Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England. The county town is the city of Winchester, its two largest cities and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. First settled about 14,000 years ago, Hampshire's history dates to Roman Britain, when its chief town was Winchester; when the Romans left Britain, the area was infiltrated by tribes from Scandinavia and mainland Europe, principally in the river valleys. The county was recorded in the 11th century Domesday Book, divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent and cloth manufacture in the county, the fishing industry, a shipbuilding industry was established. By the 16th century, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester. By the mid-19th century, with the county's population at 219,210 in more than 86,000 dwellings, agriculture was the principal industry and 10 per cent of the county was still forest. Hampshire played a crucial military role in both World Wars.
The Isle of Wight left the county to form its own in 1974. The county's geography is varied, with upland to 286 metres and south-flowing rivers. There are areas of downland and marsh, two national parks: the New Forest, part of the South Downs, which together cover 45 per cent of Hampshire. Hampshire is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with an unemployment rate lower than the national average, its economy derived from major companies, maritime and tourism. Tourist attractions include the national parks and the Southampton Boat Show; the county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr; the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.
From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. Hampshire was the departure point of some of those who left England to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire; the towns of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Portsmouth, Virginia take their names from Portsmouth in Hampshire. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland; the first inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The majority of the population would have been concentrated around the river valleys. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, sea levels rose. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, with it a neolithic culture.
Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers. Hillforts declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown.
By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta Belgarum, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, a major port; the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia quickly. It is believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace; the part of th
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object, intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since about 8,100 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 4,900 remain in orbit, of those about 1,900. 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit, the rest are in geostationary orbit. A few large satellites have been assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun. Satellites are used for many purposes. Among several other applications, they can be used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, take pictures of planets they are launched into.
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are satellites. Satellite orbits vary depending on the purpose of the satellite, are classified in a number of ways. Well-known classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, geostationary orbit. A launch vehicle is a rocket, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea aboard a plane. Satellites are semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, attitude control and orbit control. "Newton's cannonball", presented as a "thought experiment" in A Treatise of the System of the World, by Isaac Newton was the first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite. The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon.
The idea surfaced again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Fortune. In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices, the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft, he calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, that a multi-stage rocket fuelled by liquid propellants could achieve this. In 1928, Herman Potočnik published The Problem of Space Travel -- The Rocket Motor, he described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments. In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications, he suggested. The US military studied the idea of what was referred to as the "earth satellite vehicle" when Secretary of Defense James Forrestal made a public announcement on 29 December 1948, that his office was coordinating that project between the various services.
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race between the United States. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere; the unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. Sputnik 2 was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika. In May, 1946, Project RAND had released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century." The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy.
The United States Air Force's Project RAND released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program." In February 1954 Project RAND released "Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle," written by R. R. Carhart; this expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with "The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite," by H. K. Kallmann and W. W. Kellogg. In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year, the White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U. S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957. Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Army and Navy were worki
Prospero is a fictional character and the protagonist of William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. Prospero is the rightful Duke of Milan, whose usurping brother, had put him to sea on a "rotten carcass" of a boat to die, twelve years before the play begins. Prospero and Miranda had found exile on a small island, he has learned sorcery from books, uses it while on the island to protect Miranda and control the other characters. Before the play has begun, Prospero frees the spirit Ariel from entrapment within "a cloven pine", about which Prospero states: It was mine Art, When I arrived and heard thee, that made gape The pine and let thee out. Prospero's sorcery is sufficiently powerful to control Ariel and other spirits, as well as to alter weather and raise the dead: "Graves at my command have waked their sleepers and let'em forth, by my so potent Art."- Act V, scene 1. On the island, Prospero becomes master of the monster Caliban and forces Caliban into submission by punishing him with magic if he does not obey.
Ariel is beholden to Prospero. At the end of the play, Prospero intends to renounce magic. In the view of the audience, this may have been required to make the ending unambiguously happy, as magic was associated with diabolical works; the Tempest is believed to be the last play. In this play there are two candidate soliloquies by Prospero, which critics have taken to be Shakespeare's own "retirement speech". One person's speech is the "Cloud-capp'd towers...". The final soliloquy and epilogue is the other candidate. Sir Michael Redgrave played Prospero in a BBC Play of the Month production in 1968. Heathcote Williams played Prospero in Derek Jarman's 1979 film version of The Tempest. Sir Michael Hordern played Prospero in a 1980 production for BBC television. A Stratford Shakespeare Festival production was videotaped and broadcast on television in 1983, starring Len Cariou as Prospero. Paul Mazursky's film, features a Prospero-esque character portrayed by John Cassavetes, an exile of his own cynical discontent and self-betrayal and who abandons America for a utopian "kingdom" on a secluded Greek isle.
