The Indian rhinoceros called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2. Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino's most important habitat, alluvial grassland and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment; as of 2008, a total of 2,575 mature individuals were estimated to live in the wild. The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, but excessive hunting and agricultural development reduced their range drastically to 11 sites in northern India and southern Nepal. In the early 1990s, between 1,870 and 1,895 rhinos were estimated to have been alive. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus first described a rhinoceros with one horn under the name Rhinoceros unicornis; as type locality, he indicated India. The one-horned rhinoceros is monotypic.
Several specimens were described since the end of the 18th century under different scientific names, which are all considered synonyms of Rhinoceros unicornis today: R. indicus by Cuvier, 1817 R. asiaticus by Blumenbach, 1830 R. stenocephalus by Gray, 1867 R. jamrachi by Sclatter, 1876 R. bengalensis by Kourist, 1970 The modern scientific designation Rhinoceros unicornis is adopted from the Greek ῥινόκερως and Latin ūnus meaning single and cornū meaning horn. Ancestral rhinoceroses first diverged from other perissodactyls in the Early Eocene. Mitochondrial DNA comparison suggests the ancestors of modern rhinos split from the ancestors of Equidae around 50 million years ago; the extant family, the Rhinocerotidae, first appeared in the Late Eocene in Eurasia, the ancestors of the extant rhino species dispersed from Asia beginning in the Miocene. Fossils of R. unicornis appear in the Middle Pleistocene. In the Pleistocene, the genus Rhinoceros ranged throughout South and Southeast Asia, with specimens located on Sri Lanka.
Into the Holocene, some rhinoceros lived as far west as Gujarat and Pakistan until as as 3,200 years ago. The Indian and Javan rhinoceroses, the only members of the genus Rhinoceros, first appear in the fossil record in Asia around 1.6 million–3.3 million years ago. Molecular estimates, suggest the species may have diverged much earlier, around 11.7 million years ago. Although belonging to the type genus, the Indian and Javan rhinoceroses are not believed to be related to other rhino species. Different studies have hypothesized that they may be related to the extinct Gaindatherium or Punjabitherium. A detailed cladistic analysis of the Rhinocerotidae placed Rhinoceros and the extinct Punjabitherium in a clade with Dicerorhinus, the Sumatran rhinoceros. Other studies have suggested the Sumatran rhinoceros is more related to the two African species; the Sumatran rhino may have diverged from the other Asian rhinos as long as 15 million years ago. The Indian rhinoceros has a thick grey-brown skin with a black horn.
Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps. It has little body hair, aside from eyelashes, ear fringes and tail brush. Males have huge neck folds, its skull is heavy with an occiput above 19 cm. Its nasal horn is back-curved with a base of about 18.5 cm by 12 cm that narrows until a smooth stem part begins about 55 mm above base. In captive animals, the horn is worn down to a thick knob; the rhino's single horn is present in both females, but not on newborn young. The black horn is pure keratin, like human fingernails, starts to show after about six years. In most adults, the horn reaches a length of about 25 cm, but has been recorded up to 36 cm in length and weight 3.051 kg. Among terrestrial land mammals native to Asia, the Indian rhinoceros is second in size only to the Asian elephant, it is the second-largest living rhinoceros, behind only the white rhinoceros. Males have a head and body length of 368–380 cm with a shoulder height of 170–186 cm, while females have a head and body length of 310–340 cm and a shoulder height of 148–173 cm.
The male, averaging about 2,200 kg is heavier than the female, at an average of about 1,600 kg. The rich presence of blood vessels underneath the tissues in folds gives it the pinkish colour; the folds in the skin help in regulating the body temperature. The thick skin does not protect against bloodsucking Tabanus flies and ticks; the largest sized specimens range up to 4,000 kg. The one-horned rhinoceros once ranged across the entire northern part of the Indian Subcontinent, along the Indus and Brahmaputra River basins, from Pakistan to the Indian-Myanmar border, including Bangladesh and the southern parts of Nepal and Bhutan, it may have occurred in Myanmar, southern China and Indochina. It inhabits the alluvial grasslands of the Brahmaputra basin; as a result of habitat destruction and climatic changes its range has been reduced so that by the 19th century, it only survived in the Terai grasslands of southern Nepal, northern Uttar Pradesh, northern Bihar, northern West Bengal, in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam.
