United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government. Although its beginnings were in the House and Home Financing Agency, it was founded as a Cabinet department in 1965, as part of the "Great Society" program of President Lyndon Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises; the department was established on September 9, 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act into law, it stipulated that the department was to be created no than November 8, sixty days following the date of enactment. The actual implementation was postponed until January 13, 1966, following the completion of a special study group report on the federal role in solving urban problems. HUD is administered by the United States Secretary of Urban Development, its headquarters is located in the Robert C. Weaver Federal Building; some important milestones for HUD's development include: June 27, 1934 – The National Housing Act creates the Federal Housing Administration, which helps provide mortgage insurance on loans made by FHA-approved lenders.
September 1, 1937 – Housing Act of 1937 creates the United States Housing Authority, which helps enact slum-clearance projects and construction of low-rent housing. February 3, 1938 – The National Housing Act Amendments of 1938 is signed into law; the law creates the Federal National Mortgage Association, which provides a secondary market to the Federal Housing Administration. February 24, 1942 – Executive Order 9070, Establishing the National Housing Agency; the Federal Housing Administration, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, The Home Owners' Loan Corporation, The United States Housing Authority, defense housing under the Federal Works Agency, the War Department, the Navy Department, the Farm Security Administration, the Defense Homes Corporation, the Federal Loan Administration, the Division of Defense Housing Coordination were consolidated. The National Housing Agency would be made up of three units, each with its own commissioner; the units were the Federal Housing Administration, the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, the United States Housing Authority.
July 27, 1947 – The Housing and Home Finance Agency is established through Reorganization Plan Number 3. July 15, 1949 – The Housing Act of 1949 is enacted to help eradicate slums and promote community development and redevelopment programs. August 2, 1954 – The Housing Act of 1954 establishes comprehensive planning assistance. September 23, 1959 – The Housing Act of 1959 allows funds for elderly housing. September 2, 1964 – The Housing Act of 1964 allows rehabilitation loans for homeowners. August 10, 1965 – The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 instituted several major expansions in federal housing programs. September 1965 – HUD is created as a cabinet-level agency by the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act. April 1968 – The Fair Housing Act is passed to ban discrimination in housing. During 1968 – The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 establishes the Government National Mortgage Association. August 1969 – The Brooke Amendment establishes that low income families only pay no more than 25 percent of their income for rent.
August 1974 – Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 allows community development block grants and help for urban homesteading. October 1977 – The Housing and Community Act of 1977 sets up Urban Development Grants and continues elderly and handicapped assistance. July 1987 – The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act gives help to communities to deal with homelessness, it includes the creation of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness of which HUD is a member. February 1988 – The Housing and Community Development Act provides for the sale of public housing to resident management corporations. October 1992 – The HOPE VI program starts to revitalize public housing and how it works. October 1992 – The Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 codifies within its language the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 that creates the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight, mandates HUD to set goals for lower income and underserved housing areas for the GSEs Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
1992 – Federal Housing Enterprises' Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 creates HUD Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight to provide public oversight of FNMA and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. 1993 – Henry G. Cisneros is named Secretary of HUD by President William J. Clinton, January 22. Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program becomes law as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993. 1995 – "Blueprint for Reinvention of HUD" proposes sweeping changes in public housing reform and FHA, consolidation of other programs into three block grants. 1996 – Homeownership totals 66.3 million American households, the largest number ever. 1997 – Andrew M. Cuomo is named by President Clinton to be Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the first appointment from within the Department. 1998 – HUD opens Enforcement Center to take action against HUD-assisted multifamily property owners and other HUD fund recipients who violate laws and regulations. Congress approves Public Housing reforms to reduce segregation by race and income and reward work, bring more working families into public housing, increase the availability of subsidized housing for poor families.
2000 – America's homeownership rate reaches a new record-high of 67.7 percent in the third quarter of 2000. A total of 71.6 million American families own their homes - more than at any time in American history. 2001 – Mel Martinez, named by President George W. Bush to be Secretary o
A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand. The two most common handgun sub-types in use today are semi-automatic pistols. In the days before mass production, handguns were considered a badge of office, much the same as a sword; as they had limited utility and were more expensive than the long-guns of the era, handguns were carried only by the few who could afford to purchase them. However, in 1836, Samuel Colt patented the Colt Paterson, the first practical mass-produced revolver, it was capable of firing 5 shots in rapid succession and quickly became a popular defensive weapon, giving rise to the saying "God created men, but Colt made them equal." Today, in most of the world, handguns are considered self-defence weapons used by police and military officers. However, in the United States and many other countries around the world, handguns are widely available to civilians and carried for self-defence. Firearms first appeared in China; the oldest known bronze barrel handgun is the Heilongjiang hand cannon, dated to 1288.