In Peter Greenaway's film Prospero's Books, Prospero is played by John Gielgud. Helen Mirren plays a female version of the character, renamed Prospera, in Julie Taymor's 2010 film adaptation of the play. BBC Radio 3 broadcast a production of The Tempest adapted for radio and directed by David Hunter, starring Philip Madoc as Prospero, Nina Wadia as Ariel, Josh Richards as Caliban, Catrin Rhys as Miranda, Andrew Cryer as Ferdinand, Rudolph Walker as Gonzalo, James Laurenson as Alonso, Christian Rodska as Sebastian, Ioan Meredith as Antonio. David Warner played Prospero in the BBC Radio 3 Drama on 3 production of The Tempest, broadcast as part of the Shakespeare Unlocked series on the BBC; the production included Carl Prekopp as Ariel, Rose Leslie as Miranda, James Garnon as Caliban, James Lailey as Antonio and Peter Hamilton Dyer as Sebastian, was adapted for radio and directed by Jeremy Mortimer. Richard Cox portrays Prospero in the second season of the TNT series The Librarians; this version of Prospero is a Fictional, a character brought to life by magic, has become bitter over the way his story was written, as he feels it was made without his consent.
After regaining his book and obtaining the Staff of Zarathustra, he imprisons the Librarians within his illusions, but his servant Ariel rebels and frees them. Prospero subsequently begins to reshape the world in his image, while possessing his creator Shakespeare in order to change the past; the Librarians destroy his staff and exorcise him from Shakespeare's body, banishing him back to his original story. Patrick Stewart portrayed Prospero on a Broadway version of The Tempest, he participated as Prospero in Rupert Goold's loose interpretation with The Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford-upon-Avon. In the comic book series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen by Alan Moore and Kevin O'Neill, Prospero appears as a founding member of the first such grouping in 1610, alongside his familiars Caliban and Ariel. Paul Prospero, the protagonist of The Vanishing of Ethan Carter, is named after Prospero. In John Bellairs's novel The Face in the Frost, Prospero is one of the protagonists. In The Horus Heresy series, several books take place on a planet called Prospero.
The citizens of the planet are versed in sorcery and psychic powers, earning them the suspicion and ire of the rest of the Imperium of Man. Melon Cauliflower, by New Zealand playwright Tom McCrory, is about a man Prospero, in his late sixties, who struggles to come to terms with the death of his wife and has mistreated his daughter Miranda. "The Masque of the Red Death", by Edgar Allan Poe, is set at the manor of a Prince Prospero In the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation by Gene Roddenberry and CBS / Paramount Pictures, Prospero appears played by Lt. Cmdr. Data, in turn played by the actor Brent Spiner during the beginning of Season 7 Episode 23 entitled'Emergence', he recites some lines of Prospero's speech before asking Captain Picard to provide some insight into the character of Prospero and Shakespeare's The Tempest in general. This may be a fortunate coincidence as Stewart was to appear as Prospero on Broadway the following year, a booking which may have been known by the write
Farnborough Airport or TAG London Farnborough Airport is an operational business/executive general aviation airport in Farnborough, Hampshire, England. The 310-hectare airport covers about 8% of Rushmoor's land area. Farnborough Aerodrome has a CAA Ordinary Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee; the first powered flight in Britain was at Farnborough on 5 October 1908, when Samuel Cody took off in his British Army Aeroplane No 1. The airfield is the home of the Farnborough Airshow, held in numbered years, it is home to the Air Accidents Investigation Branch, part of the Department for Transport. Farnborough Airport has a long history, beginning at the start of the 20th century with the creation of His Majesty's Balloon Factory and the first powered flight in Britain in 1908; this subsequently became the Royal Aircraft Establishment, a connection which continues in the Farnborough Air Sciences Trust museum. Farnborough airfield and RAE was bombed by Germany during World War II, on 13 August 1940 by a flight of Junkers Ju 88s.
The civil enclave was operated by Farnborough Business Aviation until 2003, when the Ministry of Defence stopped operations at Farnborough. All experimental aircraft were moved to MoD Boscombe Down. Commercial defence research by research firm QinetiQ continues in the adjoining Cody Technology Park. Farnborough Airfield appeared in the 2008 James Bond film Quantum of Solace, as the Austrian airport from which Bond flies; the airfield was a location for the 2010 film Inception. After TAG took control of the airport from the MOD, it invested in a series of new infrastructure projects, including a new radar unit and a resurfaced runway; the most striking new constructions were a new control tower, a large hangar unit, a brand new terminal building that opened in 2006, all designed by Reid Architecture and Buro Happold. The designs won a series of awards, were nominated for Building of the Year by Building magazine in 2007; the terminal was formally opened by HRH Prince Andrew. TAG Aviation is a multinational business aviation operator, with aircraft based in Farnborough and Madrid.
Business aviation has grown from a low level in 1989 to around 23,000 movements in 2013. The airport is home to a number of the UK's largest business jet companies, including Gama Aviation, Executive Jet Charter and Bookajet. Farnborough Airport sees the bulk of its traffic from conventional business jets; the airport is popular with operators of larger aircraft, such as the Boeing BBJ and Airbus A319CJ. The airport's only scheduled services are private and are operated by BAE Systems, whose headquarters are next to the airport: it operates an Embraer 135 on a twice-daily shuttle service to Warton Aerodrome, Monday–Thursday, a single Embraer 135 shuttle flight to Warton on Fridays. BAE operates a Beechcraft King Air 200 to Walney Island; this service runs 1–4 times a day Monday–Friday. Farnborough Airport was the operations base for Citelynx, now defunct; the Air Accidents Investigation Branch has its head office in Farnborough House, located in a compound within Farnborough Airport. During the Farnborough Airshow on 6 September 1952, a de Havilland Sea Vixen crashed.
Following a demonstration of its ability to break the sound barrier, the aircraft disintegrated, killing 31 people, including the crew of two: test pilot and record breaker John Derry and Tony Richards. This incident led to major changes to the safety regulations for air shows in the UK. During the 4 September 1984 Farnborough Airshow, a de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo was destroyed when it struck Runway 25 during landing after a steep short-final descent while demonstrating its STOL capabilities to spectators and customers; the nose-gear collapsed, followed by failure of the wing spar on both sides near the fuselage, both propellers shedding blades and the wrecked aircraft skidding to a halt on the runway. The two crew and one passenger survived the crash; the accident was attributed with gusty wind conditions as a major factor. The airport was restricted to 28,000 movements each year, of which no more than 2,500 were permitted at weekends. In October 2005, TAG applied to Rushmoor Borough Council to have the weekend limit raised to 5,000 movements.
The application was refused, but allowed by the Government on appeal in March 2008 after a Public Inquiry. A further application for an increase in the overall limit to 50,000 movements per annum was refused by Rushmoor Borough Council in 2009 and an appeal against this refusal was heard in May 2010. In February 2011 the joint Secretaries of State decided to uphold the planning appeal and allow 50,000 annual movements, phased in until 2019; the neutrality of the government was questioned by the Green Party of England and Wales after Eric Pickles, local government minister, attended a lobbying dinner where TAG chief executive, Brandon O'Reilly was present. Opposition to the business airport has been chronicled by Blackwater Environmental Justice, Farnborough Aerodrome Residents Association was formed by the local community to oppose the airport expansion. Since the peak in 2007, the number of landings and take-offs covered by the planning consent has fallen by 14%. However, in February 2014 TAG Farnborough applied for controlled airspace to allow business jets to operate at lower levels as far as the South Downs to allow greater predictability for its clients
Royal Aircraft Establishment
The Royal Aircraft Establishment was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence, before losing its identity in mergers with other institutions. The first site was at Farnborough Airfield in Hampshire to, added a second site RAE Bedford in 1946. In 1988 it was renamed the Royal Aerospace Establishment before merging with other research entities to become part of the new Defence Research Agency in 1991. In 1904–1906 the Army Balloon Factory, part of the Army School of Ballooning, under the command of Colonel James Templer, relocated from Aldershot to the edge of Farnborough Common in order to have enough space to inflate the new "dirigible balloon" or airship, under construction. Templer's place was taken by Colonel John Capper and Templer himself retired in 1908. Besides balloons and airships, the factory experimented with Samuel Franklin Cody's war kites and aeroplanes designed both by Cody and J. W. Dunne.
In October 1908 Cody made the first aeroplane flight in Britain at Farnborough. In 1909 Army work on aeroplanes ceased and the Factory was brought under civilian control. Capper was replaced as Superintendent by Mervyn O'Gorman. In 1912 the Balloon Factory was renamed the Royal Aircraft Factory, its first new designer was Geoffrey de Havilland who founded his own company. Later colleagues included John Kenworthy who became chief engineer and designer at the Austin Motor Company in 1918 and who went on to found the Redwing Aircraft Co in 1930 and Henry Folland – chief designer at Gloster Aircraft Company, founder of his own company Folland Aircraft. One of the designers in the engine department was Samuel Heron, who went on to invent the sodium-filled poppet valve, instrumental in achieving greater power levels from piston engines. While at the RAF, Heron designed a radial engine that he was not able to build during his time there, however upon leaving the RAF he went to Siddeley-Deasy where the design, the RAF.8, was developed as the Jaguar.
Heron moved to the United States where he worked on the design of the Wright Whirlwind. Other engineers included Major F. M. Green, G. S. Wilkinson, James E. "Jimmy" Ellor, Prof. A. H. Gibson, A. A. Griffith. Both Ellor and Griffith would go on to work for Rolls-Royce Limited. In 1918 the Royal Aircraft Factory was once more renamed, becoming the Royal Aircraft Establishment to avoid confusion with the Royal Air Force, formed on 1 April 1918, because it had relinquished its manufacturing role to concentrate on research. During WWII the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment based at Helensburgh in Scotland, was under the control of the RAE. In 1946 work began to convert RAF Thurleigh into RAE Bedford. Engineers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment invented high strength carbon fibre in 1963. In 1961, the world's first grooved runway for reduced aquaplaning was constructed. In 1965, a US delegation visited to view the new surfacing practice and initiated a study by the FAA and NASA. On 1 May 1988 the RAE was renamed the Royal Aerospace Establishment.
On 1 April 1991 the RAE was merged into the Defence Research Agency, the MOD's new research organisation. On 1 April 1995 the DRA and other MOD organisations merged to form the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency; the Bedford site was shut down in 1994. In 2001 DERA was part-privatised by the MOD, resulting in two separate organisations, the state-owned Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, the privatised company QinetiQ. Between 1911 and 1918 the Royal Aircraft Factory produced a number of aircraft designs. Most of these were research aircraft, but a few went into mass production during the war period; some orders were met by the factory itself, but the bulk of production was by private British companies, some of which had not built aircraft. Up to about 1913 the designation letters referred to the general layout of the aircraft, derived from a French manufacturer or designer famous for that type: S. E. = Santos Experimental B. E. = Blériot Experimental F. E. = Farman Experimental From 1913/4 onwards this was changed to a designation based on the role for which the aircraft was designed: A.
E. = Armed or Armoured Experimental C. E. = Coastal Experimental F. E. = Fighting experimental N. E. = Night Experimental R. E. = Reconnaissance experimental S. E. = Scout experimental fast single-seat aircraft. The B. S. 1 of 1913 was a one-off anomaly. R. T. & T. E. were used for one off prototypes. Several aircraft were produced during the days as the Army Balloon Factory; these include the airships as well as the Dunne designs. Subsequent Royal Aircraft Factory type designations are confusing. For instance the "F. E.2" designation refers to three quite distinct types, with only the same broad layout in common, the F. E.2, the F. E.2, the famous wartime two-seat fighter and general purpose design, the F. E.2. This last aircraft was the one that went into production, had three main variants, the F. E.2a, F. E.2b, the F. E.2d. As if this wasn't enough, there is the F. E.2c. E.2b's that experimentally reversed the sea
Ariel 1, was the first British satellite, the first satellite in the Ariel programme. Its launch in 1962 made the United Kingdom the third country to operate a satellite, after the Soviet Union and the United States, it was constructed in both the UK and the United States by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and SERC, under an agreement reached as the result of political discussions in 1959 and 1960. In late 1959, the Science and Engineering Research Council proposed the development of Ariel 1 to NASA, following an offer made by the United States at a meeting of the Committee on Space Research to provide assistance to other countries with the development and launch of scientific spacecraft. By early the following year the two countries had decided upon terms for the programme's scope and which organisations would be responsible for which parts of the programme. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan named the satellite after the sprite in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Construction occurred at the Goddard Space Flight Center.
SERC provided the experiments, conducted operations, analysed and interpreted the results. Six experiments were carried aboard the satellite. Five of these examined the relationship between two types of solar radiation and changes in the Earth's ionosphere, they took advantage of techniques developed in the Skylark programme. Ariel 1, the first satellite from a nation besides the United States or the Soviet Union, was launched aboard an American Thor-Delta rocket from Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at 18:00:16 GMT on 26 April 1962. Ariel 1 was among several satellites inadvertently damaged or destroyed by the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on July 9, 1962, subsequent radiation belt, it decayed from orbit on 24 April 1976. Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes "Ariel 1". Space.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012