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Protein primary structure

Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal end to the carboxyl-terminal end. Protein biosynthesis is most performed by ribosomes in cells. Peptides can be synthesized in the laboratory. Protein primary structures can be inferred from DNA sequences. Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding along it. In biological systems, proteins are produced during translation by a cell's ribosomes; some organisms can make short peptides by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, which use amino acids other than the standard 20, may be cyclised and cross-linked. Peptides can be synthesised chemically via a range of laboratory methods. Chemical methods synthesise peptides in the opposite order to biological protein synthesis. Protein sequence is notated as a string of letters, listing the amino acids starting at the amino-terminal end through to the carboxyl-terminal end.

Either a three letter code or single letter code can be used to represent the 20 occurring amino acids, as well as mixtures or ambiguous amino acids. Peptides can be inferred from DNA sequences. Large sequence databases now exist that collate known protein sequences. In general, polypeptides are unbranched polymers, so their primary structure can be specified by the sequence of amino acids along their backbone. However, proteins can become cross-linked, most by disulfide bonds, the primary structure requires specifying the cross-linking atoms, e.g. specifying the cysteines involved in the protein's disulfide bonds. Other crosslinks include desmosine; the chiral centers of a polypeptide chain can undergo racemization. Although it does not change the sequence, it does affect the chemical properties of the sequence. In particular, the L-amino acids found in proteins can spontaneously isomerize at the C α atom to form D-amino acids, which cannot be cleaved by most proteases. Additionally, proline can form stable trans-isomers at the peptide bond.

The protein can undergo a variety of posttranslational modifications, which are summarized here. The N-terminal amino group of a polypeptide can be modified covalently, e.g. acetylation − C − C H 3 The positive charge on the N-terminal amino group may be eliminated by changing it to an acetyl group.formylation − C H The N-terminal methionine found after translation has an N-terminus blocked with a formyl group. This formyl group is removed by the enzyme deformylase.pyroglutamate An N-terminal glutamine can attack itself, forming a cyclic pyroglutamate group.myristoylation − C − 12 − C H 3 Similar to acetylation. Instead of a simple methyl group, the myristoyl group has a tail of 14 hydrophobic carbons, which make it ideal for anchoring proteins to cellular membranes; the C-terminal carboxylate group of a polypeptide can be modified, e.g. amidation The C-terminus can be blocked by amidation.glycosyl phosphatidylinositol attachmentGlycosyl phosphatidylinositol is a large, hydrophobic phospholipid prosthetic group that achors proteins to cellular membranes.

It is attached to the polypeptide C-terminus through an amide linkage that connects to ethanolamine, thence to sundry sugars and to the phosphatidylinositol lipid moiety. The peptide side chains can be modified covalently, e.g. phosphorylationAside from cleavage, phosphorylation is the most important chemical modification of proteins. A phosphate group can be attached to the sidechain hydroxyl group of serine and tyrosine residues, adding a negative charge at that site and producing an unnatural amino acid; such reactions are catalyzed by kinases and the reverse reaction is catalyzed by phosphatases. The phosphorylated tyrosines are used as "handles" by which proteins can bind to one another, whereas phosphorylation of Ser/Thr induces conformational changes because of the introduced negative charge; the effects of phosphorylating Ser/Thr can sometimes be simulated by mutating the Ser/Thr residue to glutamate.glycosylationA catch-all name for a set of common and heterogeneous chemical modifications.

Sugar moieties can be attached to the sidechain hydroxyl groups of Ser/Thr or to the sidechain amide groups of Asn. Such attachments can serve many functions, ranging from increasing solubility to complex recognition. All glycosylation can be blocked with certain inhibitors, such as tunicamycin.deamidation In this modification, an asparagine or aspartate side chain attacks the following peptide bond, forming a symmetrical succinimide intermediate. Hydrolysis of the intermediate produces the β-amino acid, iso. For asparagine, either product results in the loss of

