National nature reserve (United Kingdom)
Some statutory nature reserves are designated by national bodies in the United Kingdom, are known as national nature reserves. In Great Britain, nature reserves designed under Part III of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 that are deemed to be of national importance may be designated as statutory'national nature reserves' by the relevant national nature conservation body using section 35 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. If a nature reserve is designated by a local authority in Great Britain the resulting statutory nature reserve will be referred to as a local nature reserve. In England, 224 national nature reserves have been designated by Natural England. In Scotland, the 43 national nature reserves are designated by Scottish Natural Heritage. In Wales, 67 national nature reserves have been designated by Natural Resources Wales. In Northern Ireland, statutory nature reserves are designated by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency under the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
There are 47 NNRs in Northern Ireland. Nature reserve National nature reserve Local nature reserve
Protected areas of Scotland
Many parts of Scotland are protected in accordance with a number of national and international designations because of their environmental, historical or cultural value. Protected areas can be divided according to the type of resource. Scottish Natural Heritage has various roles in the delivery of many environmental designations in Scotland, i.e. those aimed at protecting flora and fauna, scenic qualities and geological features. Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for designations that protect sites of historic and cultural importance; some international designations, such as World Heritage Sites, can cover both categories of site. The various designations overlap with many protected areas being covered by multiple designations with different boundaries; the national parks of Scotland are managed areas of outstanding landscape where some forms of development are restricted to preserve the landscape and natural environment. At present, Scotland has two national parks: Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, created in 2002, the Cairngorms National Park, created in 2003.
Unlike the national parks of many other countries, the national parks of Scotland are not areas of uninhabited land owned by the state. The majority of the land is in the ownership of private landowners, people continue to live and work in the parks. Although the landscapes appear "wild" in character, the land is not wilderness, as it has been worked by humans for thousands of years. Like their English and Welsh counterparts the national parks of Scotland are "managed landscapes", are classified as IUCN Category V Protected Landscapes because of this. National nature reserves are areas of land or water designated under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 to contain habitats and species of national importance. NNRs can be owned by public, community or voluntary organisations but must be managed to conserve their important habitats and species, as well as providing opportunities for the public to enjoy and engage with nature. There are 43 NNRs in Scotland, which cover less than 1.5% of the land area of Scotland.
SNH is responsible for declaring NNRs in Scotland, having taken advice from the NNR Partnership comprising representatives of the NNR managing and community and land-owning organisations. The majority of NNRs are directly managed by SNH. Most NNRs in Scotland overlap Sites of Special Scientific Interest. There are 40 national scenic areas in Scotland, covering 13% of the land area of Scotland; the 40 NSAs were identified by the Countryside Commission for Scotland in 1978 as areas of "national scenic significance... of unsurpassed attractiveness which must be conserved as part of our national heritage". Sites of Special Scientific Interest are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation in the United Kingdom, most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in Great Britain, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation, are based upon them. Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs.
Many SSSIs are notified for both geological interest. Scotland's network of marine protected areas consists of more than 180 designated areas, covered by various designations including Special Areas of Conservation, Special Protection Areas and Sites of Special Scientific Interest. In order to strengthen the protection of marine areas seventeen Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas were designated within Scotland's territorial waters. A further thirteen protected areas are beyond the 12 mile limit and are therefore designated by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee rather than SNH. A scheduled monument is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change; the protection provided to scheduled monuments is given under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, a different law from that used for listed buildings. According to the 1979 Act, a monument cannot be a structure, occupied as a dwelling, used as a place of worship or protected under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973.
As a rule of thumb, a protected historic asset, occupied would be designated as a listed building. A listed building or listed structure is one, placed on the statutory list maintained by Historic Environment Scotland. A listed building may not be demolished, extended, or altered without special permission from the local planning authority, which consults the relevant central government agency for significant alterations to the more notable listed buildings; the degree of protection depends on whether a building is classified as Category A, B or C, Category A denoting the highest level of protection. There are about 47,400 listed buildings in Scotland. Of these, around 8 percent are Category A, 50 percent are Category B, with the rest listed at Category C; the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland is a listing of gardens and designed landscapes of national artistic and/or historical significance, in Scotland. The Inventory was compiled in 1987, although it is a continually evolving list
Protected areas of Estonia
Protected areas of Estonia are regulated by the Nature Conservation Act, passed by the Estonian parliament on April 21, 2004 and entered into force May 10, 2004. According to the law, protected areas are areas maintained in a state unaltered by human activity or used subject to special requirements where the natural environment is preserved, restored, researched or introduced; the following are protected areas: National parks Nature conservation areas Landscape conservation areasAs stated in §10.1: An area shall be placed under protection as a protected area or a special conservation area by a regulation of the Government of the Republic. In addition, the law declares following special protection areas, which are designated for the conservation of habitats, for the preservation of which the impact of planned activities is estimated and activities liable to damage the favourable conservation status of the habitats are prohibited: Strict nature reserve Special management zone Limited management zone In the time of the Estonian SSR, there were only five protected areas categorized as zapovedniks: Vilsandi, Viidumäe, Endla and Matsalu.
