Chinese poker is a card game based on poker hand rankings. It is intended a beginner-friendly game, as only a basic knowledge of poker hand rankings is needed to get started. Additionally, the format allows for frequent unexpected outcomes, so there is a large element of luck involved, therefore a beginner has a good chance of winning in the short term against experienced opponents. Chinese poker is played as a four-person game, though it can be played with two or three. In Chinese poker, each player receives a 13-card hand from a standard 52-card deck; each player has to divide their cards into three poker hands: two containing five cards each, one containing three cards. The back hand is placed face down on the table in front of the player the middle hand is placed face down in front of the back hand, the front hand is placed face down in front of the middle hand. After all the players have set their hands, each player will announce in turn whether or not they are playing their hand. All players announce their royalties, before revealing their hands.
If a player makes three flushes or three straights they automatically win the hand, regardless of the other players' hands. As shown in the photo, the middle player is an automatic winner; the stakes played for in Chinese poker are known as units: an amount of money agreed on before the game starts. Basic scoring rules dictate that a player collects one unit from each opponent whose front, middle or back hand is beaten by their own corresponding hand. Thus, unlike most poker games, being second-best at the table is good enough to win money. In some variants players are paid an additional unit if they win in two or three of the hands. In other variants players only get an additional unit. Due to the head-to-head nature of the comparisons, it is possible for different players to play for different stakes. For example, A and B could play for $100 per unit versus each other, while all other player pairings play for $10 per unit; the two most common scoring systems used in Chinese poker are the 2–4 scoring method, the 1–6 scoring method.
In the 2–4 method the player receives 1 unit for each of the three hands they win, 1 unit called the overall unit is awarded to the player who wins two out of the three hands, or all of the three hands. In the event of a tie in one of the hands, no money is exchanged for this particular hand. If one player wins both of the other two hands, they collect 3 units. If they each win one hand, no units are exchanged. In the 1–6 method the player receives 1 unit for each of the three hands they win, 3 bonus units if they win all three hands. In the 2–4 method, Bob would pay Amy two units. In the 1–6 method, Bob would pay Amy one unit. Royalties, or bonuses as they are sometimes called, are extra units that may be awarded to players with strong hands. Royalties must be declared prior to the revealing of the hands; some hands and combinations of hands that are awarded royalties are: Straight flush Four of a kind Full house or better in the middle Three of a kind in the frontNaturals Naturals are special types of royalties where if dealt to a player, the player is rewarded and the player does not set their hand: Three straights Three flushes Six pairs 13 unique cards known as a DragonPlayers with the stronger natural wins and takes the bonus.
If two players have six pair the player with the highest six pair wins otherwise it is a tie and no bonus is awarded. With flushes and straights the player with the highest back hand wins if that ties the middle hand is compared. If that ties the front is compared. In some variants all royalties are worth the same amount. In other variants each royalty is given a different payout. Only the winner may be awarded a royalty; some modified rule sets allow the royalty bonus to cancel out and only the point for the hand/row is added. In some games players are allowed to break up straight flushes or four of a kinds and still receive royalties; some rules say. The standard royalties point structure is listed below. While the royalty structure varies from game to game, the most common agreed-upon royalty structure is as follows: * Non-standard natural If a player chooses to surrender their hand, they will pay an amount greater than the amount paid when losing 2 out of 3 hands, but less than the amount paid when getting scooped.
When surrendered, a player is not required to pay any royalties to their opponents. In some variations surrendering is not an option
Omaha hold 'em
Omaha hold'em is a community card poker game similar to Texas hold'em, where each player is dealt four cards and must make his or her best hand using two of them, plus three of the five community cards. The exact origin of the game is unknown, but casino executive Robert Turner first brought Omaha into a casino setting when he introduced the game to Bill Boyd, who offered it as a game at the Las Vegas Golden Nugget Casino. Omaha uses a 52-card French deck. Limit Omaha hold'em 8-or-better is the "O" game featured in H. O. R. S. E. Both limit Omaha/8 and pot limit Omaha high are featured in the 8-Game. Omaha hold. In the original Omaha poker game, players were only dealt two hole cards and had to use both to make a hand combined with community cards; this version of Omaha is defined in the glossary of Super/System as being interchangeable with "Tight hold'em". Across all the variations of the game, the requirement of using two hole cards is the only consistent rule; the "Omaha" part of the name represents this aspect of the game.