It weighs 3.55 kg. The diameter of the interior at the end of the barrel is 2.5 cm. The barrel is 6.9 inches long. The hand cannon has a bulbous base at the breech called the yaoshi or gunpowder chamber, where the explosion that propels the projectile occurs; the diameter of the Heilongjiang hand-gun's powder chamber is 6.6 cm. The walls of the powder chamber are noticeably thicker to better withstand the explosive pressure of the gunpowder; the powder chamber has a touch hole, a small hole for the fuse that ignites the gunpowder. Behind the gunpowder chamber is a socket shaped like a trumpet where the handle of the hand cannon is inserted; the bulbous shape of the base gave the earliest Chinese and Western cannons a vase-like or pear-like appearance, which disappeared when advancements in metallurgical technology made the bulbous base obsolete. The matchlock appeared in Europe in the mid-15th century; the matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
The classic European matchlock gun held a burning slow match in a clamp at the end of a small curved lever known as the serpentine. Upon the pulling of a lever protruding from the bottom of the gun and connected to the serpentine, the clamp dropped down, lowering the smoldering match into the flash pan and igniting the priming powder; the flash from the primer traveled through the touch hole igniting the main charge of propellant in the gun barrel. On release of the lever or trigger, the spring-loaded serpentine would move in reverse to clear the pan. For obvious safety reasons the match would be removed before reloading of the gun. Both ends of the match were kept alight in case one end should be accidentally extinguished; the wheellock was the next major development in firearms technology after the matchlock and the first self-igniting firearm. Its name is from its rotating steel wheel to provide ignition. Developed in Europe around 1500, it was used alongside the matchlock; the wheellock works by spinning a spring-loaded steel wheel against a piece of pyrite to generate intense sparks, which ignite gunpowder in a pan, which flashes through a small touchhole to ignite the main charge in the firearm's barrel.
The pyrite is clamped in vise jaws on a spring-loaded arm. When the trigger is pulled, the pan cover is opened, the wheel is rotated, with the pyrite pressed into contact. A close modern analogy of the wheellock mechanism is the operation of a cigarette lighter, where a toothed steel wheel is spun in contact with a piece of sparking material to ignite the liquid or gaseous fuel. A wheellock firearm had the advantage that it can be readied and fired with one hand, in contrast to the then-common matchlock firearms, which must have a burning cord of slow match ready if the gun might be needed and demanded the operator's full attention and two hands to operate. On the other hand, wheellock mechanisms were complex to make, making them expensive. A flintlock is a general term for any firearm; the term may apply to a particular form of the mechanism itself, introduced in the early 17th century, replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the matchlock and the wheellock. Flintlock pistols were used as a military arm.
Their effective range was short, they were used as an adjunct to a sword or cutlass. Pistols were smoothbore although some rifled pistols were produced. Flintlock pistols came in a variety of sizes and styles which overlap and are not well defined, many of the names we use having been applied by collectors and dealers long after the pistols were obsolete; the smallest were less than 15 cm long and the largest were over 51 cm. From around the beginning of the 1700s the larger pistols got shorter, so that by the late 1700s the largest would be more like 41 cm long; the smallest would fit into a typical pocket or a hand warming muff and could be carried. The largest sizes would be carried in holsters across a horse's back just ahead of the saddle. In-between sizes included the coat pocket pistol, or coat pistol, which would fit into a large pocket, the coach pistol, meant to be carried on or under the seat of a coach in a bag or box, belt pistols, sometimes equipped with a hook designed to slip over a belt or waistband.