A national park is a protected area prescribed for the preservation, restoration and introduction of the natural environment, cultural heritage and balanced use of the environment of the protected area. The following are national parks of Estonia:Lahemaa National Park, intended for the protection of the natural and cultural heritage of the coastal landscapes of Northern Estonia. A national park may include strict nature reserves, special management zones and limited management zones. A nature conservation area is a protected area prescribed for the preservation, restoration and introduction of the natural environment; the zones possible in a nature conservation area are the strict nature reserve, special management zone and limited management zone. A landscape protection area is an area prescribed for the preservation, restoration, research and regulation of use of landscapes of the protected area. A park and forest stand are special types of landscape protection area; the zones possible in a landscape protection area are the special management zone and limited management zone.
A strict nature reserve is a land or water area of a protected area whose natural status is unaffected by direct human activity and where the preservation and development of natural biotic communities is ensured only through natural processes. All types of human activity is prohibited within a strict nature reserve, persons are prohibited from staying in such reserves, except in cases specified in subsections and of this section. Persons may stay in a strict nature reserve only for the purposes of supervision, rescue work or administration of the natural object. People may stay in a strict nature reserve for the purpose of monitoring and assessment of the status of the natural object only with the consent of the administrator of the protected area. A special management zone is a land or water area of a protected area prescribed for the preservation of natural and semi-natural biotic communities established or to be developed therein. Mineral resources present within a special management zone are not deemed to be resources intended for exploitation.
Unless otherwise provided by the protection rules, the following shall be prohibited within a special management zone: economic activities. The prohibition established by clauses 4) and 5) of this section does not extend to supervision and rescue work, activities related to the administration of the natural object, to research carried out with the consent of the administrator of the protected area; the following may be permitted by the protection rules in the special management zone as activities necessary for the preservation of the object or activities which do not harm the object: maintenance work on existing land improvement systems and restoration of the water regime. A limited management zone is a land or water area of a protected area where economic activities are permitted, taking account of the restrictions provided by this Act. Unless otherwise provided by the protection rule
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Areas are designated in recognition of their national importance, by the relevant public body: Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, or the Northern Ireland Environment Agency. In place of AONB, Scotland uses the similar national scenic area designation. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty enjoy levels of protection from development similar to those of UK national parks, but unlike with national parks the responsible bodies do not have their own planning powers, they differ from national parks in their more limited opportunities for extensive outdoor recreation. The idea for what would become the AONB designation was first put forward by John Dower in his 1945 Report to the Government on National Parks in England and Wales. Dower suggested there was need for protection of certain beautiful landscapes which were unsuitable as national parks owing to their small size and lack of wildness.
Dower's recommendation for the designation of these "other amenity areas" was embodied in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 as the AONB designation. The purpose of an AONB designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the designated landscape by placing it under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. There two secondary aims: meeting the need for quiet enjoyment of the countryside and having regard for the interests of those who live and work there. To achieve these aims, AONBs rely on practical countryside management; as they have the same landscape quality, AONBs may be compared to the national parks of England and Wales. National parks are well known to many inhabitants of the UK. However, the National Association of AONBs is working to increase awareness of AONBs in local communities, in 2014 negotiated to have the boundaries of AONBs in England shown on Google Maps. There are 46 AONBs in Britain; the first AONB was designated in 1956 in South Wales.
The most confirmed is the Tamar Valley AONB in 1995, although the existing Clwydian Range AONB was extended in 2012 to form the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley AONB, the Strangford Lough and Lecale Coast AONBs were merged and redesignated as a single AONB in 2010. AONBs vary in terms of size and use of land, whether they are or wholly open to the public; the smallest AONB is the Isles of Scilly, 16 km2, the largest is the Cotswolds, 2,038 km2. The AONBs of England and Wales together cover around 18% of the countryside in the two countries; the AONBs of Northern Ireland together cover about 70% of Northern Ireland's coastline. AONBs in England and Wales were created under the same legislation as the national parks, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Unlike AONBs, national parks have special legal powers to prevent unsympathetic development. AONBs in general remain the responsibility of their local authorities by means of special committees which include members appointed by the minister and by parishes, only limited statutory duties were imposed on local authorities within an AONB by the original 1949 Act.
However, further regulation and protection of AONBs in England and Wales was added by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, under which new designations are now made, the Government has in the National Planning Policy Framework stated that AONBs and national parks have equal status when it comes to planning decisions on landscape issues. Two of the AONBs, which extend into a large number of local authority areas, have their own statutory bodies, known as conservation boards. All English and Welsh AONBs have other staff; as required by the CRoW Act, each AONB has a management plan that sets out the characteristics and special qualities of the landscape and how they will be conserved and enhanced. The AONBs are collectively represented by the National Association for AONBs, an independent organization acting on behalf of AONBs and their partners. AONBs in Northern Ireland was designated under the Amenity Lands Act 1965. There are growing concerns among environmental and countryside groups that AONB status is under threat from development.