"Hold'em" refers to a game using community cards that are shared by all players. This is opposed to draw games, where each player's hand is composed only of hole cards, stud games, where each player hand contains a mix of non-community cards that are visible to the other players and concealed hole cards. In North American casinos, the term "Omaha" can refer to several poker games; the original game is commonly known as "Omaha high". A high-low split version called "Omaha Hi-Lo", or sometimes "Omaha eight-or-better" or "Omaha/8", is played. In Europe, "Omaha" still refers to the high version of the game played pot-limit. Pot-limit Omaha is abbreviated as "PLO." Pot-limit and no-limit Omaha eight-or-better can be found in some casinos and online, though no-limit is rarer. It is said that Omaha is a game of "the nuts", i.e. the best possible high or low hand, because it takes "the nuts" to win a showdown. It is a game where between the cards in his hand and the community cards a player may have drawing possibilities to multiple different types of holdings.
For example, a player may have both a draw to a flush and a full house using different combinations of cards. At times seasoned players may need additional time to figure what draws are possible for their hand; the basic differences between Omaha and Texas hold'em are these: first, each player is dealt four hole cards instead of two. The betting rounds and layout of community cards are identical. At showdown, each player's hand is the best five-card hand made from three of the five cards on the board, plus two of the player's own cards. Unlike Texas hold'em, a player cannot play four or five of the cards on the board with fewer than two of his own, nor can a player use three or four hole cards to disguise a strong hand; some specific things to notice about Omaha hands are: As in Texas hold'em, three or more suited cards on the board makes a flush possible, but unlike that game, a player always needs two of that suit in hand to play a flush. For example, with a board of K♠ 9♠ Q♠ Q♥ 5♠, a player with A♠ 2♥ 4♥ 5♣ cannot play a flush using the ace as would be possible in Texas hold'em.
A player with 2♠ 3♠ K♦ J♦ can play the spade flush. The same concept applies to straights. In Omaha, a player can not use four cards on the board to play a straight. For example, with a board of 5♠ 6♥ 7♦ 8♥ A♠, a player with J♦ J♠ 4♦ 9♠ or J♦ J♠ 9♦ 9♠ cannot play a straight, but a player with J♦ J♠ 4♦ 3♠ can play a straight from 3 to 7. For example, with a board of J♠ J♦ 9♦ 5♥ 9♣, a player with a hand of A♠ 2♠ J♥ K♦ cannot play a full house. A player with J♣ 2♣ 9♠ 10♠ can use his J-9 to play the full house J♠ J♦ J♣ 9♠ 9♦. A player with 10♠ 5♣ 5♠ 2♣ can use his 5-5 to play the full house J♠ J♦ 5♥ 5♣ 5♠. With three of a kind on the board, a player must have a pair in hand to make a full house. For example, with a board of J♠ J♦ A♦ J♥ K♣, a player with A♠ 2♠ 3♥ K♦ does not have a full house, the player only has three jacks with an ace-king kicker, will lose to a player with only a pair of deuces; this is the most misread hand in Omaha. In Omaha hi-low split-8 or better, each player makes a separate five-card high hand and five-card ace-to-five low hand, the pot is split between the high and low.