The species was present in northern Bihar and Oudh at least until 1770 as indicated in maps produced by Colonel Gentil. On the former abundance of the species, Thomas C. Jerdon wrote in 1867: This huge rhinoceros is found in the Terai at the foot of the Himalayas, from Bhutan to Nepal, it is more com
Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary
Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary is a 362 km2 area in the northern part of the Sundarbans delta in South 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. The area is mangrove scrub and swamp, it was set up as a sanctuary in 1976. It is home to a rich population of different species of wildlife, such as water fowl, pelican, spotted deer, rhesus macaques, wild boar, water monitor lizards, fishing cats, Olive ridley turtle, Batagur terrapins, migratory birds. Sajnakhali is situated 130 km from Kolkata. Canning is the nearest railway station of it. Ferry service towards Sajnakhali is available from Gosaba. Rented boat or motor launch can be hired for sajnakhali from Basanti or Gadkhali. Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary Wild Bengal Wildlife Sanctuaries
Neora Valley National Park
Neora Valley National Park is situated in the Kalimpong district, West Bengal and was established in 1986. It spreads over an area of 88 km² and is one of the richest biological zones in the entire Eastern India, it is the land of the elegant red panda in the pristine undisturbed natural habitat with rugged inaccessible hilly terrain and rich diverse flora and fauna making this park an important wilderness zone. The park is spread over 159.89 km². The forest in Neora Valley has such luxurious growth that sunlight finds it difficult to touch the ground. Much of the park is still inaccessible, making it an adventurous place for the nature lovers/trekkers who can take the challenge to explore the still-unknown terrain in the Kalimpong hills. Virgin natural forests, dense bamboo groves, colourful canopy of Rhododendron trees, lush green valley, meandering rivers and streams with snowcapped mountains in the backdrop form a picturesque landscape; the park reaches up to an elevation of 10600 ft at Rachela Danda, the highest point of Neora Valley National Park, which borders Sikkim and Bhutan.
The Neora River is the major water source for Kalimpong town. Avian fauna listed from this park are of A1, A2 and A3 categories with IBA site code IN-WB-06. Inside this wildlife sanctuary, the primary biomes corresponding to the ecozone are: Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest of the Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests Biome 7 Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest of the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests Biome 8 Indo-Chinese Tropical Moist Forest of the Himalayan subtropical pine forests Biome 9All of these are typical forest type of foothills of the Bhutan - Nepal - India hilly region between altitudinal range 1000 m to 3,600 m. Neora Valley, one of the last tracts of virgin wilderness in the country, sustains a unique ecosystem where tropical, sub-tropical, sub-temperate, temperate vegetative system still harbours a wealth of flora and fauna; the forests consists of mixed species like rhododendron, oak, sal, etc. The valley has numerous species of orchids. Mammals reported from this area are Indian leopard, five species of civet, black bear, sloth bear, golden cat, wild boar, leopard cat, serow, barking deer, Himalayan flying squirrel and thar.
The most exotic of all is Red Panda. Among other endangered mammalian fauna, clouded leopards are seen and to be present in the park. Birds belonging to varied genus can be found in the park. Neora Valley National Park thus is known as birders' paradise; the semi-evergreen forests between 1600 m and 2700 m is the home of several rarities like rufous-throated partridge, satyr tragopan, crimson-breasted woodpecker, Darjeeling woodpecker, bay woodpecker, golden-throated barbet, Hodgson's hawk cuckoo, lesser cuckoo, brown wood owl, ashy wood pigeon, mountain imperial pigeon, Jerdon's baza, black eagle, mountain hawk eagle, dark-throated thrush, rufous-gorgeted flycatcher, white-gorgeted flycatcher, white-browed bush robin, white-tailed robin, yellow-browed tit, striated bulbul, chestnut-headed tesia, chestnut-crowned warbler, black-faced warbler, black-faced laughingthrush, chestnut-crowned laughingthrush, streak-breasted scimitar babbler, scaly-breasted wren-babbler, pygmy wren-babbler, rufous-fronted babbler, black-headed shrike babbler, white-browed shrike babbler, rusty-fronted barwing, rufous-winged fulvetta, brown parrotbill, fire-breasted flowerpecker, fire-tailed sunbird, maroon-backed accentor, dark-breasted rosefinch, red-headed bullfinch, gold-naped finch and many other rarities.
