Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge
Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge, just north of Saint Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, preserves habitat for the largest remaining population of endangered Saint Croix ground lizard. Much smaller populations of ground lizard live on Ruth Island, its extirpation from the mainland of St. Croix is attributed to the introduction of the small Indian mongoose. In 2008, the National Park Service reintroduce the lizard to Buck Island, translocating 57 individuals from Green Cay; the 14-acre Green Cay is midway between the town of Christiansted and Buck Island Reef National Monument. Green Cay NWR is administered as part of the Caribbean Islands National Wildlife complex. There is a smaller "Green Cay" off the coast of St. Thomas. List of National Wildlife Refuges Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge homepage
Saint Croix is an island in the Caribbean Sea, a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States. St. Croix is the largest of the islands in the territory. However, the territory's capital, Charlotte Amalie, is located on Saint Thomas; as of the 2010 United States Census, St. Croix's population was 50,601, its highest point is Mount Eagle, at 355 metres. St. Croix's nickname is "Twin City", for its two towns, Frederiksted on the western end and Christiansted on the north-east part of the island. Igneri pottery indicate their presence on the island from 1–700, followed by the Taino from 700–1425, before the encroachment by the Caribs in 1425. However, by 1590, the island was devoid of habitation; the island was inhabited by various indigenous groups during its prehistory. Christopher Columbus landed on Santa Cruz, as he called it, on 14 November 1493, was attacked by the Kalinago, who lived at Salt River on the north shore; this is the first recorded fight between the Spanish and a New World native population, Columbus gave the battle site the name Cabo de la Flecha.
The Spanish never colonized the Islands, but most or all of the native population was dispersed or killed. By the end of the 16th century, the islands were said to be uninhabited. Dutch and English settlers landed Saint Croix in 1625, joined by some French refugees from St. Kitts. However, the English expelled the settlers, before they themselves were evicted by a Spanish invasion in August 1650; the Spanish occupation was short lived, since a French force of 166 men attacked, in the following year 1651 had established a colony of 300 on the island. From 1651 until 1664, the Knights of Malta ruled the island in the name of Louis XIV; the island passed to the French West India Company. The colony was evacuated to San Domingo in 1695, when France battled the English and Dutch in the War of the Grand Alliance; the island lay uninhabited and abandoned for another 38 years. In 1725, St. Thomas Governor Frederick Moth encouraged the Danish West Indies Company's directors to consider purchasing Santa Cruz.
On 15 June 1733, France and Denmark-Norway concluded a treaty by which the Danish West India Company bought Saint Croix for 750,000 livres. Louis XV ratified the treaty on 28 June, received half the payment in French coins, with the remaining half paid in 18 months. On 16 November 1733, Moth was named the first Danish governor of Saint Croix; the 1742 census lists 120 sugar plantations, 122 cotton plantations, 1906 slaves, with about 300 Englishmen and 60 Danes on the island. By 1754, the number of slaves had grown to 7,566; that year, King Frederick took direct control of Saint Croix from the company. For nearly 200 years, Saint Croix, St. Thomas and St. John were known as the Danish West Indies. By the mid to late 18th century, "at the peak of the plantation economy, the enslaved population of Saint Croix numbered between 18,000 and 20,000, the white population ranging between 1,500 and 2,000". Alexander Hamilton and his brother lived with their mother Rachel Faucette on Saint Croix, after she returned to the island in 1765.
Their residence was in the upper floor of a house at 34 Company Street, while Rachel used the lower floor as a shop selling food items. Within two years, Hamilton lost his father, James Hamilton, by abandonment, his mother to death. Official documents from the island, a 1768 probate court testimony from his uncle, established Alexander's age at 13. By 1769, Hamilton's cousin, aunt and grandmother had died, his brother James became an apprentice carpenter, Alexander Hamilton became the ward of Thomas Stevens, a merchant on King Street. Hamilton was soon clerking in the export-import business of Beekman and Cruger, at the intersection of King and King's Cross Streets. In 1772, local businessmen funded Hamilton's further education in New York; the British invasion and occupation of the Danish West Indies took place at the end of March 1801, with the arrival of a British fleet at St Thomas. Denmark-Norway accepted the Articles of Capitulation and the Britain occupied the islands without a shot being fired.