To qualify for low, a player must be able to play lower. A few casinos play with a 9-low qualifier instead; each player can play any two of his four hole cards to make his high hand, any two of his four hole cards to make his low hand. If there is no qualifying low hand, the high hand wins the whole pot; this game is played in the fixed limit version, although pot limit Omaha/8 is becoming more popular. A few low-stakes online tournaments feature no limit Omaha/8; the brief explanation above belies the complexity of the game, so a number of examples will be useful here to clarify it. The table below shows a five-card board of community cards at the end of pl
History of poker
The game of poker was developed some time during the early 19th century in the United States. Since those early beginnings, poker has grown to become an popular pastime throughout the world. In the 1937 edition of Foster's Complete Hoyle, R. F. Foster wrote: "the game of poker, as first played in the United States, five cards to each player from a twenty-card pack, is undoubtedly the Persian game of As-Nas." By the 1990s some gaming historians including David Parlett started to challenge the notion that poker is a direct derivative of As-Nas. There is evidence that a game called poque, a French game similar to poker, was played around the region where poker is said to have originated; the name of the game descended from the Irish Poca or the French poque, which descended from the German pochen. Yet it is not clear, it is regarded as sharing ancestry with the Renaissance game of primero and the French brelan. The English game brag descended from brelan and incorporated bluffing, it is quite possible that all of these earlier games influenced the development of poker as it exists now.
A modern school of thought rejects these ancestries, as they focus on the card play in poker, trivial and could have been derived from any number of games or made up on general cardplay principles. The unique features of poker have to do with the betting, do not appear in any known older game. In this view poker originated much in the early or mid-18th century, spread throughout the Mississippi River region by 1800, it was played in a variety of forms, with 52 cards, included both straight poker and stud. 20 card poker was a variant for two players. The development of poker is linked to the historical movement that saw the invention of commercial gambling. English actor Joseph Cowell reported that the game was played in New Orleans in 1829, with a deck of 20 cards, four players betting on which player's hand was the most valuable. Jonathan H. Green's book, An Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling, described the spread of the game from there to the rest of the country by Mississippi riverboats, on which gambling was a common pastime.
As it spread north along the Mississippi River and to the West during the gold rush, it is thought to have become a part of the frontier pioneer ethos. Soon after this spread, the full 52-card French deck was used and the flush was introduced; the draw was added prior to 1850. During the American Civil War, many additions were made including stud poker, the straight. Further American developments followed, such as the wild card and split-pot poker, community card poker games. Hildreth, J. Dragoon Campaigns to the Rocky Mountains, Wiley & Long, New York: mentions poker Green, Jonathan H.. Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling, Philadelphia: Zieber Cowell, Joe. Thirty Years Passed Among the Players in England and America Anners, Henry F. Hoyle’s Games: refers to Poker or Bluff, 20-deck Poker, 20-deck Poke Bohn, Henry George New Handbook of Games: stated the rules of poker in print for the first time Dick, Willium B; the American card player Trumps The Modern Pocket Hoyle New York: Dick & Fitzgerald Schenck, Robert C.
Rules for Playing Poker, private circulation Winterblossom, Henry T The Game of Draw Poker Mathematically Illustrated Blackbridge The Complete Card Player Developments in the 1970s led to poker becoming far more popular than it was before. Modern tournament play became popular in American casinos after the World Series of Poker began, in 1970. Notable champions from these early WSOP tournaments include Johnny Moss, Amarillo Slim, Bobby Baldwin, Doyle Brunson, Puggy Pearson. In the 1970s, the first serious poker strategy books appeared, notably Super/System by Doyle Brunson and Caro's Book of Poker Tells by Mike Caro, followed by The Theory of Poker by David Sklansky. By the 1980s, poker was being depicted in popular culture as a commonplace recreational activity. For example, it was featured in at least 10 episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation as a weekly event of the senior staff of the fictional ship's crew. Two significant events in the late 1980s led to the first poker "boom". In 1987, California legalized the flop games of hold Omaha, as well as stud.