Like that of birds and mammalian fauna, reptilian fauna coexists in park's ecosystem. It is a heaven for Entomologists as well. West Bengal Forest Development Corporation Ltd. - Lava UNESCO World Heritage Center - Tentative List
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
The oldest le
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
Buxa Tiger Reserve
The Buxa Tiger Reserve is a 760-square-kilometre tiger reserve located inside the Buxa National Park in West Bengal, India, in the Buxa Hills of the southern hilly area of Bhutan. Animals found in the park include, the tiger, elephant, Indian boar and red jungle fowl, it is contiguous to the Buxa Formation of Mamley in Mamley village of Namchi neighboring state of Sikkim, the stromatolite bearing Dolomite Limestones, declared national geological monument by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism. Buxa Tiger Reserve lies in Alipurduar district of West Bengal, its northern boundary runs along the international border with Bhutan. The Sinchula hill range lies all along the northern side of BTR and the eastern boundary touches that of the Assam state. National Highway No.31 C runs along its southern boundary. It is the eastern most extension of extreme bio-diverse North-East India and represents endemic Indo-Malayan region; the fragile "Terai Eco-System" constitutes a part of this reserve.
The Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary of Bhutan is contiguous to the north of BTR. Manas National Park lies on east of BTR. BTR, serves as international corridor for Asian elephant migration between India and Bhutan. To the south-west, the Chilapata Forests form an elephant corridor to the Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary; the reserve encompasses as many as eight forest types. The divisional headquarters is located at Alipurduar; the forest is divided into two divisions: West. The Himalayan griffon, beautiful nuthatch, four different varieties of hornbill and the red breasted Himalayan partridge are important birds in this reserve. Among the wild animals, clouded leopard, wild dog and Himalayan black bear are rare. Buxa Fort is an important landmark for this reserve; this fort was captured by British-India in 1865 after the Bhutan War from Bhutan. This fort was used as a detention camp for Indian freedom fighters during the Indian freedom movement. Buxa Tiger Reserve was created in 1983 as the 15th tiger reserve in India.
In 1986, Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary was constituted over 314.52 km2 of the reserve forests. In 1991, 54.47 km2 was added to Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary. A year in 1992, the Government of West Bengal declared its intentions to constitute a national park over 117.10 km2 of the Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary. State government declared national park with notification No.3403-For/11B-6/95 dt. 05.12.1997. The historic Buxa Fort. People have sentimental attachment with the fort on accounts of its association with the struggle for freedom. A sacred temple, Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga lies in BTR. Around 10,000 devotees of Lord Shiva congregate here on "Shiva Chouturdoshi". Northern dry deciduous Eastern Bhabar and Terai sal East Himalayan moist mixed deciduous forest Sub-Himalayan secondary wet mixed forest Eastern sub-montane semi-evergreen forest Northern tropical evergreen forest East Himalayan subtropical wet hill forest Moist sal savannah Low alluvium Savannah woodland More than 450 species of trees, 250 species of shrubs, 400 species of herbs, 9 species of cane, 10 species of bamboo, 150 species of orchids, 100 species of grass and 130 species of aquatic flora including more than 70 sedges have been identified so far.
There are more than 160 species of other ferns. The main trees are sal, gamhar and chikrasi. There are more than 284 species of birds, 73 species of mammals, 76 species of snakes and 5 species of amphibians have been identified so far. In a recent survey it was found that Buxa Tiger Reserve has the highest number of fish species in the North Bengal region. Tiger, giant squirrel, chital, clouded leopard, wild buffalo and snakes including the regal python are found here. About 230 species of birds and innumerable butterflies add colour to the forest; the Raidak and Jayanti rivers which flow through the forest and Narathali Lake are home to migratory and endemic birds. There are greater pied hornbill, migratory goosander, wagtails, the rare black necked crane, migratory common teal, black stork, large whistling teal and ferruginous pochards. Two new species of frog were discovered in the park in 2006. In February 2018, golden and spotted Asiatic golden cats were recorded in the reserve for the first time.
Endangered species found in the reserve are Indian tiger, Asian elephant, leopard cat, Bengal florican, regal python, Chinese pangolin, hispid hare, hog deerlesser adjutant, white-rumped vulture, slender-billed vulture, chestnut-breasted partridge, rufous necked hornbill, ferruginous pochard and great hornbill. Most rivers enter BTR from Bhutan, they carry huge amount of bed load. They obliterate beds of BTR rivers. Flooding is frequent. Critical habitats are lost. Over one lakh cattle graze in the reserve daily. Weeds, unpalatable grasses and shrubs have invaded the overgrazed areas. Hilly and riverine tracts of core suffer from fire. Non timber forest produce collectors and shepherds put forests on fire. No frequent poaching cases. Tribal population in tea gardens poach small mammals during Holi festival illicitly as part of ritual hunting. Bodo militants from Assam enter core. Timber thieves operate in the area. Five forest hamlets in hilly tract viz. Adma, Santrabari and Tashigaon have some encroachments by way of unauthorised orange
West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –