First-person shooter is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, multiplayer gaming has been integral; the first-person shooter genre has been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, 1974's Spasim. And after more playful titles like MIDI Maze in 1987, the genre coalesced into a more violent form with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, credited with creating the genre's basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, one of the most influential games in this genre. Corridor shooter was another common name for the genre in its early years, since processing limitations of the era's hardware meant that most of the action in the games had to take place in enclosed areas.1998's Half-Life—along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2—enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements.
In 1999, the Half-Life mod Counter-Strike was released and, together with Doom, is one of the most influential first-person shooters. GoldenEye 007, released in 1997, was a landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, while the Halo series heightened the console's commercial and critical appeal as a platform for first-person shooter titles. In the 21st century, the first-person shooter is the most commercially viable video game genre, in 2016, shooters accounted for over 27% of all video game sales. Several first-person shooters have been popular games for eSports and competitive gaming competitions as well. First-person shooters are a type of three-dimensional shooter game, featuring a first-person point of view with which the player sees the action through the eyes of the player character, they are unlike third-person shooters, in which the player can see the character they are controlling. The primary design element is combat involving firearms. First person-shooter games are often categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective which use light gun peripherals, in contrast to first-person shooters which use conventional input devices for movement.
Another difference is that first-person light-gun shooters like Virtua Cop feature "on-rails" movement, whereas first-person shooters like Doom give the player more freedom to roam. The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were termed "Doom clones". Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been credited with introducing the genre, but critics have since identified similar though less advanced games developed as far back as 1973. There are occasional disagreements regarding the specific design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, but may be considered role-playing video games as they borrow from this genre extensively. Certain puzzle games like Portal are called first-person shooters, but lack any direct combat or shooting element, instead using the first-person perspective to help immerse players within the game to help solve puzzles.
Some commentators extend the definition to include combat flight simulators where the cockpit or vehicle takes place of the hands and weapons. Like most shooter games, first-person shooters involve an avatar, one or more ranged weapons, a varying number of enemies; because they take place in a 3D environment, these games tend to be somewhat more realistic than 2D shooter games, have more accurate representations of gravity, lighting and collisions. First-person shooters played on personal computers are most controlled with a combination of a keyboard and mouse; this system has been claimed as superior to that found in console games, which use two analog sticks: one used for running and sidestepping, the other for looking and aiming. It is common to display the character's hands and weaponry in the main view, with a head-up display showing health and location details, it is possible to overlay a map of the surrounding area. First-person shooters focus on action gameplay, with fast-paced and bloody firefights, though some place a greater emphasis on narrative, problem-solving and logic puzzles.
In addition to shooting, melee combat may be used extensively. In some games, melee weapons are powerful, a reward for the risk the player must take in maneuvering his character into close proximity to the enemy. In other situations, a melee weapon may be necessary as a last resort. "Tactical shooters" are more realistic, require teamwork and strategy to succeed. First-person shooters give players a choice of weapons, which have a large impact on how the player will approach the game; some game designs have realistic models of actual existing or historical weapons, incorporating their rate of fire, magazine size, ammunition amount and accuracy. Other first-person shooter games may incorporate imaginative variations of weapons, including future prototypes, "alien te
Captain Ahab is a fictional character and the main protagonist in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. He is the monomaniacal captain of the whaling ship Pequod. On a previous voyage, the white whale Moby Dick bit off Ahab's leg, he now wears a prosthetic leg made out of whalebone; the whaling voyage of the Pequod ends up as a hunt for revenge on the whale, as Ahab forces the crew members to support his fanatical mission. When Moby Dick is sighted, Ahab's hatred robs him of all caution, the whale drags Ahab to the bottom of the sea. Melville biographer Andrew Delbanco calls Ahab "a brilliant personification of the essence of fanaticism". Scholar F. O. Matthiessen calls attention to the fact that Ahab is called an "ungodly god-like man". Ahab's "tragedy is that of an unregenerate will" whose "burning mind is barred out from the exuberance of love" and argues that he "remains damned". Writer D. H. Lawrence felt little sympathy for Ahab and found that the whale should have "torn off both his legs, a bit more besides".