Only draw games were allowed. While there were more poker games in California than anywhere else before this, the number of games and the action hold'em brought both increased dramatically. Cavernous poker rooms like the Commerce Casino and the Bicycle Club began operating in the LA area. In 1988 Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which legalized casino games on Indian lands. Poker rooms began opening within a few short years. Limit Texas hold'em was the most played game by far in the west, seven card stud was the most played game in the east from the late 1980s until 2003. In the 1990s, poker and casino gambling spread across the United States, most notably to Atlantic City, New Jersey. In 1998, Planet Poker dealt the first real money online poker game. In 1999, Late Night Poker debuted on British television. Poker's popularity experienced an unprecedented spike at the beginning of the 21st century because of the i
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games, performing magic tricks and flourishes, for cardistry, in card throwing. Playing cards are palm-sized for convenient handling, are sold together as a deck of cards or pack of cards. Playing cards were first invented in China during the Tang dynasty. Playing cards may have been invented during the Tang dynasty around the 9th century AD as a result of the usage of woodblock printing technology; the first possible reference to card games comes from a 9th-century text known as the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang dynasty writer Su E. It describes Princess Tongchang, daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang, playing the "leaf game" in 868 with members of the Wei clan, the family of the princess' husband; the first known book on the "leaf" game was called the Yezi Gexi and written by a Tang woman.
It received commentary by writers of subsequent dynasties. The Song dynasty scholar Ouyang Xiu asserts that the "leaf" game existed at least since the mid-Tang dynasty and associated its invention with the development of printed sheets as a writing medium. However, Ouyang claims that the "leaves" were pages of a book used in a board game played with dice, that the rules of the game were lost by 1067. Other games revolving around alcoholic drinking involved using playing cards of a sort from the Tang dynasty onward. However, these cards did not contain numbers. Instead, they were printed with forfeits for whomever drew them; the earliest dated instance of a game involving cards with suits and numerals occurred on 17 July 1294 when "Yan Sengzhu and Zheng Pig-Dog were caught playing cards and that wood blocks for printing them had been impounded, together with nine of the actual cards."William Henry Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which doubled as both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for, similar to trading card games.
Using paper money was inconvenient and risky so they were substituted by play money known as "money cards". One of the earliest games in which we know the rules is madiao, a trick-taking game, which dates to the Ming Dynasty. 15th-century scholar Lu Rong described it is as being played with 38 "money cards" divided into four suits: 9 in coins, 9 in strings of coins, 9 in myriads, 11 in tens of myriads. The two latter suits had Water Margin characters instead of pips on them with Chinese characters to mark their rank and suit; the suit of coins is in reverse order with 9 of coins being the lowest going up to 1 of coins as the high card. Despite the wide variety of patterns, the suits show a uniformity of structure; every suit contains twelve cards with the top two being the court cards of king and vizier and the bottom ten being pip cards. Half the suits use reverse ranking for their pip cards. There are many motifs for the suit pips but some include coins, clubs and swords which resemble Mamluk and Latin suits.
Michael Dummett speculated that Mamluk cards may have descended from an earlier deck which consisted of 48 cards divided into four suits each with ten pip cards and two court cards. By the 11th century, playing cards were spreading throughout the Asian continent and came into Egypt; the oldest surviving cards in the world are four fragments found in the Keir Collection and one in the Benaki Museum. They are dated to the 13th centuries. A near complete pack of Mamluk playing cards dating to the 15th century and of similar appearance to the fragments above was discovered by Leo Aryeh Mayer in the Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, in 1939, it is not a complete set and is composed of three different packs to replace missing cards. The Topkapı pack contained 52 cards comprising four suits: polo-sticks, coins and cups; each suit contained ten pip cards and three court cards, called malik, nā'ib malik, thānī nā'ib. The thānī nā ` ib is a non-existent title. In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards.
Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaks, called their cups tuman which means myriad in Turkic and Jurchen languages. Wilkinson postulated that the cups may have been derived from inverting the Chinese and Jurchen ideogram for myriad; the Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons due to religious proscription in Sunni Islam, though they did bear the ranks on the cards. Nā'ib would be borrowed into French and Spanish, the latter word still in common usage. Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao and old European card games like ombre and maw. A fragment of two uncut sheets of Moorish-styled cards of a similar but plainer style were found in Spain and dated to the early 15th century. Export of these cards, ceased after the fall of the Mamluks in the 16th century; the rules to play these games are lost but they are believed to be plain trick games without trumps.
Four-suited playing cards ar
Three-card brag is a 16th-century British card game, the British national representative of the vying or "bluffing" family of gambling games. Brag is a direct descendant of the Elizabethan game of Primero and one of the several ancestors to poker, just varying in betting style and hand rankings. A variant of the game is popular in Trinidad, India and Nepal, where it is known as "faras" and teen patti, played with numerous local variations. Everyone antes, players are each dealt three cards face down. There is a single round of betting, with action starting to the left of the dealer; each player has the option of betting or folding. If there was a previous bet, the player must contribute; this betting continues until there are only two players left, at which point either player may double the previous bet to "see" his opponent. At this point, the two hands are revealed, the player with the better hand takes the entire pot. If there is a tie, the player, seeing loses. For example, with four players A, B, C and D, this situation could occur: Player A bets 2 chips, B folds, C bets 2 chips and D bets 2 chips.
In order to stay in, A would have to bet another 2 chips. Hands follow the same sequence as the five-card hands of poker with some variation created by the differing odds of a three-card hand; as there are only three cards, four of a kind and a full house are not possible. Three of a kind is a high-ranked hand, while a straight beats a flush, as three-card flushes are more than three-card straights while the reverse is true of five-card poker hands; the full probabilities are as follows: Four-card brag: Players are dealt four cards, must choose which card to throw away in order to create the best combination. The game is played in the same way as three-card brag. Seven-card brag: Seven cards are dealt, players must choose three cards to play from their hands, or make two hands, with only a successful win if both hands win the pot. Nine-card brag: Nine cards are dealt, players sort these into three sets. Four antes are played, one for each set, a main pot; each set is played out without further betting.
The winner of each set takes one lot of antes. Players must always play the next best available set. A player may be able to make two good sets and a poor third, so players that do not think they will be able to win all three will order their hands to leave themselves with a strong third set to protect the main pot. Thirteen-card brag: Thirteen cards are dealt, from which players must choose three cards to play. Another variation involves making four hands from the thirteen cards. Four of a kind can be played, is rewarded by an additional fee to be paid by the other players, apart from any original stake. Players show their respective best hands second best hands, etc. with each winning hand scoring that player a point, or points. Score is kept on a cribbage board, is either a sprint of 10 or so holes, with one point scored for each winning hand, or played over the full length, or street, of the board, with 4 points awarded to the best highest hand, 3 points to the best second-highest hand, etc.
Players not on the board by the time someone wins may have to pay double. Winnings are either a pre-arranged fixed amount from each loser to the winner, or paid proportionate to how far behind the winner they finish. Any player winning all four hands in any round is said to have crashed, automatically wins the entire game. In some regions the game is known as'Crash'. Bastard brag: Three cards are dealt to each player, three face-up communal cards are dealt. Players take turns at exchanging all of their cards for any or all of the communal cards. Play continues ` knocks', meaning that they are happy with their hand. All the remaining players exchange one last time before hands are compared; the player with the lowest hand loses a life. The name may originate from several of the rules making. Knocking on the first round is prohibited, forcing anyone dealt a good hand to break it up, knocking isn't allowed directly after an exchange, rather instead of an exchange, i.e. you have to make a good hand, wait for your next turn to stick.
