Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
The Latin term primicerius, hellenized as primikērios, was a title applied in the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire to the heads of administrative departments, used by the Church to denote the heads of various colleges. Etymologically the term derives from primus in cera, to say in tabula cerata, the first name in a list of a class of officials, inscribed on a waxed tablet. From their origin in the court of the Dominate, there were several primicerii. In the court, there was the primicerius sacri cubiculi, in charge of the emperor's bedchamber always a eunuch; the title was given to court officials in combination with other offices connected to the imperial person, such as the special treasury or the imperial wardrobe. Other primicerii headed some of the scrinia of the palace, chiefly the notarii. In the Late Roman army, the primicerius was senior to the senator, they are best attested in units associated with chiefly imperial guards. Thus in the 4th to 6th centuries there were the primicerii of the protectores domestici and of the Scholae Palatinae, but primicerii in charge of the armament factories, like the Scholae, where under the jurisdiction of the magister officiorum.
Primicerii are to be found in the staffs of regional military commanders, as well as in some regular military units. In the Byzantine era, under the Komnenian emperors, primikērioi appear as commanders in the palace regiments of the Manglabitai, Vardariōtai and the Varangians. In the late 11th century, the dignity of megas primikērios was established, which ranked high in court hierarchy well into the Palaiologan period, where he functioned as a chief of ceremonies. Primikērioi continue to be in evidence in the Byzantine Empire and the Despotate of Morea until their fall to the Ottomans. In ecclesiastical use the term was given to heads of the colleges of Notarii and Defensores, which occupied an important place in the administration of the Roman Church in Late Antiquity and in the Early Middle Ages; when young clerics were assembled in schools for training in the ecclesiastical service in the different districts of the Western Church, the directors of these schools were given this title. Thus, an inscription of the year 551 from Lyon mentions a "Stephanus primicerius scolae lectorum servientium in ecclesia Lugdunensi".
Isidore of Seville treats of the obligations of the primicerius of the lower clerics in his "Epistola ad Ludefredum". From this position the primicerius derived certain powers in the direction of liturgical functions. In the regulation of the common life of the clergy in collegiate and cathedral churches, according to the Rule of Chrodegang and the statutes of Amalarius of Metz, the primicerius appears as the first capitular after the archdeacon and archpresbyter, controlling the lower clerics and directing the liturgical functions and chant; the primicerius thus became a special dignitary of many chapters by a gradual development from the position of the old primicerius of the scola cantorum or lectorum. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the title was used for the heads of the colleges of the notarioi and taboularioi in the Church bureaucracy, but for the chief lectors, etc. of a church. In modern usage of the Russian Orthodox Church, the word primicerius is reserved for a junior cleric holding a torch or a candle before officiating bishop during the divine service.
Le Blant, "Inscriptions chrétiennes de la Gaule", I, 142, n. 45 Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, "Glossarium" Gregory of Tours, "Hist. Francorum", II, xxxvii St. Isidore of Seville, "Epistola ad Ludefredum", P. L. LXXXIII, 896 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Primicerius". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Unified Judicial System. It claims to be the oldest appellate court in the United States, a claim, disputed by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania began in 1684 as the Provincial Court, casual references to it as the "Supreme Court" of Pennsylvania were made official in 1722 upon its reorganization as an entity separate from the control of the royal governor. Today, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania maintains a discretionary docket, meaning that the Court may choose which cases it accepts, with the exception of mandatory death penalty appeals, certain appeals from the original jurisdiction of the Commonwealth Court; this discretion allows the Court to wield powerful influence on the formation and interpretation of Pennsylvania law. The original Pennsylvania constitutions, drafted by William Penn, established a Provincial Court under the control of his British governors.
The General Assembly, espoused the principle of separation of powers and formally called for a third branch of government starting with the 1701 Judiciary Bill. In 1722, the appointed British governor needed the House to raise revenues. House leaders agreed to raise taxes in return for an independent Supreme Court; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania predates the United States Supreme Court by more than 100 years. Interpreting the Pennsylvania Constitution, it was the first independent Supreme Court in the United States to claim the power to declare laws made by an elected legislative body unconstitutional; the court meets in Philadelphia and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court consists of each elected to ten year terms. Supreme Court judicial candidates may run on party tickets; the justice with the longest continuous service on the court automatically becomes Chief Justice. Justices must step down from the Supreme Court when they reach the age of 75, but they may continue to serve part-time as "senior justices" on panels of the Commonwealth's lower appellate courts until they reach 78, the age of mandatory retirement.
