The Protein Data Bank is a database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or cryo-electron microscopy, submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations; the PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein Data Bank, wwPDB. The PDB is a key in areas such as structural genomics. Most major scientific journals, some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB. Many other databases use protein structures deposited in the PDB. For example, SCOP and CATH classify protein structures, while PDBsum provides a graphic overview of PDB entries using information from other sources, such as Gene ontology. Two forces converged to initiate the PDB: 1) a small but growing collection of sets of protein structure data determined by X-ray diffraction.
In 1969, with the sponsorship of Walter Hamilton at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Edgar Meyer began to write software to store atomic coordinate files in a common format to make them available for geometric and graphical evaluation. By 1971, one of Meyer's programs, SEARCH, enabled researchers to remotely access information from the database to study protein structures offline. SEARCH was instrumental in enabling networking, thus marking the functional beginning of the PDB; the Protein Data Bank was announced in October 1971 in Nature New Biology as a joint venture between Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, UK and Brookhaven National Laboratory, US. Upon Hamilton's death in 1973, Tom Koeztle took over direction of the PDB for the subsequent 20 years. In January 1994, Joel Sussman of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science was appointed head of the PDB. In October 1998, the PDB was transferred to the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics; the new director was Helen M. Berman of Rutgers University.
In 2003, with the formation of the wwPDB, the PDB became an international organization. The founding members are PDBe, RCSB, PDBj; the BMRB joined in 2006. Each of the four members of wwPDB can act as deposition, data processing and distribution centers for PDB data; the data processing refers to the fact that annotate each submitted entry. The data are automatically checked for plausibility; the PDB database is along with its holdings list. As of 4 July 2019, the PDB comprised: 126,949 structures in the PDB have a structure factor file. 10,022 structures have an NMR restraint file. 3,774 structures in the PDB have a chemical shifts file. 3,484 structures in the PDB have a 3DEM map file deposited in EM Data BankMost structures are determined by X-ray diffraction, but about 10% of structures are determined by protein NMR. When using X-ray diffraction, approximations of the coordinates of the atoms of the protein are obtained, whereas using NMR, the distance between pairs of atoms of the protein is estimated.
The final conformation of the protein is obtained from NMR by solving a distance geometry problem. A few proteins are determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Clicking on the numbers in the linked external table displays examples of structures determined by that method. For PDB structures determined by X-ray diffraction that have a structure factor file, their electron density map may be viewed; the data of such structures is stored on the "electron density server". The number of structures in the PDB has grown at an exponential rate, with 100 registered structures in 1982, 1,000 structures in 1993, 10,000 in 1999, 100,000 in 2014. Since 2007, the rate of accumulation of new protein structures appears to have plateaued; the file format used by the PDB was called the PDB file format. The original format was restricted by the width of computer punch cards to 80 characters per line. Around 1996, the "macromolecular Crystallographic Information file" format, mmCIF, an extension of the CIF format was phased in.
As of 2013 mmCIF is the master format for the PDB archive. In 2019, the wwPDB announced that depositions for crystallographic methods would only be accepted in mmCIF format. An XML version of PDB, called PDBML, was described in 2005; the structure files can be downloaded in any of these three formats, though an increasing number of structures do not fit the legacy PDB format. Individual files are downloaded into graphics packages from Internet URLs: For PDB format files, use, e.g. http://www.pdb.org/pdb/files/4hhb.pdb.gz or http://pdbe.org/download/4hhb For PDBML files, use, e.g. http://www.pdb.org/pdb/files/4hhb.xml.gz or http://pdbe.org/pdbml/4hhbThe "4hhb" is the PDB identifier. Each structure published in PDB receives a four-character alphanumeric identifier, its PDB ID; the structure files may be viewed using one of several free and open source computer programs, including Jmol, Pymol, VMD, Rasmol. Other non-free, shareware programs include ICM-Browser, MDL Chime, UCSF Chimera, Swiss-PDB Viewer
Take Out is a 2007 short thriller film by Bill Hall, with Jonathan Budine as the director and editor. The short introduces Mary Ann Emerson, appearing in her first lead role, includes veteran New York City actor Alexis Suarez. Scream queen Debbie Rochon appears in a cameo role. "Take Out" features the cinematography of Bud Hayman and production design of Jim Welsh who co-produced, as well as, original music composed by Ray Nissen. The film revolves around a working woman; as the film opens, we are introduced to our main character and her friend as they head towards the parking garage in the dark of night. The street sign they pass foreshadows events to come, it reads "Do Not Enter". Our leading lady, whose character name is not revealed, says her goodbyes to her friend, played by Debbie Rochon, as she heads into the garage alone. Inside we travel with her as she makes her way to her car, she pauses and something seems to heighten her senses. Through "point of view" the audience is aware that someone is watching her.
The film was shot around a parking garage in West Orange, New Jersey. Shooting wrapped the following morning at 6 am. With no budget the film's shooting schedule was completed in 16 straight hours with a cast and crew of 12. Due to the intensity of shooting a film in such a short period of time, a "mockumentary" was created from it. "Take Over: the horror behind the thriller" is a comedy starring the cast and crew telling their own "somewhat incorrect" stories about the making of "Take Out". The mockumentary, with its own shocking conclusion, premiered in March 2007 as a web film on the "Take Out" official site. Take Out premiered at the Philadelphia Film Festival on April 11, 2007 followed with official selections from the Montclair International Film Festival in May, 2007 and the Hoboken International Film Festival in June, 2007; the short screened at Fango Con conventions, including the Burbank edition of Fangoria’s Weekend of Horrors in May 2007. The official selection to the Fantasia Festival moved "Take Out" international on July 5, when the short premiered north of the border in Montreal, Canada.
In August 2007, The Palm Springs International Festival of Short Films screened the short and in September 2007, Dragon*Con screened Take Out as part of its independent Short Film Festival. October, of course, was a big month for the short. With 7 different festival screenings from coast to coast, Screamfest screened Take Out at the Grauman's Mann Chinese Theater as well as two separate festivals in NYC including the NYC Horror Film Festival. In the month of November The Big Apple Film Festival screened the short as part of an awards ceremony and screening for Alan Cumming's film, "Suffering Man's Charity"; the Miami Short Film Festival showed the short. The Jersey Shore Film Festival awarded TAKE OUT with 2nd place in the shorts jury prize and the Red Bank Film Festival nominated Take Out for 2 awards. Continuing on in 2008, TAKE OUT was selected to the Digital Video + Super 8 Festival, as well as, the Digital Video and High Definition Festival in Los Angeles. Invitations for Take Out to screen came from the Cleveland International Film Festival and the CA Next Gen Festival in Sacramento, CA.
The Worldwide Rights were purchased for "Take Out" by the Mini Move Channel, a Beverly Hills based distribution company, in June 2008. Mini Movie, a distributor of short films via the internet and television, will host the short film for free on their website. Mini Movie is supported by ad sales. Take Out on IMDb Official website FANTASIA page for Take Out write up on FANTASIA screening for Take Out Screening information from Fango Con Montclair Film Festival Hoboken International Film Festival The Philadelphia Film Festival official site
George Tintle was a U. S. soccer goalkeeper who played the first two U. S. national team games in 1916. He spent at least ten seasons in the National Association Football League and two in the first American Soccer League, he is a member of the National Soccer Hall of Fame. In 1908, Tintle began his professional career with the Harrison Alley Boys, he remained with the Alley Boys until 1914. He played with Independent F. C. of Harrison. He spent at least one season, 1916–1917. S. Army for World War I. In addition to playing for Celtic, Tintle went on loan to the Alley Boys during the spring of 1916. After returning from service with the 29th Division in France in 1919 joined Bethlehem Steel for a Scandinavian tour.. He spent a single season with Paterson F. C. and one season, 1920–1921, with Erie A. A.. When the American Soccer League replaced the NAFBL in 1921, Tintle spent two seasons with Harrison S. C.. Tintle earned two caps with the national team in 1916. In the first official U. S. national team game, the U.
S. defeated Sweden on August 20, 1916. On September 3, 1916, Tintle and his team mates tied Norway before returning to the U. S. Tintle coached Harrison High School after retiring from playing professionally. According to the Soccer Hall of Fame, his team went seven seasons undefeated, he was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1953. National Soccer Hall of Fame profile