Players can't exchange two cards at once preventing the immediate accumulation of a good hand, with the card needed to complete the hand maybe taken by another player before the next opportunity. It is otherwise known as Stop the BusFifteen card Brag: A non-gambling related variant, played as a family game; each player is dealt fifteen cards. Each player must lay their tricks down in order, highest first; the winner is the one. This variant has a much higher likelihood of more powerful tricks, due to the extra cards; this version can be played with 10 cards and one card is discarded. Some of these rules can lead to games heads-up, becoming tactical, with players avoiding making their best hand until their hand is forced into that last exchange by another player sticking, risking that the card that completes their hand isn't taken by another player in the meantime. Players have the option of playing blind. A blind pl
Community card poker
Community card poker refers to any game of poker that uses community cards, which are cards dealt face up in the center of the table and shared by all players. In these games, each player is dealt an incomplete hand, which are combined with the community cards to make a complete hand; the set of community cards is called the "board", may be dealt in a simple line or arranged in a special pattern. Rules of each game determine; the most popular community card game today is Texas. In home games, it is typical to use antes, while casinos use only blinds for these games. No limit and Fixed limit games are most common, while spread limit and pot limit games are less common; the betting format and stakes can vary by region as well as time of volume. Betting rounds have a higher limit than earlier betting rounds; each betting round begins with the player to the dealer's left, so community card games are positional games. Most community card games do not play well with lowball hand values, though some do play well at high-low split with ace-to-five low values, making it possible to win both halves of a pot.
When played high-low split, there is a minimum qualifying hand for low and no declaration is needed. The main difference from draw and stud poker are the community cards. Several community cards are dealt to the table, shared by all players, subject to variant-specific rules about how many, which of the cards may be used in each player's hand; such a set of community cards is called a "board" or "window". The board is dealt in a simple line, but some games may have elaborate layouts of community cards with special rules about what combinations can be used. For example, Texas hold'em ends with each player holding two cards in his individual hand, a board of five community cards in a simple line shared by everyone. In Omaha hold'em, game rules restrict players to using three of the five community cards, combined with two of the four cards dealt to each player, to make a hand. In Tic-tac-toe, the board is a 3x3 array of nine cards, players must use three cards from a row, column, or diagonal of the board.
This is the most popular community card game today. Each player is dealt two private "hole" cards, after. Three community cards are dealt face up to form the "flop", followed by a second betting round. A fourth community card is followed by a third betting round, and the fifth community card is followed by the final betting round. At showdown, each player plays the best five-card hand he can make using any five cards among the two in his hand and the five on the board; this is the key difference from Omaha. Note that in current practice, before each community card round first a card is "burned" and placed in a discard pile; this was implemented to prevent card-cheaters from "marking" cards and knowing what the card on the top of the dealer's deck was. For double-board hold'em, two separate five-card boards are dealt, the high hand using each board takes half of the pot. For example, after the first betting round, three community cards are dealt to each of two separate boards, it is possible for one player to have the best hand on both boards and thus "scoop" the entire pot.
This variant of Texas hold'em is sometimes called "double-flop hold'em", a bit of a misnomer, since there are not just two flops, but two turns and two rivers. Greek hold'em follows the same rules as Omaha, except that each player is only dealt two cards, same as in Texas hold'em. In Greek hold'em each player must use both hole cards along with 3 of the total available community cards to make the strongest five card hand, unlike Texas hold'em where each player may play the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards available to them. In Irish poker, each player is dealt four cards before the flop. After the betting round on the flop is completed each player must discard two cards. From this point the game is played like Texas hold'em with betting after the turn and river. At showdown, each player uses their remaining two cards along with the board to construct a hand. Players are dealt three hole cards instead of two with three betting rounds: pre-flop and turn. Players can use any number of hole cards to make the final hand.