Their occupation lasted only until April 1802. A second British invasion of the Danish West Indies took place in December 1807, when a British fleet captured St Thomas on 22 December, Saint Croix on 25 December. Denmark-Norway did not resist and the invasion again was bloodless; this occupation lasted until 20 November 1815. Both invasions were due to Denmark's alliance with France during the Napoleonic Wars. On the conclusion of a peace with France, the islands were returned to Denmark. In 1916, Denmark sold Saint Croix, St. Thomas, St. John to the United States, formalizing the transfer in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies, in exchange for a sum of US$25 million in gold. In a national referendum on the issue, 64.2% of Danish voters approved the sale. An unofficial referendum held in the islands resulted in 99.83% vote in favor of the purchase. Formal transfer of the islands to the U. S. took place on 1 April 1917. The island's inhabitants were granted United States citizenship in 1927. Industrialization of the island and its move away from an agrarian society took place in the 1960s.
The 2012 shutdown of the Hovensa refinery resulted in the loss of many jobs. Agriculture has seen a slow resurgence, due to an increase in demand for local produce and agricultural products. Saint Croix lies at 17°45′N 64°45′W: the easternmost point in the United States of America is Saint Croix's Point Udall
Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the federal government. They differ from U. S. Native American tribes, which have limited sovereignty; the territories are classified by incorporation and whether they have an "organized" government through an organic act passed by Congress. The U. S. has sixteen territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Five are permanently-inhabited, unincorporated territories. Of the eleven, only one is classified as an incorporated territory. Two territories are defacto administered by Colombia. Territories were created to administer newly-acquired land, most attained statehood. Others, such as the Philippines, the Marshall Islands and Palau became independent. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959; the first were the Northwest and Southwest territories, the last were the Alaska and Hawaii Territories. Thirty-one territories became states. In the process, some less-developed or -populous areas of a territory were orphaned from it after a statehood referendum.
When a portion of the Missouri Territory became the state of Missouri, the remainder of the territory became an unorganized territory. Territorial telecommunications and other infrastructure is inferior to that of the U. S. mainland, American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries. Poverty rates are higher in the territories than in the states; the U. S. has had territories since its beginning. According to federal law, the term "United States" means "the continental United States, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands". Since 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands have been considered part of the U. S. A 2007 executive order included American Samoa in the U. S. "geographical extent", as reflected in the Federal Register. All territories are except for American Samoa and Jarvis Island; the U. S. has five permanently-inhabited territories, two of which are known as "commonwealths": Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea. About four million people in these territories are U.
S. citizens, citizenship at birth is granted in four of the five territories. American Samoa has about 32,000 non-citizen U. S. nationals. Under U. S. law, "only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals" in its territories. American Samoans are under U. S. protection, can travel to the rest of the U. S. without a visa. American Samoans must become naturalized citizens, like foreigners. Unlike the other four inhabited territories, Congress has passed no legislation granting birthright citizenship to American Samoans; each territory is self-governing with three branches of government, including a locally-elected governor and a territorial legislature. It elects a non-voting member to the U. S. House of Representatives, they "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives". They can vote in their appointed House committees on all legislation presented to the House, they are included in their party count for each committee, they are equal to senators on conference committees.
Depending on the Congress, they may vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. In January 2017, the members of Congress from the territories were Gregorio Sablan, Madeleine Bordallo, Amata Coleman Radewagen, Jenniffer González and Stacey Plaskett; the District of Columbia has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, U. S. territories do not have voting representation in Congress and have no representation in the Senate. Every four years, U. S. political parties nominate presidential candidates at conventions which include delegates from the territories. U. S. citizens living in the territories cannot vote in the general presidential election, non-citizen nationals in American Samoa cannot vote for president. The territorial capitals are Pago Pago, Hagåtña, San Juan and Charlotte Amalie, their governors are Lolo Matalasi Moliga, Eddie Baza Calvo, Ralph Torres, Ricardo Rosselló and Kenneth Mapp. American Samoa – Territory since 1900; the U. S. controlled the eastern half of the islands.