Andrea Kdolsky

Andrea Kdolsky is an Austrian physician and retired politician, Minister for Health and Youth in the Gusenbauer government. Kdolsky grew up in Vienna, she began studying law and economics, but completed a Doctor of Medicine in 1993 at the University of Vienna. She subsequently worked as an anaesthesiologist. From 11 January 2007 to 2 December 2008 Kdolsky was Minister for Health and Youth in the cabinet of Alfred Gusenbauer. After retirement from politics she became a consultant on health care. Mörwald, Toni. Kdolsky, Andrea. Schweinsbraten & Co: die besten Rezepte vom Schwein. Holzhausen-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-85493-151-5. Kdolsky, Andrea. Hauptsache gesund: die unheilbaren Krankheiten des österreichischen Gesundheitswesens. Goldegg Verlag. ISBN 978-3-902729-71-2. "Dr. Andrea Kdolsky". Austrian Parliament. Retrieved 3 November 2019

Ocellaris clownfish

The ocellaris clownfish known as the false percula clownfish or common clownfish, is a marine fish belonging to the family Pomacentridae, which includes clownfishes and damselfishes. Amphiprion ocellaris are found depending on where they are located. For example, black Amphiprion ocellaris with white bands can be found near northern Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan. Orange or red-brown Amphiprion ocellaris exist with three similar white bands on the body and head. Amphiprion ocellaris can be distinguished from other Amphriphon species based on the number of pectoral rays and dorsal spines. Amphiprion ocellaris are known to grow about 110 mm long. Like many other fish species, females are, larger than males; the life cycle of Amphiprion ocellaris varies in whether they reside at the surface or bottom of the ocean. When they hatch, they reside near the surface. However, when Amphiprion ocellaris enter into the juvenile stage of life, they travel down to the bottom to find shelter in a host anemone.

Once they find their anemone, they form a symbiotic relationship with them. The species Amphiprion ocellaris belongs to the class Actinopterygii which contains bony Teleost fish and other ray-finned fish. A. ocellaris is the most basal species in the genus Amphiprion, related to the genus Premnas. The species' most related ancestor is Amphiprion percula, the Orange clownfish, it is thought that A. ocellaris specialized after diverging from the genus Premnas, scientific evidence confirms that all clownfish belonging to the genus Amphiprion could withstand the stings of only one type of anemone. The common clownfish is a small fish, its body has oval shape. It is compressed laterally, with a round profile; the coloration of its body is orange to reddish-brown, but it can be black in some particular areas such as the Northern Territory in Australia. It has three vertical white stripes outlined with a fine black line; the first passes just behind the eye, the second in the middle of the body widens forward to the head centrally and the third one circles the caudal peduncle.

All the fins are outlined with a fine black line. A. ocellaris is confused with Amphiprion percula, which possesses the same colours and patterns at first sight but distinguishes itself by the thickness of the black outlines. Additionally, A. ocellaris has a taller dorsal fin, possesses 11 dorsal-fin spines vs. 10 spines in Amphiprion percula. This species is found in the western Pacific Ocean; as mentioned earlier, they can be found in Northern Australia, Southeast Asia and Japan. Amphiprion ocellaris lives in small groups on outer reef slopes or in sheltered lagoons at a maximal depth of 15 meters, it inhabits three different species of sea anemones: Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla gigantea and Stichodactyla mertensii and have symbiotic relationships with the anemone. A. ocellaris is a diurnal fish. It is a protandrous hermaphrodite, which means the male can change its sex to female during its life, lives in a harem in which an established dominance hierarchy manages the group and keeps individuals at a specific social rank.

It is aggressively territorial and is dependent on its sea anemone. A. ocellaris are reliant on sea anemone for shelter. Sea anemone are protection for their nests; this is. It is postulated that the fanning behavior of the fish and removal of parasites promotes the health of sea anemones which contain A. ocellaris fish. In addition, the anemone provides protection for the fish with its tentacles, the fish's mucus protection prevents it from being stung by the tentacles; the presence of the clownfish can be interpreted as a lure to attract potential anemone's preys close to the tentacles. And the clownfish can defend the anemone against some reef fishes which could eat the tentacles. Social systems can be defined as society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships. A. ocellaris form specific social hierarchies within their societies. These social hierarchies result in competition to travel between the different levels of society, seen between various ages as well.

Queues is the term for social groups of A. ocellaris. This is because these fish form social hierarchies, or social rank, by “outliving” the more dominant members of the group; the dominant pair of each queue reproduces more compared to the subordinate fishes. This is the reason for why these individuals should adopt various tactics in which they increase their probability of attaining social dominance. There are two types of A. ocellaris and switchers. Settlers prefer shorter queues, while switchers will move after settlement. However, studies show that there is no difference in the characteristics between switchers and non-switchers, there is no data demonstrating that A. ocellaris utilize the switching tactic for dominance. Although settlement preferences increase the likelihood of gaining social dominance, switching could have the function of increasing social dominance benefits after social dominance has been acquired. Juvenile A. ocellaris have difficulty finding a sea anemone to live in.

The difficulty arises in the fact that there exists a hierarchy in each anemone. Thus, when a new juvenile ent

Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast

Kirovsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the oblast and borders with Volkhovsky District in the east, Kirishsky District in the southeast and Kolpinsky Districts of the federal city of St. Petersburg in the west, Tosnensky District in the southwest, with Vsevolozhsky District in the northwest. From the north, the district is bounded by Lake Ladoga; the area of the district is 2,590.46 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Kirovsk. Population: 62,533 ; the Neva River, which connects Lake Ladoga with the Baltic Sea, serves as the northwestern border of the district. The territory of the district is divided between the drainage basins of the Neva, of Lake Ladoga, of the Volkhov River, a major tributary of Lake Ladoga; the main rivers inside the district are the Mga and the Tosna, the Naziya, the Olomna. Large areas of the district are covered by swamps; the western part of the district is an urbanized area adjacent to the city of St. Petersburg.

The territory of the modern district was populated by Finnic peoples. From the 9th century, the Neva River was a key ingredient of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, the region was changing hands between the Novgorod Republic, Sweden; the fortress of Oreshek, controlling access to the Baltic Sea at the source of the Neva, was founded in the 14th century and rebuilt several times. In 1617, per the terms of the Treaty of Stolbovo, the area was transferred to Sweden, in the 1700s, during the Great Northern War, it was conquered back by Russia; the city of St. Petersburg was founded in 1703. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, it became a part of Sankt-Peterburgsky Uyezd, in 1755, Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was established. In 1914, Sankt-Peterburgsky Uyezd was renamed Petrogradsky. On February 14, 1923, Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was merged into Petrogradsky Uyezd. In January 1924, the uyezd was renamed Leningradsky.

The eastern part of the district in 1708 was included into Ladozhsky Uyezd with the seat in Staraya Ladoga. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, the uyezd was transformed into Novoladozhsky Uyezd, the seat was moved to Novaya Ladoga. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty and in 1781, it was moved back to Saint Petersburg Governorate. On December 9, 1922, the administrative center of the uyezd was moved to the selo of Gostinopolye, renamed Volkhov and was granted town status; the uyezd was renamed Volkhovsky. In 1924, the changes were rolled back, the administrative center moved to Novaya Ladoga, Volkhov was demoted back to a rural locality and renamed Gostinopolye; the name of the uyezd remained Volkhovsky. Saint Petersburg Governorate was renamed twice, first Petrograd Governorate and subsequently Leningrad Governorate. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Mginsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Mga, was established.

The governorates were abolished and the district became a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Leningradsky Uyezds. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On September 20, 1930, the administrative center of the district was transferred to the selo of Putilovo and the district was renamed Putilovsky. On September 20, 1931, the administrative center of the district was moved back to Mga and the district's old name of Mginsky was restored. During World War II, between September 1941 and January 1944, parts of the district were occupied by German troops. On December 9, 1960, Mginsky District was abolished and split between Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts. On November 5, 1953, the settlement of Imeni Kirova was granted town status. In 1965, it became a town of oblast significance. On April 1, 1977, Kirovsky District with the administrative center in Kirovsk within the limits of former Mginsky District, was established by splitting off Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts.

In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division and Kirovsk became a town of district significance. There are enterprises of construction, chemical and food industries, as well as manufacturers of electrotechnical and electronic equipment, a shipyard; these enterprises are located in the towns of Kirovsk and Shlisselburg, as well as in the urban-type settlements of Mga, Pavlovo and Sinyavino. As of 2012, there were eleven large-scale farms in the district, thirty mid-scale farms, eleven fish breeding farms; the main agricultural specializations were meat and milk production, poultry production, as well as growing of crops and vegetables. Mga is an important railway hub where three railway lines intersect: one proceeds west to St. Petersburg via Otradnoye, with connections north to Shlisselburg and south to Sablino, located on the railroad connecting St. Petersburg and Moscow; the most important roads in the district are a portion of A120 road, which encircles St. Petersburg a

Aleksei Maslennikov

Aleksei Dmitryevich Maslennikov was a Russian tenor. Maslennikov was born in Russia. In 1953 he studied at the Moscow Conservatory and in 1955 became a member of the Bolshoi Theatre where he remained into the late 1990s, his vocal style is compared to that of the German tenor Gerhard Stolze as both men shared a likeness in singing Sprechgesang. Lensky – September 2, 1956 Simpleton – November 3, 1956 Rudolfo – December 8, 1956 Count Almaviva – January 20, 1957 Berendey – February 12, 1957 Werther – July 20, 1957 Mazin – October 26, 1957 Alfredo – January 9, 1958 Laca Klemeň – December 6, 1958 Otto – May 3, 1959 Vaudemont – October 16, 1959 Anatole Kuragin – December 15, 1959 Vladimir Igorevich – January 24, 1960 Kukushkin – October 8, 1960 Schepin-Rostovsky – December 26, 1960 Faust – February 9, 1961 Duke of Mantua – May 3, 1961 Anatoly – September 30, 1961 Vladimir Gavrilov – March 8, 1962 Fenton – November 17, 1962 Eric – June 6, 1963 The adjutant of Kutuzov and the voice behind the scenes – October 26, 1963 Guidon – December 1, 1963 The young actor – April 24, 1964 Chekalinsky – July 23, 1964 Hindu guest – January 8, 1965 Lysander – December 8, 1965 Pinkerton – December 1, 1966 Klembovsky – April 4, 1970 Finn – June 22, 1972 Paolo – March 20, 1973 Aleksei – April 7, 1974 Mozart – December 26, 1976 Selifan – June 7, 1977 Cassio – January 24, 1978 Don Giovanni – April 30, 1978 Golitsyn – November 1, 1979 Hermann – April 29, 1979 Bedraggled little man – December 25, 1980 Don Jerome – December 26, 1982 Grisha Kuterma – December 27, 1983 1955 – II Prize at the world festival of youth and students in Warsaw 1973 – People's Artist of the RSFSR 1976 – Order of the October Revolution 1977 – Glinka State Prize of the RSFSR.

1999 – Order of Honour Don Jerome in Sergei Prokofiev's Betrothal in a Monastery The pilot Kukushkin in Prokofiev's The Story of a Real Man dir. Mark Ermler. 1961 Both Shuisky and the Simpleton in Modest Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov dir. Herbert von Karajan. Anatole Kuragin in Prokofiev's War and Peace dir. Alexander Melik-Pashayev Betrothal in a Monastery – Guardian website review

Random Movement

Random Movement is the stage name of DJ and drum and bass musician Michael Richards. As a recording artist, he has many releases on Innerground Records, Fokuz Recordings, V Recordings, his own label, Flight Pattern. In 2003, Richards and Jack Sheets founded Random Movement. Jack Sheets left in 2006. 2009: Lucky Guess 2008: Her Song EP 2011: Back In My Life EP 2012: The Note From Next Door EP 2015: Sleazy Bitch EP 2015: Meat Sauce EP 2015: Ruffled Feathers EP w/ MixMaster Doc 2015: God Complex EP 2016: Suggestions EP 2017: Life Is Permanent EP 2017: Hit The Ground Running EP w/ Jaybee 2008: Peyo & Cloud NineThat's What You Do to Me 2009: DJ Marky & Makoto – Secret Place 2010: Dan Marshall – Smoke And Mirrors 2013: Technicolour & Komatic feat. Jayma – Vermillion 2013: XRS & MC Fats – Lovin 2013: Makoto – Girl I'm Running Back 2 U 2013: Dynamic & Command Strange – A Girl Like You 2014: Kill Paris feat. Marty Rod – Silence Of Heartbreak 2014: Vigorous – Pain & Sorrow 2014: DJ Chap – Let Me Love You 2014: Clart & Kalum – Musical Paradise 2015: Simplification – Love Forever 2015: Lurch – Confessions 2015: Blockwork – Morning Music 2015: Rowpieces – Super Soul 2015: Vandera feat.

Lickz – Ring The Alarm 2015: Broken Drums – Smile 2015: Malaky & Skeletone & Satl – Future Blues 2015: Dub FX – Run 2016: Oktiv & AudioSketch – Come For Me 2016: Surplus – Do It 2016: Bachelors Of Science – On The Line 2016: DJ Chap – Let Me Love You 2016: Akuratyde – Still Perfect Artist website Random Movement on SoundCloud Random Movement on Discogs