Royal hold'em is a variation, played using a stripped deck. In royal hold'em, the deuces through nines are stripped from the deck, thereby only leaving the tens through aces. Royal hold'em can only be played with a maximum of six players because there are only 20 cards in the deck. With 5 community cards, 3 burn cards, 2 pocket cards per player
Casino tokens are small discs used in lieu of currency in casinos. Colored metal, injection-molded plastic or compression molded clay tokens of various denominations are used in table games, as opposed to metal token coins, used in slot machines. Casino tokens are widely used as play money in casual or tournament games; some casinos use rectangular gaming plaques for high-stakes table games. Plaques differ from chips in that they are larger rectangular in shape and contain serial numbers. Money is exchanged for tokens in a casino at the casino cage, at the gaming tables, or at a cashier station; the tokens are interchangeable with money at the casino. They have no value outside of the casino, but certain businesses in gambling towns may honor them informally. Tokens are employed for several reasons; because of the uniform size and patterns of stacks of chips, they are easier to tally compared to currency. This attribute enables the pit boss or security to verify the amount being paid, reducing the chance that a dealer might incorrectly pay a customer.
The uniform weight of the casino's official tokens allows them to weigh great stacks or heaps of chips rather than tally them Furthermore, it is observed that consumers gamble more with replacement currencies than with cash. A more pragmatic reason for casinos using chips in place of cash at table games is to discourage players from grabbing back their bet and attempting to flee should their bet not win, because chips, unlike cash, must be redeemed at the casino cashier and have no value outside the casino in question. Lastly, the chips are considered to be an integral part of the casino environment, replacing them with some alternate currency would be unpopular. Many casinos have eliminated the use of metal tokens in their slot machines, in favor of paper receipts or pre-paid cards, while requiring heavy infrastructure costs to install, eliminate the coin handling expenses, jamming problems encountered in machines which took coins or tokens and can allow more game-specific technology in the space of a machine which would be dedicated to coin mechanisms.
While some casinos which installed the receipt system had kept the $1 tokens around for use as $1 chips, most other casinos using the receipts had scrapped the tokens entirely. Most casinos using receipts have automated machines at which customers may redeem receipts, eliminating the need for coin counting windows and decreasing labor costs. Casino chip collecting is a part of numismatics, more as specialized exonumia collecting; this hobby has become popular with the Casino Chips & Gaming Tokens Collectors Club formed in 1988. Some collectors may value certain casino tokens up to $100,000, which are traded on online auction websites like eBay. Several casinos sell custom-made sets of chips and one or two decks of cards stamped with the name of the casino on them; each set is contained in box. The ancestors of the modern casino token were the counters used to keep score in the card games Ombre and Quadrille. In 1752, French Quadrille sets contained a number of different counters, known as jetons and mils.
Unlike modern poker chips, they were colored differently only to determine player ownership for purposes of settling payments at the end of the game, with different denominations differentiated by different shapes that each counter type had. In the early history of Poker during the 19th century, players seemed to use any small valuable object imaginable. Early poker players sometimes used jagged gold pieces, gold nuggets, gold dust, or coins as well as "chips" made of ivory, wood, a composition made from clay and shellac. Several companies between the 1880s and the late 1930s made clay composition poker chips. There were over 1000 designs from. Most chips were white, red and yellow, but they could be made in any color desired; the vast majority of authentic casino chips are "clay" chips but can be more described as compression molded chips. Contrary to popular belief, no gaming chip going as far back as the 1950s has been 100% clay. Modern clay chips are a composition of materials more durable than clay alone.
At least some percentage of the chips is of an earthen material such as sand and clay similar to that found in cat litter. The process used to make these chips is a trade secret, varies by manufacturer, most being expensive and time-consuming per chip; the edge spots, or inserts, are not painted on. Each chip receives a mid-inlay if desired, is placed in a special mold that heats and compresses the chip at 10,000 psi at 300 °F, hence the term compression molded chips; the printed graphics on clay chips is called an inlay. Inlays are made of paper and are clad with a plastic film applied to the chip prior to the compression molding process. During the molding process the inlay becomes permanently fastened to the chip and can not be removed from the chip without destroying the inlay. Ceramic chips were introduced in the mid 1980s as alternative to clay chips, are used in casinos, as well as being available to the home market; the ability