Prior to 2002, judicial candidates in Pennsylvania were prohibited from expressing their views on disputed legal or political issues. However, after a similar law in Minnesota was struck down as unconstitutional, the Pennsylvania rules were amended, judicial candidates may now express political viewpoints as long as they do not "commit or appear to commit the candidate with respect to cases, controversies or issues that are to come before the court." After the ten-year term expires, a statewide yes or no vote for retention is conducted. If the judge is retained, he/she serves another ten-year term. If the judge is not retained, the governor, subject to the approval of the State Senate, appoints a temporary replacement until a special election can be held; as of 2005, only one judge has failed to win retention. Justice Russell M. Nigro received a majority of no votes in the election of 2005 and was replaced by Justice Cynthia Baldwin, appointed by Governor Rendell in 2005. Only one Supreme Court Justice, Rolf Larsen, has been removed from office by impeachment.
In 1994, the State House of Representatives handed down articles of impeachment consisting of seven counts of misconduct. A majority of the State Senate voted against Larsen in five of the seven counts but only one charge garnered the two-thirds majority needed to convict. Under the 1874 Constitution and until the Pennsylvania state constitution of 1968, Supreme Court justices were elected to 21 year terms. At the time, it was the longest term of any elected office in the United States. Superior Court of Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Unified Court System page on the Supreme Court
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The ferraiolo is a type of cape traditionally worn by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church on formal, non-liturgical occasions. It can be worn over the shoulders, or behind them, extends in length to the ankles, is tied in a bow by narrow strips of cloth at the front, does not have any'trim' or piping on it; the colour of the ferraiolo is determined by the rank of the cleric, being black for secular priests, violet for supernumerary protonotaries apostolic and bishops and scarlet watered silk for cardinals. A ferraiolo of watered silk denotes the wearer is an apostolic nuncio or is attached to the Papal household; the Pope does not wear a ferraiolo. In modern times of the 21st century, the Order of Canons Regular of Premontre, the Camaldolese, the members of the Orders of Our Lady of Mercy and of the Holy Trinity, the Olivetans, as well as a few other orders who wear a prelatical costume have the privilege of wearing the ferraiolo of white cloth; the Premonstratensians have the privilege of wearing this garment with a white four-cornered biretta of the same material.
Some white canons choose to wear white shoes when dressed in this formal attire. The additional items traditionally worn by the clergy, i.e. cincture or sash is entirely white. The Canon Regular is allowed to wear a surplice for any liturgical circumstance and the rochet for non-liturgical events, but not worn with the ferraiolo; the Premonstratensian canon, as a simple priest, deacon or seminarian is permitted to wear the ferraiolo, band cincture/sash with braided fringe and biretta made of white cloth, unlike the secular priests who must wear a black wool ferraiolo. The Premonstratensian Abbots regiminis, as well as Abbots nullius, are permitted to wear the ferraiolo of watered silk and add to their monastic habit the pectoral cross and the ring; this same regular prelate or abbot, who as a Canon Regular, may wear a biretta. In addition to wearing the other privileged items, the mantelletta, made of the same cloth of his monastic habit, may be worn by an abbot, not in his own monastery of record, but worn without the ferraiolo.
Three documents effected the simplification of Latin Rite clerical dress after the Second Vatican Council, which together comprise the present ecclesiastical law on clerical dress. The first is the Instruction of the Secretariat of State of 31 March 1969, Ut sive sollicite on the dress and coat of arms of cardinals and lesser prelates; the second is the Circular Letter of the Sacred Congregation for the Clergy of 30 October 1970, Per Instructionem on the reform of choir dress, which applied the prescriptions of USS to canons, pastors, and, by explicit extension, all other ecclesiastical ranks. Neither of these documents provided synthetic schemata of the forms of dress of all secular and religious clergy of the Latin Rite, but rather amended the preexisting paradigms. A more systematic list of the forms of dress, that relied on these two previous documents and augmented them, was provided by the first appendix of Caeremoniale Episcoporum on the dress of prelates; however CE did not provide every detail, as it presupposed the sartorial customs of the Latin Rite and did not treat the dress of ecclesiastics under the rank of prelate and canon.
