Proto-Semitic language

Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages. A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. There is no consensus regarding the location of the Proto-Semitic urheimat; the Semitic language family is considered part of the broader macro-family of Afroasiatic languages. The earliest attestations of a Semitic language are in Akkadian, dating to around the 23rd century BC and the Eblaite language, but earlier evidence of Akkadian comes from personal names in Sumerian texts around the 28th century BC. Researchers in Egypt claim to have discovered Canaanite snake spells: "The passages date from between 2400 to 3000 BC and appear to be written in Proto-Canaanite, a direct ancestor of Biblical Hebrew." Since all modern Semitic languages can be traced back to a common ancestor, Semiticists have placed importance upon locating the urheimat of the Proto-Semitic language. The Urheimat of the Proto-Semitic language may be considered within the context of the larger Afro-Asiatic family to which it belongs.

The popular hypothesis of an Arabian urheimat has been abandoned, since the region could not have supported massive waves of emigration before the domestication of camels in the second millennium BC. There is evidence that Mesopotamia were inhabited by a non-Semitic population. A Bayesian analysis performed in 2009 suggests an origin for all known Semitic languages in the Levant around 3750 BCE, with a single introduction from South Arabia into the Horn of Africa around 800 BCE; this statistical analysis could not, estimate when or where the ancestor of all Semitic languages diverged from Afroasiatic. It thus neither contradicts nor confirms the hypothesis that the divergence of ancestral Semitic from Afroasiatic occurred in Africa. Christopher Ehret has hypothesized that genetic analyses shows populations of proto-Semitic speakers may have moved from the Horn of Africa or southeastern Sahara northwards to the Nile Valley, northwest Africa, the Levant, Aegean; some geneticists and archaeologists have argued for a back-migration of proto-Afroasiatic speakers from Western Asia to Africa as early as the 10th millennium BC.

They suggest the Natufian culture might have spoken a proto-Afroasiatic language just prior to its disintegration into sub-languages. The hypothesis is supported by the Afroasiatic terms for early livestock and crops in both Anatolia and Iran. Edward Lipiński believes that support for an African origin is provided by what he describes as a possible relationship between a pre-Semitic Afroasiatic language and the Niger–Congo languages, whose urheimat lies in Nigeria–Cameroon. In support of this hypothesis, Lipiński points out that Proto-Semitic: did not originate in Arabia, as hypothesized, since the region could not have supported massive waves of emigration before the domestication of camels in the second millennium BC. did not originate in Mesopotamia, since there is evidence the original inhabitants were a non-Semitic population shares more isoglosses and lexicostatistical convergences with the Berber languages than any other family, thereby showing signs of a link with Berber long after other Afro-Asiatic language families, such as Egyptic and Chadic, was still spoken during the mid-Neolithic Subpluvial.

A Neolithic culture in the Sahara related to Proto-Semitic collapsed due to desertification and climate change around 3500 BC, according to Lipiński – a fact attested by evidence such as rock art. This may have forced Proto-Semitic speakers to emigrate en masse through the Nile Delta to Western Asia, they were responsible for the collapse of the Ghassulian culture in Palestine around 3300 BC. Another indication of the arrival of the proto-Semitic culture is the appearance of tumuli in 4th and 3rd millennium BC Palestine, which were typical characteristic of Neolithic Maghreb in Algeria, it is possible that at this point, the ancestors of the speakers of Elamite moved towards Iran, although the inclusion of Elamite in Afroasiatic is only contemplated by a tiny minority. The earliest wave of Semitic speakers entered the Fertile Crescent via Palestine and Syria and founded the Akkadian Empire, their relatives, the Amorites, followed them and settled Syria before 2500 BC. The collapse of the Bronze Age in Palestine led the southern Semites southwards, where they reached the highlands of Yemen after 20th century BC.

Those crossed back to the Horn of Africa between 1500–500 BC. The reconstruction of Proto-Semitic was based on Arabic, whose phonology and morphology is conservative, which preserves as contrastive 28 out of the evident 29 consonantal phonemes. Thus, the phonemic inventory of reconstructed Proto-Semitic is similar to that of Arabic, with only one phoneme fewer in Arabic than in reconstructed Proto-Semitic, with *s and *š merging into Arabic /s/ ⟨س⟩ and *ś becoming Arabic /ʃ/ ⟨ش⟩; as such, Proto-Semitic is reconstructed as having the following phonemes: The fricatives *s *z *ṣ *ś *ṣ́ *ṱ may be interpreted as affricates, as is discussed below. The Proto-Semitic consonant system is based on triads of related voiceless, voiced and "emphatic" consonants. Five such triads are reconstructe

Morten Hampenberg & Alexander Brown

Morten Hampenberg & Alexander Brown are a Danish duo since 2009 when the two started releasing joint singles. Sometimes recordings would include collaborations with other artists like Yepha, Stine Bramsen, Casper Christensen and others, they gained international fame with "Raise the Roof" featuring Fatman Pitbull & Nabiha. The two have their established solo careers and release recordings on their own as well. Morten Hampenberg is a well-known record producer and Alexander Brown a DJ. Morten Rask Hampenberg is a Danish music producer known for a great number of solo hits besides his cooperation with the musician Alexander Brown. For his solo career, Morten Hampenberg had use the family name alone and was known as Hampenberg with his solo recordings until 2008 credited to that name. Starting 2009, he started using his full name both in his solo releases and in his joint releases with Alexander Brown, he goes by the alias Moám, under which he co-produced Example's UK #2 hit "Say Nothing", remixed "Stay Awake" and "Watch the Sun Come Up".

AlbumsSinglesSongwriting2011: "Take Our Hearts" for Jesper Nohrstedt at the 2012 Dansk Melodi Grand Prix Alexander Brown is a Danish DJ. He started DJing when he was 15. In a successful career, he was nominated as Best Danish DJ for 4 years in a row, he was part of the Ministry of Sound Tour. Singles

Posterolateral tract

The posterolateral tract is a small strand situated in relation to the tip of the posterior column close to the entrance of the posterior nerve roots. It is present throughout the spinal cord, is most developed in the upper cervical regions; the posterolateral tract contains centrally projecting axons from dorsal root ganglion cells carrying crude touch and pressure information. These axons enter the spinal column and penetrate the grey matter of the dorsal horn, where they synapse on second-order neurons in either the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando or the nucleus proprius; those neurons project their axon to the anterolateral quadrant of the contralateral half of the spinal cord, where they give the spinothalamic tract. The axons of second-order neurons synapse on neurons in the ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus after coursing in the spinal leminiscus. After this, the 3rd order neuron fibers traverse the internal capsule and the corona radiata synapsing in the post central gyrus.

The location of this synapse is dependent upon the somatotopic organisation of the somatosensory cortex, it can be estimated according to the position on the'somatosensory homunculus' The posterolateral tract consists of fine fibers which do not receive their myelin sheaths until toward the close of fetal life. In addition it contains great numbers of fine non-myelinated fibers derived from the dorsal roots but endogenous in origin; these fibers are intimately related to the substantia gelatinosa, their terminal nucleus. The non-myelinated fibers ascend or descend for short distances not exceeding one or two segments, but most of them enter the substantia gelatinosa at or near the level of their origin. During a complete occlusion of the ventral artery of the spinal cord, it is the only tract spared along with the dorsal columns; the posterolateral spinal tracts are involved with neurological deficits seen in pernicious anemia. The tract of Lissauer was named after German neurologist Heinrich Lissauer.

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 762 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy hier-779 at NeuroNames Overview at Cornell University