The Campaign to Protect Rural England said in July 2006 that many AONBs were under greater threat than before. Three particular sites were cited: the Dorset AONB threatened by a road plan, the threat of a football stadium in the Sussex Downs AONB, larger than any other, a £1 billion plan by Imperial College London to build thousands of houses and offices on hundreds of acres of AONB land on the Kent Downs at Wye. In September 2007 government approval was given for the development of a new football ground for Brighton and Hove Albion within the boundaries of the Sussex Downs AONB, after a fierce fight by conservationists; the subsequent development, known as Falmer Stadium, was opened in July 2011. The Weymouth Relief Road in Dorset was constructed between 2008 and 2011, after environmental groups lost a High Court challenge to prevent its construction. Writing in 2006, Professor Adrian Phillips listed threats facing AONBs, he wrote that the apparent big threats were uncertainty over future support for lan
Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man. SSSI/ASSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation; the acronym "SSSI" is pronounced "triple-S I". Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs. Sites may be divided into management units, with some areas including units that are noted for both biological and geological interest. Biological SSSI/ASSIs may be selected for various reasons, which for Great Britain is governed by published SSSI Selection Guidelines. Within each area, a representative series of the best examples of each significant natural habitat may be notified, for rarer habitats all examples may be included.
Sites of particular significance for various taxonomic groups may be selected —each of these groups has its own set of selection guidelines. Conservation of biological SSSI/ASSIs involves continuation of the natural and artificial processes which resulted in their development and survival, for example the continued traditional grazing of heathland or chalk grassland. In England, the designating body for SSSIs, Natural England, selects biological SSSIs from within natural areas which are areas with particular landscape and ecological characteristics, or on a county basis. In Scotland, the designating authority is Scottish Natural Heritage. In the Isle of Man the role is performed by the Department of Environment and Agriculture. Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic.
Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, so becomes a GCR site. All GCR sites are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may be of importance for stratigraphy. Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings and other landforms.
If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, conservation involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage. Following devolution, legal arrangements for SSSIs and ASSIs differ between the countries of the UK; the Isle of Man ASSI system is a separate entity. Scottish Natural Heritage publishes a summary of the SSSI arrangements for SSSI owners and occupiers which can be downloaded from the SNH website. Legal documents for all SSSIs in Scotland are available on the SSSI Register, hosted by The Registers of Scotland. Further information about SSSIs in Scotland is available on the SNH website; the decision to notify an SSSI is made by the relevant nature conservation body for that part of the United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Natural England, Scottish Natural Heritage or Natural Resources Wales. SSSIs were set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided in England and Wales by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further amended in 2000, in Scotland by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
SSSIs are covered under the Water Resources Act 1991 and related legislation. An SSSI may be made on any area of land, considered to be of special interest by virtue of its fauna, geological or physiographical / geomorphological features. SSSI notification can cover any "land" within the area of the relevant nature conservation body, including dry land, land covered by freshwater; the extent to which an SSSI/ASSI may extend seawards differs between countries. In Scotland an SSSI may include the intertidal land down to mean low water spring or to the extent of the local planning authority area, thus only limited areas of estuaries and coastal waters beyond MLWS may be included. In England, Natural England may notify an SSSI over estuarial waters and further adjacent waters in certain circumstances (section 28 of The
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Tree preservation order
A tree preservation order is a part of town and country planning in the United Kingdom. A TPO is made by a local planning authority to protect specific trees or a particular area, group or woodland from deliberate damage and destruction. TPOs can prevent the felling, topping, uprooting or otherwise willful damaging of trees without the permission of the local planning authority, although different TPOs have different degrees of protection, they can be made quickly and in practice it is normal for a council to make an emergency TPO in less than a day in cases of immediate danger to trees. TPOs were introduced in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947; some TPOs therefore are over fifty years old, still valid. Current tree preservation orders are made under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 and the Town and Country Planning Regulations 2012. In Scotland, similar provision is made under the Town and Country Planning Act 1997 and the Town and Country Planning (Tree Preservation Order and Trees in Conservation Areas Regulations 2010.
The following works do not require permission under any TPO: Works approved by the Forestry Commission under a felling licence or other approved scheme. Felling or working on a dead or dangerous tree (the onus is on the person who authorises the work to prove that the tree was dead or dangerous — this can cause problems if the tree is felled and removed, as there is no proof of its condition; this requirement is fulfilled by obtaining a report by a qualified person made before the works are done. Where there is an obligation under an Act of Parliament. Works at the request of certain agencies or organisations which are specified in the order. Works where there is a direct need to work on the tree to allow development to commence, for which detailed planning permission has been obtained. Works to fruit trees cultivated in the course of a business for fruit production, as long as the tree work is in the interests of that business; this means that fruit trees are not automatically exempt unless they are being used for a business.
Works to control a nuisance. Town and country planning in the United Kingdom Tree Preservation Orders and trees in conservation areas RHS Short Guide Naturenet