The character of Ahab was created under the influence of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's lecture on Hamlet and figures in biblical and classical literature such as Shakespeare and Milton. His prosthesis, for instance, has been taken for an allusion to the Oedipus myth. Ahab is established in popular culture by cartoons, comic books and plays. Most famously, he provided J. M. Barrie with the model for his Captain Hook character, obsessed not with a whale but a crocodile. Born April 7, Ahab was named by his insane, widowed mother. At 18 years old, Ahab first took to sea as a boy-harpooner. Less than three voyages ago, Ahab married a resigned girl, with whom he has a young son, he has been in colleges and among the cannibals, has seen deeper wonders than the waves. He has fixed his lance, the keenest and surest on the isle of Nantucket, in stranger foes than whales. Years ago, now the co-owner of Pequod, sailed as mate under Ahab. During that voyage, a typhoon near Japan swung her three masts overboard; every moment the crew thought.
Yet instead of thinking of death, Captain Ahab and Peleg thought of how to save all hands, how to rig jury masts in order to get into the nearest port. According to Elijah's mysterious words, Ahab long ago lay for dead for three days and three nights off Cape Horn, was involved in a deadly scrimmage with the Spaniard afore the altar in Santa, spat into the silver communion cup. Last voyage, a whale, the monstrousest parmacetty that chipped a boat, bit off Ahab's leg, the pains in his stump made him, never jolly, desperate moody. Adding insult to injury, Ahab is dependent upon a whalebone for a prosthesis. Neither sick nor well, Ahab keeps close inside the house. Ahab is 58 years old at the time of Pequod's last voyage. Peleg and Bildad pilot the ship out of the harbor, Ahab first appears on deck when the ship is at sea. Instead of embarking on a regular whaling voyage, Ahab declares he is out for revenge and nails a doubloon on the mast by way of reward for the crewmember who first sights Moby Dick, the white whale.
When Moby Dick is sighted, a disastrous three-day chase begins. Entangled by the line of his own harpoon, Ahab falls overboard and drowns as the whale dives and takes him along. Peleg refers to Ahab respectfully as a "grand, god-like man" but he is nicknamed "Old Thunder". According to Leon Howard, "Ahab is a Shakespearean tragic hero, created according to the Coleridgean formula." The creation of Ahab, who does not derive from any captain Melville sailed under, was influenced by the observation in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's lecture on Hamlet that "one of Shakespeare's modes of creating characters is to conceive any one intellectual or moral faculty in morbid excess, to place himself... thus mutilated or diseased, under given circumstances." Whenever Moby-Dick's narrator comments on Captain Ahab as an artistic creation, the language of Coleridge's lecture appears: "at all detract from him regarded, if either by birth or other circumstances, he have what seems a half-wilful over-ruling morbidness at the bottom of his nature."
All men "tragically great," Ishmael says, "are made so through a certain morbidness." All mortal greatness "is but disease,"Ahab's speech combines Quaker archaism with Shakespeare's idiom to serve as "a homegrown analogue to blank verse."Ahab's death seems to be based on an actual event. On May 18, 1843, Melville was aboard The Star. Aboard were two sailors from the ship Nantucket who could have told him that they had seen their second mate "taken out of a whaleboat by a foul line and drowned, as is Captain Ahab of Moby-Dick." Ahab's character is shaped by mythic and literary patterns that overlap and reinforce each other in such a complementary way that "the apparent irony of one allusion is the truth of another." For instance, allusions to Oedipus, which flesh out Ahab's ignorance and lack of self-knowledge, are complemented by references to Narcissus, which evoke the psychological causes for his ignorance. Ahab's use of a spade for a crutch in Chapter 70, "The Sphinx," reminds the reader that he is lame, like Oedipus, wounded, like Prometheus.
However, Ahab should be considered both in relation to the allusions and in contrast to the other characters. Ahab is named for the Biblical story of Ahab in the Books of Kings 16:28–22:40, the evil idol-worshiping ruler; this association prompts Ishmael to ask, after first hearing Ahab's name: "When that wicked king was slain, the dogs, did they not lick his blood?" He is rebuked by one of Ahab's colleagues, who points out that "He did not name himself."For Melville's allegory the single mos
Star Trek Generations
Star Trek Generations is a 1994 American science fiction film directed by David Carson and based on the franchise of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the seventh film in the Star Trek film series, as well as the first to star the cast of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation. In the film, Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the USS Enterprise-D joins forces with Captain James T. Kirk, to stop a villain from destroying a planet. Parts of the film were shot at the Valley of Fire State Park near Overton, Paramount Studios, Lone Pine, California; the film performed well at the box office. In the year 2293, retired Starfleet officers James T. Kirk, Montgomery Scott and Pavel Chekov attend the maiden voyage of the USS Enterprise-B, under the command of the unseasoned Captain John Harriman. During the shakedown cruise, Enterprise is pressed into a rescue mission to save two El-Aurian ships from a strange energy ribbon, despite not being equipped for service. Enterprise is able to save some of the refugees before their ships are destroyed, but the starship becomes trapped in the ribbon.
Kirk volunteers to modify the ship's deflector dish, allowing Enterprise to escape, but the trailing end of the ribbon strikes Enterprise's hull, exposing Kirk to space and leaving him presumed dead. 78 years in 2371, the crew of the USS Enterprise-D celebrate the promotion of Worf to Lieutenant Commander. Captain Jean-Luc Picard receives a message from Earth that his brother and nephew were killed in a fire. Since Picard never fathered children of his own, he is distracted by the knowledge that the family line will end with him. Enterprise receives a distress call from an observatory in the Amargosa star system, where they rescue an El-Aurian named Dr. Tolian Soran, eager to return to complete his research. Data and Geordi La Forge discover. Soran appears, knocks La Forge unconscious, launches a trilithium probe at the Amargosa star; the probe causes the star to implode, sending a shock wave toward the observatory that will destroy it and everything else in the system. Soran and La Forge are transported away by a Klingon Bird of Prey belonging to the Duras sisters, in league with Soran.
Data is rescued just before the station is destroyed by the shock wave, Enterprise warps away from the system. Guinan tells Picard more about Soran. Guinan explains that Soran is obsessed with reentering the ribbon, a portal to the "Nexus", an extra-dimensional realm that exists outside of normal space-time. Picard and Data determine that Soran, unable to fly a ship into the ribbon, is instead altering the path of the ribbon by destroying stars, plans to bring the ribbon to him on the planet Veridian III by destroying its sun; as a neighboring planet in that system is host to millions, Picard orders the Enterprise there at maximum warp. Upon entering the Veridian system, Enterprise makes contact with the Duras Bird of Prey. Picard offers himself to the sisters in exchange for La Forge, but insists that he be transported to Soran first to reason with him. La Forge is returned with his VISOR under surveillance by the Klingons; this causes him to inadvertently reveal Enterprise's shield frequency, allowing the Duras sisters to fire weapons directly through them and inflict crippling damage.
Enterprise has sustained irreversible damage to its warp core. Commander William Riker orders an evacuation to the forward saucer section of the ship, which separates from the engineering section; the shock wave from the warp core's detonation sends the saucer crashing to the surface of Veridian III. Picard is too late to stop him from launching his missile; the collapse of the Veridian star alters the course of the Nexus ribbon as predicted, sweeps Picard and Soran away while the resulting shock wave obliterates everything in the system. In the Nexus, Picard finds himself surrounded by an idealised family, but realizes it is an illusion, he is confronted by an "echo" of Guinan, after being told that he may go wherever and whenever he wishes within the Nexus, Guinan sends him to meet Captain Kirk safe in the Nexus. Though Kirk is at first wrapped up in the illusion, he realizes that nothing in the Nexus is real, therefore does not matter. Picard convinces Kirk to leave the Nexus for Veridian III to help him stop Soran.
Kirk and Picard arrive on Veridian III only minutes. Working together, they distract Soran long enough for Picard to lock the missile in place, causing it to explode on the launchpad and kill Soran. Kirk is fatally injured in the effort. Picard buries Kirk on a mountainside, before a shuttle arrives to transport him to the Enterprise wreckage. Three Federation starships arrive to retrieve Enterprise's survivors; as Riker laments that he will never sit in the captain's chair of this ship, Picard muses that given the name's legacy, this won't be the last ship to carry the name Enterprise. Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard William Shatner as Captain James T. Kirk Jonathan Frakes as Commander William T. Riker Brent Spiner as Lieutenant Commander Data LeVar Burton as Lieutenant Commander Geordi La Forge Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Commander Worf. Unlike his TNG co-stars, this was his second Star Trek film, having appeared on Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, portraying Worf's grandfather Colonel Worf, who defended Kirk and McCoy at their trial.
Gates McFadden as Chief Medical Officer Commander Beverly Crusher Marina Sirtis as ship's counselor Commander Deanna Troi Alan Ruck as Enterprise-B captain John
Half-Life 2 is a first-person shooter video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. It is the sequel to 1998's Half-Life and was released in November 2004 following a five-year $40 million development. During development, a substantial part of the project was distributed on the Internet; the game was developed alongside the Source engine. Taking place some years after the events of Half-Life, protagonist Gordon Freeman is awakened by the enigmatic G-Man to find the world has been taken over by the alien Combine. Joined by allies including resistance fighter Alyx Vance, Gordon searches for a way to free humanity using a variety of weapons, including the object-manipulating Gravity Gun. All retail copies of the game, as well as all initial digital versions, were bundled with Counter-Strike: Source, which some game journalists referred to as part of Half-Life 2's "multiplayer component."Half-Life 2 received critical acclaim, with praise directed towards its advanced physics, sound, AI, narrative, is considered to be one of the greatest games of all time.
The game won 39 "Game of the Year" awards and the title of "Game of the Decade" at the 2012 Spike Video Game Awards, in addition to sales of 12 million copies by 2011. It was followed by two episodic sequels: Episode Two. Like its predecessor, Half-Life 2 is a single-player first-person shooter broken into several chapters, permanently casting the player as protagonist Gordon Freeman; the sequel has similar mechanics to Half-Life, including health-and-weapon systems and periodic physics puzzles, except with the newer Source engine and improved graphics. The player starts without items building up their arsenal over the course of the game. Despite the game's linear nature, much effort was put into making exploration rewarding and interesting. A diverse set of enemies is present, which require being approached with different tactics: some coordinate in groups to out-maneuver or out-position the player. Others use powerful attacks, while others hide before swiftly attacking the player. Gordon can kill most enemies with his weapons, or make use of indirect means, exploiting environmental hazards such as explosive pressurized canisters, gas fires or improvised traps.
For some portions of the game, Gordon can be joined by up to four armed Resistance soldiers or medics, can send his team further from him or call them back. Many of the game's new features utilize its detailed physics simulation. Two sections of the game involve driving vehicles. Instead of button-orientated puzzles from Half-Life, environmental puzzles are introduced with makeshift mechanical systems, revolving around the player's new ability to pick up, place objects. Solutions involve objects' physical properties, such as shape and buoyancy. For example. Alternatively, the player can build a crude staircase with the blocks, so the puzzle may be solved in multiple ways. Part-way through the game, Gordon acquires the Gravity Gun, which allows him to draw distant objects towards himself or forcefully push them away, as well as the ability to manipulate larger and heavier objects that he cannot control without the weapon; these abilities are required to solve puzzles in the game, can be used to great effect in combat, as any non-static object within proximity to the player has the potential to be used as a makeshift defense, such as a file cabinet, or a deadly projectile, such as a gasoline can or buzzsaw blade.
The game never separates the player with pre-rendered events. Much of the backstory to the game is alluded to, or told through the environment; some years after Gordon Freeman and other scientists accidentally opened a portal to a dimension of hostile aliens at the Black Mesa Research Facility, Freeman is awoken from stasis by the mysterious G-Man. The portal attracted the attention of the Combine, a technologically superior multidimensional empire which conquered Earth in seven hours; the Combine have implemented a brutal police state by biologically assimilating humans and other species, preventing humans from breeding via a "suppression field". The G-Man inserts Gordon into a train arriving at City 17, site of the Combine Citadel, where Dr. Wallace Breen, the former Black Mesa administrator who negotiated Earth's surrender, governs as the Combine's puppet ruler. After eluding Combine forces, Gordon joins resistance members including Barney Calhoun, a former Black Mesa security guard working undercover as a Combine police officer.
After a failed attempt to teleport to the resistance base, Black Mesa East, from Kleiner's makeshift laboratory, Gordon progresses on foot through the city's canal system. He battles his way to Black Mesa East, several miles from the city. Gordon meets another resistance scientist, Dr. Judith Mossman. Alyx introduces Gordon to her pet robot D0g and gives him a "gravity gun", an instrument which can manipulate large objects. Black Mesa East comes under Combine attack, Eli and Mossman are taken to Nova Prospekt, a Combine prison. Separated from Alyx, Gordon detours through the zombie-i
The Bionic Woman
The Bionic Woman is an American television science fiction action series starring Lindsay Wagner that aired between 1976 and 1978. The Bionic Woman series features Jaime Sommers, who takes on special high-risk government missions using her superhuman bionic powers; the Bionic Woman series is a spin-off from the 1970s The Six Million Dollar Man television science fiction action series. Wagner stars as professional tennis player Jaime Sommers, who becomes critically injured during a skydiving accident. Jaime's life is saved by Oscar Goldman and Dr. Rudy Wells with bionic surgical implants similar to those of The Six Million Dollar Man Steve Austin. Through the use of cybernetic implants, known as bionics, Jaime is gifted with an amplified bionic ear which allows her to hear at low volumes and at different frequencies from most humans and over uncommonly long distances, she has extraordinary strength in her bionic right arm and in both legs that enables her to run at speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour.
She is assigned to spy missions of her own as an occasional agent of the Office of Scientific Information, while under the employment cover as a school teacher of middle school students. The series proved popular worldwide, gaining high ratings in the US and so in the UK; the series ran for three seasons, from 1976 to 1978, first on the ABC network and the NBC network for its final season. Years after its cancellation, three spin-off TV movies were produced between 1987 and 1994. Reruns of the show aired on Sci-Fi Channel from 1997 to 2001. A remake of the series was produced in 2007; the character of Jaime Sommers first appears in a two-part episode of The Six Million Dollar Man in 1975 titled "The Bionic Woman". In the first episode, Steve travels to his old hometown of Ojai, California, to buy a ranch, for sale and to visit his mother and stepfather. During his visit, he rekindles his old relationship with Jaime Sommers, now one of America's top tennis players, their relationship progresses to the point where Steve proposes marriage.
During an outing and Jaime take part in skydiving. Jaime's parachute malfunctions and she plummets to the ground, falling through tree branches, hitting the ground and suffering traumatic injuries to her head and right arm. Steve makes an emotional plea to his boss, Oscar Goldman, to save Jaime's life by implementing bionics going so far as to commit Jaime to becoming an operative of the Office of Scientific Intelligence. Goldman agrees to assign the bionics team to rebuild her. Jaime's body is reconstructed with parts similar to Steve's, but the actual cost of rebuilding her is not revealed, it is said humorously in dialogue to be less than the $6 million it cost to rebuild Austin because the replacement parts for her were "smaller". Jaime is given two bionic legs, capable of propelling her at speeds exceeding 60 mph and jumping to and from great heights, her right arm is replaced by a lifelike prosthetic capable of bending steel or throwing objects great distances. Whereas Austin received a bionic eye, the inner mechanism of Jaime's right ear is replaced by a bionic device that gives her amplified hearing such that she can detect most sounds regardless of volume or frequency.
These bionic implants cannot be distinguished from natural body parts, except on occasions where they sustain damage and the mechanisms beneath the skin become exposed, as seen in Part 2 of the episode "Doomsday Is Tomorrow", when Jaime sustained damage to her right leg. Jaime discovers on vacation in the Bahamas her artificial bionic skin cannot suntan with exposure to sunlight, it is revealed in Part 2 of "Doomsday Is Tomorrow" that Jaime's artificial limbs don't perspire like normal human skin. After Jaime recovers from her operation, Steve tries to break his agreement with Oscar that she will serve as an agent for OSI. Jaime agrees to undertake a mission for Oscar despite Steve's concerns. During the mission her bionics malfunction, she experiences severe and crippling headaches. Dr. Wells determines that Jaime's body is rejecting her bionic implants and a massive cerebral clot is causing her headaches and malfunctions. Soon after, she forces her way out of the hospital. Steve pursues and catches her, she collapses in his arms.
Soon after, Jaime dies on the operating table. The character was so popular. In the first episode of the next season, it is revealed that Jaime had not died after all, but Steve was not told, he soon discovers the truth when he is hospitalized after suffering severe damage to his bionic legs. As Steve learns, Wells' assistant, Dr. Michael Marchetti, had urged Rudy to try his newly developed cryogenic techniques to keep Jaime in suspended animation until the cerebral clot could be safely removed, after which she was revived. A side effect of the procedure causes Jaime to develop retrograde amnesia, preventing her from recalling previous events including her relationship with Steve. Any attempt to remember causes her headaches and pain. Steve reluctantly lets her go on to live her own life as an agent for the OSI, although the pair would work together on missions
In medicine, a prosthesis or prosthetic implant is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is coordinated by a physiatrist as part of a inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with CAD, a software interface that helps creators visualize the creation in a 3D form. A person's prosthesis should be designed and assembled according to the person's appearance and functional needs. For instance, a person may need a transradial prosthesis, but need to choose between an aesthetic functional device, a myoelectric device, a body-powered device, or an activity specific device; the person's future goals and economical capabilities may help them choose between one or more devices. Craniofacial prostheses include extra-oral prostheses.
Extra-oral prostheses are further divided into hemifacial, nasal and ocular. Intra-oral prostheses include dental prostheses such as dentures and dental implants. Prostheses of the neck include larynx substitutes and upper esophageal replacements, Somato prostheses of the torso include breast prostheses which may be either single or bilateral, full breast devices or nipple prostheses. Penile prostheses are used to treat erectile dysfunction. Limb prostheses include both upper- and lower-extremity prostheses. Upper-extremity prostheses are used at varying levels of amputation: forequarter, shoulder disarticulation, transhumeral prosthesis, elbow disarticulation, transradial prosthesis, wrist disarticulation, full hand, partial hand, partial finger. A transradial prosthesis is an artificial limb. Upper limb prostheses can be categorized in three main categories: Passive devices, Body Powered devices, Externally Powered devices. Passive devices can either be passive hands used for cosmetic purpose, or passive tools used for specific activities.
An extensive overview and classification of passive devices can be found in a literature review by Maat et.al. A passive device can be static, meaning the device has no movable parts, or it can be adjustable, meaning its configuration can be adjusted. Despite the absence of active grasping, passive devices are useful in bimanual tasks that require fixation or support of an object, or for gesticulation in social interaction. According to scientific data a third of the upper limb amputees worldwide use a passive prosthetic hand. Body Powered or cable operated limbs work by attaching a harness and cable around the opposite shoulder of the damaged arm; the third category of prosthetic devices available are myoelectric arms. These work by sensing, via electrodes, when the muscles in the upper arm move, causing an artificial hand to open or close. In the prosthetics industry, a trans-radial prosthetic arm is referred to as a "BE" or below elbow prosthesis. Lower-extremity prostheses provide replacements at varying levels of amputation.
These include hip disarticulation, transfemoral prosthesis, knee disarticulation, transtibial prosthesis, Syme's amputation, partial foot, toe. The two main subcategories of lower extremity prosthetic devices are trans-femoral. A transfemoral prosthesis is an artificial limb. Transfemoral amputees can have a difficult time regaining normal movement. In general, a transfemoral amputee must use 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs; this is due to the complexities in movement associated with the knee. In newer and more improved designs, carbon fiber, mechanical linkages, computer microprocessors, innovative combinations of these technologies are employed to give more control to the user. In the prosthetics industry a trans-femoral prosthetic leg is referred to as an "AK" or above the knee prosthesis. A transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb. A transtibial amputee is able to regain normal movement more than someone with a transfemoral amputation, due in large part to retaining the knee, which allows for easier movement.
