote, 15 of the 16 major league owners agreed on it. The Orioles' new owners, Frank J. Farrell and William S. Devery moved the team to New York in 1903; the team's new ballpark, Hilltop Park, was constructed in one of Upper Manhattan's highest points—between 165th and 168th Streets. The team was named the New York Highlanders. Fans believed the name was chosen because of the team's elevated location in Upper Manhattan, or as a nod to team president Joseph Gordon's Scottish-Irish heritage; the team was referred to as the New York Americans. The team was referred to as the "Invaders" in the Evening Journal. New York Press Sports Editor Jim Price coined the unofficial nickname Yankees for the club as early as 1904, because it was easier to fit in headlines; the Highlanders finished second in the AL in 1904, 1906, 1910. In 1904, they lost the deciding game to the Boston Americans, who became the Boston Red Sox; that year, Highlander pitcher Jack Chesbro set the single-season wins record at 41.
At this time there was no formal World Series agreement wherein the AL and NL winners would play each other. The original Polo Grounds burned down in 1911 and the Highlanders shared Hilltop Park with the Giants during a two-month renovation period. From 1913 to 1922, the Highlanders shared the Polo Grounds with the Giants. While playing at the Polo Grounds, the name "Highlanders" fell into disuse among the press. In 1913 the team became known as the New York Yankees. By the middle of the decade, Yankees owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert, a brewer, Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston, a contractor-engineer. All the games of the 1921 and 1922 World Series were played in the Polo Grounds, when the Yankees squared off against their intracity rivals, the Giants. In the years around 1920, the Yankees, the Red Sox, the Chicago White Sox had a détente; the trades between the three ballclubs antagonized Ban Johnson and garnered the teams the nickname "The Insurrectos".
This détente paid off well for the Yankees. Most new players who contributed to the team's success came from the Red Sox, whose owner, Harry Frazee, was trading them for large sums of money to finance his theatrical productions. Pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the most talented of all the acquisition
Johnny Reid "John" Edwards is an American lawyer and former politician who served as a U. S. Senator from North Carolina, he was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 2004, was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2004 and 2008. Edwards defeated incumbent Republican Lauch Faircloth in North Carolina's 1998 Senate election. Towards the end of his single six-year term, he sought the Democratic Party's nomination in the 2004 presidential election, he became the 2004 Democratic candidate for vice president, the running mate of presidential nominee Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts. Following Kerry's loss to incumbent President George W. Bush, Edwards began working full-time at the One America Committee, a political action committee he established in 2001, was appointed director of the Center on Poverty and Opportunity at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Law, he was a consultant for Fortress Investment Group LLC. On June 3, 2011, Edwards was indicted by a federal grand jury on six felony charges of violating multiple federal campaign contribution laws to cover up an extramarital affair to which he admitted, following his 2008 campaign.
Edwards was found not guilty on one count, the judge declared a mistrial on the remaining five charges, as the jury was unable to come to an agreement. The Justice Department did not attempt to retry Edwards. Though it did not result in a criminal conviction, the revelation that Edwards had an extramarital affair and fathered a child while his wife, was dying of cancer gravely damaged his public image and ended his career in politics. Edwards was born June 10, 1953, to Wallace Reid Edwards and Catharine Juanita "Bobbie" Edwards in Seneca, South Carolina; the family moved several times during Edwards' childhood settling in Robbins, North Carolina, where his father worked as a textile mill floor worker promoted to supervisor. The family attended a Baptist church. A football star in high school, Edwards was the first person in his family to attend college, he transferred to North Carolina State University. Edwards graduated with high honors, earning a bachelor's degree in textile technology in 1974, earned his Juris Doctor from the University of North Carolina School of Law with honors.
After law school, Edwards clerked for federal judge Franklin Dupree in North Carolina, in 1978 became an associate at the Nashville law firm of Dearborn & Ewing, doing trial work, defending a Nashville bank and other corporate clients. Lamar Alexander, a Republican and future governor of and U. S. Senator from Tennessee, was among Edwards's co-workers; the Edwards family returned to North Carolina in 1981, settling in the capital of Raleigh where he joined the firm of Tharrington, Smith & Hargrove. In 1984, Edwards was assigned to a medical malpractice lawsuit, perceived to be unwinnable. Edwards won a $3.7 million verdict on behalf of his client, who had suffered permanent brain and nerve damage after a doctor prescribed an overdose of the anti-alcoholism drug Antabuse during alcohol aversion therapy. In other cases, Edwards sued the American Red Cross three times, alleging transmission of AIDS through tainted blood products, resulting in a confidential settlement each time, defended a North Carolina newspaper against a libel charge.
In 1985, Edwards represented a five-year-old child born with cerebral palsy – a child whose mother's doctor did not choose to perform an immediate Caesarean delivery when a fetal monitor showed she was in distress. Edwards won a $6.5 million verdict for his client, but five weeks the presiding judge sustained the verdict, but overturned the award on grounds that it was "excessive" and that it appeared "to have been given under the influence of passion and prejudice," adding that in his opinion "the evidence was insufficient to support the verdict." He offered the plaintiffs $3.25 million, half of the jury's award, but the child's family appealed the case and received $4.25 million in a settlement. Winning this case established the North Carolina precedent of physician and hospital liability for failing to determine if the patient understood the risks of a particular procedure. After this trial, Edwards gained national attention as a plaintiff's lawyer, he filed at least twenty similar lawsuits in the years following and achieved verdicts and settlements of more than $60 million for his clients.