Larger pistols were called horse pistols. Arguably the most elegant of the p
Bridgeport is a historic seaport city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is in Fairfield County, at the mouth of the Pequonnock River on Long Island Sound, 60 miles from Manhattan and 40 miles from The Bronx, it is bordered by the towns of Trumbull to the north, Fairfield to the west, Stratford to the east. As of 2017, Bridgeport had an estimated population of 146,579, which made it the largest city in Connecticut and the fifth-most populous in New England; the Greater Bridgeport area is the 48th-largest urban area in the United States. The showman P. T. Barnum was a resident of the city and served as the town's mayor in the late 19th century. Barnum housed his circus in town during winter; the first Subway restaurant opened in Bridgeport's North End in 1965. The Frisbie Pie Company was in Bridgeport, Bridgeport is credited as the birthplace of the Frisbee. After World War II, industrial restructuring and suburbanization caused the loss of many jobs and affluent residents, leaving Bridgeport struggling with poverty and crime.
Bridgeport was inhabited by the Paugussett native American tribe at the time of its English colonization. The earliest European communal settlement was in the historical Stratfield district, along US Route 1. Closeby, Mount Grove Cemetery was laid out on what was a native village that extended past the 1650s, it is an ancient Paugusett burial ground. The English farming community grew and became a center of trade and whaling; the town incorporated to subsidize the Housatonic Railroad and industrialized following the rail line's connection to the New York and New Haven railroad. The namesake of the town was the need for bridges over the Pequonnock River that provided a navigable port at the mouth of the river. Manufacturing was the mainstay of the local economy until the 1970s; the first documented English settlement within the present city limits of Bridgeport took place in 1644, centered at Black Rock Harbor and along North Avenue between Park and Briarwood Avenues. The place was called Pequonnock, after a band of the Paugussett, an Algonquian-speaking Native American people who occupied this area.
One of their sacred sites was Golden Hill, which overlooked the harbor and was the location of natural springs and their planting fields. The Golden Hill Indians were granted a reservation here by the Colony of Connecticut in 1639. Bridgeport's early years were marked by residents' reliance on farming; this was similar to the economy of the Paugusset, who had cultivated corn and squash. A village called Newfield began to develop around the corner of State and Water streets in the 1760s; the area became known as Stratfield in 1695 or 1701, due to its location between the existing towns of Stratford and Fairfield. During the American Revolution, Newfield Harbor was a center of privateering. By the time of the State of Connecticut's ratification of the American constitution in 1781, many of the local farmers held shares in vessels trading at Newfield Harbor or had begun trading in their own name. Newfield expanded around the coasting trade with Boston, New York, Baltimore and the international trade with the West Indies.
The commercial activity of the village was clustered around the wharves on the west bank of the Pequonnock, while the churches were erected inland on Broad Street. In 1800, the village the first so incorporated in the state, it was named for the Newfield or Lottery Bridge across the Pequonnock, connecting the wharves on its east and west banks. Bridgeport Bank was established in 1806. In 1821, the township of Bridgeport became independent of Stratford; the West India trade died down around 1840, but by that time the Bridgeport Steamship Company and Bridgeport Whaling Company had been incorporated and the Housatonic Railroad chartered. The HRRC ran upstate along the Housatonic Valley, connecting with Massachusetts's Berkshire Railroad at the state line. Bridgeport was chartered as Connecticut's fifth city in 1836 in order to enable the town council to secure funding to provide to the HRRC and ensure that it would terminate in Bridgeport; the Naugatuck Railroad—connecting Bridgeport to Waterbury and Winsted along the Naugatuck—was chartered in 1845 and began operation four years later.
The same year, the New York and New Haven Railroad began operation, connecting Bridgeport to New York and the other towns along the north shore of the Long Island Sound. Now a major junction for western Connecticut, the city industrialized. Following the Civil War, it held several iron foundries and factories manufacturing firearms, metallic cartridges, horse harnesses and blinds. Wheeler & Wilson's sewing machines were exported throughout the world. Bridgeport annexed the West End and the village of Black Rock and its busy harbor in 1870. In 1875, P. T. Barnum was elected mayor of the town, which afterwards served as the winter headquarters of Barnum and Bailey's Circus and Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. From 1870 to 1910, Bridgeport became the major industrial center of Connecticut and its population rose from around 25,000 to over 100,000, including thousands of Irish, Hungarians, Germans and Italian immigrants. Among the initiatives, the Singer factory joined Wheeler & Wilson in producing sewing machines and the Locomobile Company of America was a prom
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
2012 Aurora, Colorado shooting
On July 20, 2012, a mass shooting occurred inside a Century 16 movie theater in Aurora, during a midnight screening of the film The Dark Knight Rises. Dressed in tactical clothing, James Eagan Holmes set off tear gas grenades and shot into the audience with multiple firearms. Twelve people were killed and seventy others were injured, 58 of them from gunfire. At the time, the attack had the largest number of casualties in one shooting in modern U. S. history, until the Orlando nightclub shooting in 2016 and the Las Vegas shooting in 2017. It was the deadliest shooting in Colorado since the Columbine High School massacre in 1999. Holmes was arrested in his car outside the cinema minutes later. Earlier he had rigged his apartment with homemade explosives and incendiary devices, which were defused by the Arapahoe County Sheriff's Office Bomb Squad a day after the shooting; the shooting prompted an increase in security at movie theaters across the U. S. that were screening the same film, in fear of copycat crimes.
It led to a spike in gun sales in Colorado and political debates about gun control in the United States. Holmes pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity. Arapahoe County prosecutors sought the death penalty for Holmes; the trial began on April 27, 2015. On July 16, he was convicted of 24 counts of first-degree murder, 140 counts of attempted first-degree murder, one count of possessing explosives. On August 7, he was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. On August 26, he was given twelve one for every person he killed; the shooting occurred in Theater 9 at the Century 16 multiplex, located at the Town Center at Aurora shopping mall at 14300 E. Alameda Avenue. Police said Holmes bought a ticket, entered the theater, sat in the front row. About 20 minutes into the film, he left theater 9 through an emergency exit door beside the movie screen, with direct access to the used parking area at the back of the complex, while propping the door open with a plastic tablecloth holder.
There were about 400 people inside theater 9. Holmes went to his car, parked near the exit door, changed into protective clothing, retrieved his guns. About 30 minutes into the movie, police say, around 12:30 a.m. he reentered the theater through the exit door. He was dressed in black and wore a gas mask, a load-bearing vest, a ballistic helmet, bullet-resistant leggings, a bullet-resistant throat protector, a groin protector, tactical gloves, he was listening to techno music through a set of headphones so the reactions in the theater could not be heard. Few in the audience considered Holmes to be a threat. According to witnesses, he appeared to be wearing a costume, like other audience members who had dressed up for the screening; some believed he was playing a prank, while others thought he was part of a special effects installation setup for the film's premiere or a publicity stunt by the studio or theater management. It was reported that Holmes threw two canisters emitting a gas or smoke obscuring the audience members' vision, making their throats and skin itch, causing eye irritation.
He fired a 12-gauge Remington 870 Express Tactical shotgun, first at the ceiling and at the audience. He fired a Smith & Wesson M&P15 semi-automatic rifle with a 100-round drum magazine, which malfunctioned, he fired a.40-caliber Glock 22 Gen4 handgun. He shot first to the back of the room, toward people in the aisles. A bullet passed through the wall and hit three people in the adjacent theater 8, screening the same film. Witnesses said the multiplex's fire alarm system began sounding soon after the attack began and staff told people in Theater 8 to evacuate. One witness said she was hesitant to leave because someone yelled that someone was shooting in the lobby. Holmes fired 76 shots in the theater: six from the shotgun, 65 from the semi-automatic rifle, five from the.40-caliber handgun. The first phone calls to emergency services via 9-1-1 were made at 12:39 a.m. Police arrived within 90 seconds and found three.40-caliber handgun magazines, a shotgun, a large drum magazine on the floor of the theater.
Some people reported the shooting via text messaging rather than calling the police. Ambulances were hindered by chaos and congestion in the parking lot, they were unable to reach the back side of the complex where police had pulled the injured out the emergency exit doors of Theatre 9. By Sgt. Stephen Redfearn, one of the first police officers who arrived on the scene, sent victims to area hospitals in squad cars. About 12:45 a.m. police officer Jason Oviatt apprehended Holmes behind the cinema, next to his car, without resistance. He was mistaken for another police officer because of the tactical clothing that he was wearing, he was "disconnected" during his arrest. According to two federal officials, Holmes had dyed his hair red and called himself "the Joker", although authorities declined to confirm this. Three days at his first court appearance in Centennial, Holmes now had reddish-orange hair; the officers found several firearms in the theater and inside the shooter's car, including another Glock 22 handgun.
Holmes was carrying a first aid kit and spike strips, which he admitted in an interview he planned to use if police either shot at or chased him. Following his arrest, Holmes was jailed at the Arapahoe County Detention Center, under suicide
Remington Arms Company, LLC is an American manufacturer of firearms and ammunition. It was founded in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, as E. Sons. Remington is America's oldest gun maker and is claimed to be America's oldest factory that still makes its original product. Remington is the largest U. S. producer of shotguns and rifles. The company has developed or adopted more cartridges than any other gun maker or ammunition manufacturer in the world; until 2015, Remington Arms was part of the Freedom Group, owned by Cerberus Capital Management. In 2014, a new plant was built in Huntsville, Alabama to produce AR-15 style semi-automatic rifles and Remington 1911 R1 pistols. In 2015, the Freedom Group was renamed as Remington Outdoor Company. Remington filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, in March 2018, having accumulated over $950 million in debt. Remington exited bankruptcy in May 2018, less than two months after filing for protection under Ch. 11 laws. Remington's quick exit from bankruptcy was due to a pre-approved restructuring plan, supported by 97% of its creditors.
The Remington company was founded in 1816. Eliphalet Remington II believed. Remington began building a flintlock rifle for himself. At age 23, he entered a shooting match. Before Remington left the field that day, he had received so many orders from other competitors that he had entered the gunsmithing business. By 1828, he moved his operation to nearby Ilion; this site is still used by the modern Remington firearms plant. On March 7, 1888, ownership of E. Remington & Sons was sold by the Remington family to new owners, Marcellus Hartley and Partners; this consisted of Hartley and Graham of New York, New York, a major sporting goods chain who owned the Union Metallic Cartridge Company in Bridgeport and the Winchester Repeating Arms Company of New Haven, both in Connecticut. At this time the name was formally changed to the Remington Arms Company; the Bridgeport site became the home of Remington's ammunition plant. In 1912, Remington and Union Metallic Cartridge Company were combined into a single entity, called Remington UMC.
In the early 21st century, Remington still produces U. M. C. Brand ammunition. In 1915, the plant at Ilion was expanded, with this expansion became the same plant as today. During the early years of World War I, Remington produced arms under contract for several Allied powers. Remington produced M1907-15 Berthier rifles for France, Pattern 1914 Enfield rifles for Britain, Model 1891 Mosin–Nagant rifles for Imperial Russia; as the war intensified, Remington production rose to meet demand. When the U. S. entered the war, Remington became involved in the war effort. Remington developed and produced the U. S. M1917 Enfield rifle, a simplified version of the British Pattern 1914, development of the Pedersen device. Late in the war, the collapse of the Imperial Russian government had a severe effect on Remington finances. Russia had ordered large quantities of arms and ammunition, but ran short of money to pay for the orders, they delayed payment. When the Bolsheviks took power in the Russian Revolution, they repudiated the contract entirely.
Remington was left with huge stocks of guns and ammunition, no prospects for payment. The U. S. government stepped up thereby preventing Remington from absolute loss. Remington made the conscious decision to emphasize their line of civilian products, they viewed hunting products as a more stable business which might help them to survive future ups and downs generated by war demands. During the Great Depression, Remington was purchased by the DuPont Corporation, which had made its fortune with improvements to gunpowder. A year Remington purchased the Peters Cartridge Company. In 1940, the U. S. Army became worried about its ammunition capacity and asked Remington to collaborate on a plan for national expansion. With the aid of DuPont, Remington built the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant and Denver Ordnance ammunition plants, three more plants on, including the Lowell Ordnance Plant. Though the plants belonged to the U. S. government, Remington was asked to oversee their operation. Among the weapons Remington manufactured for the government during World War II was the famous M1903A3 Springfield bolt-action rifle.
During the 1950s and 1960s, Remington branched out into other products besides guns, with the purchase of Mall Tool Company in 1956. One of the products was chain saws. In 1962 Remington introduced the Model 700 bolt-action rifle; the rifle became one of Remington's most successful firearms, lent itself to developments of many sub-variants, including the Remington 700 BDL, Remington 700PSS for police and law enforcement agencies and the military M24 SWS, the United States Army standard sniper rifle between 1988–2010. It is still used by other armed forces around the world, such as the IDF. Other firearms companies designed and manufactured sniper rifles based on the reliable and accurate Remington Model 700 action. In 1986, Remington closed its ammunition plant in Bridgeport, transferring operations to a new facility in Lonoke, Arkansas; this site was chosen as the geographic center of the sporting ammunition market. A year Remington built a new clay targets plant in Athens, Georgia. In 1993, Remington was sold by DuPont to the investment firm Clayton, Dubilier