For the pre-conciliar paradigms and for the perduring sartorial customs of the Latin Rite concerning details of which these documents were silent, reference is to older documents, the best of, Nainfa's Costume of Prelates of the Catholic Church. The customs and documents of the Church can only express the dignity of wearing such formal dress in the appropriate venues, such as academic commencements, formal balls and other local or state gatherings that mandate wearing formal attire; as with many other items of clerical clothing and vestments, the ferraiolo originated as an item of clothing for ancient Roman citizens extending to the knee. John Abel Nainfa, SS: Costume of Prelates of the Catholic Church: According to Roman Etiquette, Revised Edition
The cassock or soutane is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Reformed churches, among others. "Ankle-length garment" is the literal meaning of the corresponding Latin term, vestis talaris. It is related to the habit, traditionally worn by nuns and friars; the cassock derives from the tunic that in ancient Rome was worn underneath the toga and the chiton, worn beneath the himation in ancient Greece. In religious services, it has traditionally been worn underneath vestments, such as the alb. In the West, the cassock is little used today except for religious services, save for clergy in traditionalist Catholic orders such as the Society of Saint Pius X, the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter, the Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, the Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius, the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen who continue to wear the cassock as their standard clerical attire. However, in many countries it was the normal everyday wear of the clergy until the second half of the 20th century, when it was replaced in those countries by a conventional suit, distinguished from lay dress by being black and by incorporating a clerical collar.
The word cassock comes from Middle French casaque. In turn, the Old French word may come from Turkish kazak, an allusion to their typical riding coat, or from Persian کژاغند kazhāgand – کژ kazh + آغند āgand; the name was specially applied to the dress worn by soldiers and horsemen, to the long garment worn in civil life by both men and women. As an ecclesiastical term the word cassock came into use somewhat late, being mentioned in canon 74 of 1604; the word soutane is a French-derived word, coming from Italian sottana, derived in turn from Latin subtana, the adjectival form of subtus. The cassock comes in a number of cuts, though no particular symbolism attaches to these. A Roman cassock has a series of buttons down the front. In some English-speaking countries these buttons may be ornamental, with a concealed fly-front buttoning, known as a Chesterfield front, used to fasten the garment. A French cassock has buttons sewn to the sleeves after the manner of a suit, a broader skirt. An Ambrosian cassock has a series of only five buttons with a sash on the waist.
A Jesuit cassock, in lieu of buttons, has a fly fastened with hooks at the collar and is bound at the waist with a cincture knotted on the right side. The ordinary Roman cassock worn by Roman Catholic clerics is black except in tropical countries, where because of the heat it is white and without shoulder cape. Coloured piping and buttons are added in accordance with rank: black for priests, purple for chaplains of His Holiness; the 1969 Instruction on the dress of prelates stated that for all of them cardinals, the dress for ordinary use may be a simple black cassock without coloured trim. A band cincture or sash, known as a fascia, may be worn with the cassock; the Instruction on the dress of prelates specifies that the two ends that hang down by the side have silk fringes, abolishing the sash with tassels. A black faille fascia is worn by priests and major seminarians, while a purple faille fascia is used by bishops, protonotaries apostolic, honorary prelates, chaplains of His Holiness, when wearing a cassock with coloured trim.
A black watered-silk fascia is permitted for priests attached to the papal household, a purple watered-silk fascia for bishops attached to the papal household, a scarlet watered-silk fascia for cardinals. The Pope wears a white watered-silk fascia, sometimes with his coat of arms on the ends. In choir dress, chaplains of His Holiness wear their purple-trimmed black cassocks with a cotta, but bishops, protonotaries apostolic, honorary prelates use cassocks that are purple with scarlet trim, while those of cardinals are scarlet with scarlet trim. Cardinals have the additional distinction of having both choir cassock sleeves and the fascia made of scarlet watered-silk; the cut of the choir cassock is still a Roman-cut or French-cut Roman cassock. In the past, a cardinal's cassock was made of watered silk, with a train that could be fastened at the back of the cassock; this train was abolished by the motu proprio Valde solliciti of Pope Pius XII with effect from 1 January 1953. With the same motu proprio, the Pope ordered that the violet cassock be made of wool, not silk, in February 1965, under Pope Paul VI, a circular of the Sacred Ceremonial Congregation abolished the use of watered silk for the red cassock.
An elbow-length shoulder cape, open in front, is sometimes worn with the cassock, either fixed to it or detachable. It is known as a pellegrina, it is distinct from the mozzetta, buttoned in front and is worn over a rochet. The general rule of the Roman Catholic Church is that the pellegrina may be worn with the cassock by cardinals and bishops. In 1850, the year in which he restored the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales, Pope Pius IX was understood to grant to all priests there th