Similar lawsuits followed across the country. When asked about an increase in Caesarean deliveries nationwide to avoid similar medical malpractice lawsuits, Edwards said, "The question is, would you rather have cases where that happens instead of having cases where you don't intervene and a child either becomes disabled for life or dies in utero?"In 1993, Edwards began his own firm in Raleigh with a friend, David Kirby. He became known as the top plaintiffs' attorney in North Carolina; the biggest case of his legal career was a 1996 product liability lawsuit against Sta-Rite, the manufacturer of a defective pool drain cover. The case involved Valerie Lakey, a three-year-old girl, disemboweled by the suction power of the pool drain pump when she sat on an open pool drain whose protective cover had been removed by other children at the pool, after the swim club had failed to install the cover properly. Despite 12 prior suits with similar claims, Sta-Rite continued to make and sell drain covers lacking warnings.
Lawrence Peter "Yogi" Berra was an American professional baseball catcher, who took on the roles of manager and coach. He played 19 seasons in all but the last for the New York Yankees, he was an 18-time All-Star and won 10 World Series championships as a player—more than any other player in MLB history. Berra had a career batting average of.285, while hitting 1,430 runs batted in. He is one of only five players to win the American League Most Valuable Player Award three times, he is regarded as one of the greatest catchers in baseball history, was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1972. Berra was a native of St. Louis and signed with the Yankees in 1943 before serving in the United States Navy as a gunner's mate in the Normandy landings during World War II, where he earned a Purple Heart, he made his major-league debut at age 21 in 1946 and was a mainstay in the Yankees' lineup during the team's championship years beginning in 1949 and continuing through 1962. Despite his short stature, Berra was strong defensive catcher.
He caught Don Larsen's perfect game in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series. Berra played 18 seasons with the Yankees, he spent the next season as their manager joined the New York Mets in 1965 as coach. Berra remained with the Mets for the next decade, he returned to the Yankees in 1976, coaching them for eight seasons and managing for two, before coaching the Houston Astros. He was one of seven managers to lead both National League teams to the World Series. Berra appeared as a player, coach or manager in every one of the 13 World Series that New York baseball teams won from 1947 through 1981. Overall, he appeared in 22 13 on the winning side; the Yankees retired his uniform number 8 in 1972. The club honored him with a plaque in Monument Park in 1988. Berra was named to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in a vote by fans in 1999. For the remainder of his life, he was involved with the Yogi Berra Museum and Learning Center, which he opened on the campus of Montclair State University in 1998.
Berra quit school after the eighth grade. He was known for his malapropisms as well as pithy and paradoxical statements, such as "It ain't over'til it's over", while speaking to reporters, he once denied and confirmed his reputation by stating, "I didn't say everything I said." Yogi Berra was born Lorenzo Pietro Berra in a Italian neighborhood of St. Louis called The Hill, his parents were Italian immigrants Paolina Berra. Pietro was from Malvaglio near Milan in northern Italy. In a 2005 interview for the Baseball Hall of Fame, Berra said, "My father came over first, he came from the old country. And he didn't know, he was ready to go to work. And I had three other brothers and a sister. My brother and my mother came over on. My two oldest brothers, they were born there—Mike and Tony. John and I and my sister Josie were born in St. Louis."Berra's parents gave him the nickname "Lawdie", derived from his mother's difficulty pronouncing "Lawrence" or "Larry" correctly. He grew up on Elizabeth Avenue, across the street from boyhood friend and competitor Joe Garagiola, Sr..
That block was home to Jack Buck early in his Cardinals broadcasting career, it was renamed "Hall of Fame Place". Berra was a Roman Catholic, he attended South Side Catholic, now called St. Mary's High School, in south St. Louis with Garagiola. Berra has been inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame, he began playing baseball in local American Legion leagues, where he learned the basics of catching while playing both outfield and infield positions. He played for a Cranston, Rhode Island team under an assumed name. While playing in American Legion baseball, he received the nickname "Yogi" from his friend Jack Maguire, after seeing a newsreel about India, said that he resembled a yogi from India whenever he sat around with arms and legs crossed waiting to bat or while looking sad after a losing game. In 1942, the St. Louis Cardinals overlooked Berra in favor of his boyhood best friend, Joe Garagiola Sr.. On the surface, the Cardinals seemed to think that Garagiola was the superior prospect, but team president Branch Rickey had an ulterior motive: Knowing he was soon to leave St. Louis to take over the operation of the Brooklyn Dodgers and more impressed with Berra than he let on, Rickey planned to hold Berra off until he could sign him for the Dodgers.
However, the Yankees signed Berra for the same $500 bonus the Cardinals offered Garagiola before Rickey could sign Berra to the Dodgers. During World War II, Berra served in the United States Navy as a gunner's mate on the attack transport USS Bayfield during the Normandy landings. A Second Class Seaman, Berra was one of a six-man crew on a Navy rocket boat, firing machine guns and launching rockets at the German defenses on Omaha Beach, he was fired upon, but was not hit, received several commendations for his bravery. During an interview on the 65th Anniversary of D-Day, Berra confirmed that he was sent to Utah Beach during the D-Day invasion as well. Following his military service, Berra played minor-league baseball with the Newark Bears, surprising the team's manager with his talent despite his short stature, he was mentored by Hall of Famer Bill Dickey. He said, "I owe everythin
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t