In 1900, the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila took effect. The Manuʻa islands became part of American Samoa in 1904, Swains Island became part of American Samoa in 1925. Congress ratified American Samoa's treaties in 1929. American Samoa is locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967. People born in American Samoa are U. S. nationals. A
United States Virgin Islands
The United States Virgin Islands the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean and an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles; the U. S. Virgin Islands consists of the main islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas, many other surrounding minor islands; the total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles. The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of St. Thomas. Known as the Danish West Indies of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916, they are classified by the United Nations as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, are an organized, unincorporated United States territory. The U. S. Virgin Islands are organized under the 1954 Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands and have since held five constitutional conventions.
The last and only proposed Constitution, adopted by the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U. S. Virgin Islands in 2009, was rejected by the U. S. Congress in 2010, which urged the convention to reconvene to address the concerns Congress and the Obama Administration had with the proposed document; the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U. S. Virgin Islands met in October 2012 to address these concerns, but was not able to produce a revised Constitution before its October 31 deadline. In 2010 the population was 106,405, Afro-Caribbean. Tourism and related categories are the primary economic activity, employing a high percentage of the civilian non-farm labor force that totaled 42,752 persons in 2016. Private sector jobs made up 71 percent of the total workforce; the average private sector salary was $34,088 and the average public sector salary was $52,572. In a May 2016 report, some 11,000 people were categorized as being involved in some aspect of agriculture in the first half of 2016 but this category makes up a small part of the total economy.
At that time, there were 607 manufacturing jobs and 1,487 natural resource and construction jobs. The single largest employer was the government. In mid-February 2017, the USVI was facing a financial crisis due to a high debt level of $2 billion and a structural budget deficit of $110 million. Early August 2017, the U. S. Virgin Islands government was rejected from the bond market; the U. S. Virgin Islands were inhabited by the Ciboney and Arawaks; the islands were discovered by the Spanish and named by Christopher Columbus on his second voyage in 1493 for Saint Ursula and her virgin followers. Over the next two centuries, the islands were held by several European powers, including Spain, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Denmark–Norway; the Danish West India Company settled on St. Thomas in 1672, settled on St. John in 1694, purchased St. Croix from France in 1733; the islands became royal Danish colonies in 1754, named the Danish West Indian Islands. Sugarcane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Other plantation crops included indigo dye. The Danish West India and Guinea Company are credited with naming the island St. John; the Danish crown took full control of St. John in 1754 along with St. Croix. Sugarcane plantations such as the famous Annaberg Sugar Plantation were established in great numbers on St. John because of the intense heat and fertile terrain that provided ideal growing conditions; the establishment of sugarcane plantations led to the buying of more slaves from Africa. In 1733, St. John was the site of one of the first significant slave rebellions in the New World when Akwamu slaves from the Gold Coast took over the island for six months; the Danish were able to defeat the enslaved Africans with help from the French in Martinique. Instead of allowing themselves to be recaptured, more than a dozen of the ringleaders shot themselves before the French forces could capture them and call them to account for their activities during the period of rebel control, it is estimated that by 1775, slaves outnumbered the Danish settlers by a ratio of 5:1.
After a slavery rebellion in Saint Croix, slavery was abolished by governor Peter von Scholten on July 3, 1848, now celebrated as Emancipation Day. Although some plantation owners refused to accept the abolition, some 5,000 Black people were freed while another 17,000 remained enslaved. Over the following years, strict labor laws were implemented several times, leading to the 1878 St. Croix labor riot. Planters began to abandon their estates, causing a significant drop in population and the overall economy. Additionally, the 1867 hurricane and earthquake and tsunami had further diminished the economy. For the remainder of the period of Danish rule the islands were not economically viable and significant transfers were made from the Danish state budgets to the authorities in the islands. In 1867 a treaty to sell St. Thomas and St. John to the United States was agreed, but the sale was never effected. A number of reforms aimed at reviving the islands' economy were attempted, but none had great success.
A second draft treaty to sell the islands to the United States was negotiated in 1902 but was defeated in the upper house of the Danish parliament in a tie vote. The onset of World War I brought the reforms to a close and again left the islands isolated and exposed
Christiansted, U.S. Virgin Islands
Christiansted, U. S. Virgin Islands is the largest town on Saint Croix, one of the main islands composing the United States Virgin Islands, a territory of the United States of America, it is a former capital of the Danish West Indies and home to the Christiansted National Historic Site. Christiansted as of 2004, had a population of about 3,000; the 2000 census population of the town was 2,637. The town was founded by Frederick Moth after he was made governor of St. Croix in 1733. Departing from St. Thomas, Capt. Moth's party had cleared a space for Fort Christianswaern by 5 Sept. In a ceremony next to this fort on 8 Jan. 1734, the French formally handed over the island to the Danes in the form of the Danish West India and Guinea Company. The island was to be allotted 215 for sugar and the remainder for cotton; the plantations surveyed were 3000 feet by 2000 feet. In addition, the company established distillery; the fort was completed by 1740. The 1742 census listed 120 sugar plantations, 122 cotton plantations, 1906 slaves compared to about 300 Englishmen and 60 Danes.
By 1743 the island had a hospital and in 1745, the number of slaves had increased to 2878. By 1754, the town included 83 "white inhabitants", "each of whom owned from a single slave to sixty-six of them," according to Westergaard. Total slaves on the island had increased to 7566. Christiansted has preserved the 18th-century Danish-style buildings constructed by African slaves. Solid stone buildings in pastel colors with bright red tile roofs line the cobblestone sidewalks, adding a touch of 18th-century European architectural style; because the town was constructed by African slaves, there are many African influences in Christiansted's design as well, making it one of the few "African-Danish" towns in the world. The town's symmetry, with streets running at right angles to the waterfront, makes it popular for walking tours; the commercial area centers on King and Company streets, adjacent to the Christiansted National Historic Site. The residential area, including portions that were settlements for free blacks, extends inland and uphill from the commercial area.
The town has many restaurants. Several scuba shops operate in the town, as the wharf has easy access to many diving attractions on the north side of the island. A small point of interest is a cay near Christiansted; the botanist Julius von Rohr started a botanic garden in Christiansted in the 18th century and produced a number of landscapes of the island. Seaborne Airlines had headquarters in Christiansted. Public schools serving the community are operated by the St. Croix School District. Judah P. Benjamin, a Confederate politician and a seminal figure in the United States Civil War, was born in Christiansted while it was still a Danish colony. NBA player Tim Duncan is a native. Alexander Hamilton was a resident in 1765 after leaving his birthplace of Charlestown, Nevis at age 11. Upon reaching 17 years old, he moved from the then-Danish Virgin Islands to New York City and never returned to the Caribbean. Victor Borge was a long-time resident of Christiansted Audre Lorde died in Christiansted on November 17, 1992 at the age of 58.
She was a famous poet. Carolyn Carter is a model and beauty queen. "Queen" Mary Thomas one of the leaders of the fireburn riots, was imprisoned here from 1887 to 1905. Lonely Planet's Cities Book: A Journey Through the Best Cities in the World p. 159. Christiansted National Historic Site "Christiansted"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. Media related to Christiansted at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Saint Croix ground lizard
The Saint Croix ground lizard is a member of the Teiidae family of lizards. Growing to a size of between 35 and 90 mm, adults have a pattern of light brown, dark brown and white longitudinal stripes down their back. Below these are a series of narrow brown and white vertical stripes, which extend from the sides down to the stomach; the stomach is white with bright blue markings, the rest of the underside is a deep pinkish-red hue. The tail changes from a brown color near the body with alternating rings of black; the entire tail of juveniles and hatchlings is a bright blue color. It eats any prey item, including berries, moths and small hermit crabs; the lizard is found in beach areas and upland forest. Once indigenous to the island of St. Croix, the population was extirpated due to habitat loss and the introduction of the Indian mongoose to the island in the 1880s; the lizard is found on four islands: Protestant Cay, Green Cay, Ruth Cay, Buck Island. Eleven individuals were introduced to Ruth Island in 1990, 57 individuals were introduced to Buck Island in 2008.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed the St. Croix ground lizard as endangered in 1977, Pholidoscelis polops is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Efforts to save this species include two translocation projects to mongoose-free offshore islands around St. Croix. In 1990, ten lizards from the Protestant Cay population were placed onto Ruth Island. In 2008, fifty-seven lizards from the Green Cay population were placed onto Buck Island. "Saint Croix ground lizard". Arkive. Retrieved 2008-09-04. "St. Croix ground lizard". U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2008-09-04. "Pholidoscelis polops". IUCN Red List. Retrieved 2008-09-04. Data related to Pholidoscelis polops at Wikispecies