Lower extremity prosthetics describes artificially replaced limbs located at the hip level or lower. In the prosthetics industry a trans-tibial prosthetic leg is referred to as a "BK" or below the knee prosthesis. Physical therapists are trained to teach a person to walk with a leg prosthesis. To do so, the physical therapist may provide verbal instructions and may help guide the person using touch or tactile cues; this may be done in a home. There is some research suggesting that such training in the home may be more successful if the treatment includes the use of a treadmill. Using a treadmill, along with the physical therapy treatment, helps the person to experience many of the challenges of walking with a prosthesis. In the United Kingdom, 75% of lower limb amputations are performed due to inadequate circulation; this condition is associated with many other medical conditions including diabetes and heart disease that may make it a challenge to recover and use a pro
Peter Pan is a fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J. M. Barrie. A free-spirited and mischievous young boy who can fly and never grows up, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood having adventures on the mythical island of Neverland as the leader of the Lost Boys, interacting with fairies, mermaids, Native Americans, ordinary children from the world outside Neverland. Peter Pan has become a cultural icon symbolizing youthful escapism. In addition to two distinct works by Barrie, the character has been featured in a variety of media and merchandise, both adapting and expanding on Barrie's works; these include the 1953 Disney animated film, a 2003 dramatic/live-action film, a television series and many other works. J. M. Barrie first used Peter Pan as a character in a section of The Little White Bird, an adult novel where he appears as a seven-day-old baby in the chapter entitled Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens. Following the success of the 1904 play, Barrie's publishers and Stoughton, extracted chapters 13–18 of The Little White Bird and republished them in 1906 under the title Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, with the addition of illustrations by Arthur Rackham.
He returned to the character of Peter Pan as the centre of his stage play entitled Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, which premiered on 27 December 1904 in London. Barrie adapted and expanded the play's story line as a novel, published in 1911 as Peter and Wendy. Barrie never described Peter's appearance in detail in his novel, leaving it to the imagination of the reader and the interpretation of anyone adapting the character. In the play, Peter's outfit is made of autumn cobwebs, his name and playing the flute or pipes suggest the mythological character Pan. Barrie mentions in Peter and Wendy that Peter Pan still had all his "first teeth", he describes him as a beautiful boy with a beautiful smile, "clad in skeleton leaves and the juices that flow from trees". Traditionally, the character has been played on stage by a petite adult woman. In the original productions in the UK, Peter Pan's costume was a reddish tunic and dark green tights, such as that worn by Nina Boucicault in 1904.
This costume is exhibited in Barrie's Birthplace. The similar costume worn by Pauline Chase is displayed in the Museum of London. Early editions of adaptations of the story depict a red costume but a green costume becomes more usual from the 1920s, more so after the release of Disney's animated movie. In the Disney films, Peter wears an outfit that consists of a short-sleeved green tunic and tights made of cloth, a cap with a red feather in it, he has pointed elf-like ears, brown eyes and his hair is red. In Hook, the character is played as an adult with blue eyes and dark brown hair. In this film his ears appear, his Pan attire resembles the Disney outfit. In the live-action 2003 Peter Pan film, he is portrayed by Jeremy Sumpter, who has blond hair and blue-green eyes, his outfit is made of vines. J. M. Barrie created his character based on his older brother, who died in an ice-skating accident the day before his 14th birthday, his mother and brother thought of him as forever a boy. Alternate depictions have described him as a variety of ages: In The Little White Bird and Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, he was only seven days old.
Although his age is not stated in Barrie's play or novel, the book says that he still had all his baby teeth. In other ways, the character appears to be older, about 12–13 years old. Peter is an exaggerated stereotype of a careless boy, he claims greatness when such claims are questionable. In the play and book, Peter symbolises the selfishness of childhood, is portrayed as being forgetful and self-centred. Peter has a nonchalant, devil-may-care attitude, is fearlessly cocky when it comes to putting himself in danger. Barrie writes that when Peter thought he was going to die on Marooners' Rock, he felt scared, yet he felt only one shudder. With this blithe attitude, he says, "To die will be an awfully big adventure". In the play, the unseen and unnamed narrator ponders what might have been if Peter had stayed with Wendy, so that his cry might have become, "To live would be an awfully big adventure!", "but he can never quite get the hang of it". Peter's archetypal quality is his unending youth. In Peter and Wendy, it is explained that Peter must forget his own adventures and what he learns about the world in order to stay childlike.
Peter's ability to fly is inconsistently. In The Little White Bird, he is able to fly, like all babies. In the play and novel, he teaches the Darling children to fly using a combination of "lovely wonderful thoughts" and fairy dust. In Barrie's Dedication to the play Peter Pan, The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow up, the author attributes the idea of fairy dust being necessary for flight to practical needs:...after the first production I had to add something to the play at the request of parents about no one being able to fly until the fairy dust had been blown on him. – J. M. Barrie Peter has an effect on its inhabitants when he is there. Barrie states that although Neverland appears different to every child, the island "wakes up" when Peter returns from his trip to L