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Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, or the Madrid Protocol, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. It provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems, it was concluded in Madrid and opened for signature on October 4, 1991 and entered into force on January 14, 1998. The treaty will be open for review in 2048. Article 3 states that protection of the Antarctic environment as a wilderness with aesthetic and scientific value shall be a "fundamental consideration" of activities in the area. Article 7 states that "Any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research, shall be prohibited." This provision contrasts with the rejected Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities, which would have allowed mining under the control and taxation of an international managing body similar to the International Seabed Authority. Article 8 requires environmental assessment including tourism.

Article 11 creates a Committee for Environmental Protection for the continent. Article 15 calls for member states to be prepared for emergency response actions in the area. Articles 18-20 arrange for arbitration of international disputes regarding Antarctica. Article 25 states that the Article 7 ban on mining may not be repealed unless a future treaty establishes a binding regulatory framework for such activity; as of May 2013, the protocol has been ratified by 34 parties — Argentina, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Peru, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay. A further 11 states — Austria, Cuba, Guatemala, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Slovakia and Turkey — have signed but not yet ratified it; the treaty followed a lengthy campaign by Greenpeace, including the construction of an Antarctic base from 1987 to 1991. Greenpeace claims the protocol as a victory. Madrid Dome in Aristotle Mountains, Antarctica is named in connection with the Protocol.

This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2003 edition". Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty Text of the protocol, PDF format. Ratifications

Geology of Ecuador

The geology of Ecuador includes ancient Precambrian basement rock and a complex tectonic assembly of new sections of crust from separate landmasses uplifted as the Andes or transformed into basins. Much of Ecuador is underlain by metamorphic crystalline basement rocks; the Piedras Group rocks date to the period and outcrop in El Oro Province on the western Andean slope in the southwest of the country and includes greenschist and amphibolite with small intercalations of quartz-sericite schist and quartzite, dated to 743 million years ago in the Proterozoic. These high-grade, polymetamorphic rocks signs of overprinting and green hornblende with a feather-like texture is found in the amphibolite. Continental and oceanic terranes began to be added to western South America in the Mesozoic. In north-central Ecuador, the Peltetec-Portovelo fault marks the suture between the pre-existing South American craton and the Amotape-Chaucha terrane, which subducted beneath a preexisting Mesozoic continental arc system.

The Triassic mafic and granitoid rocks of the El Oro metamorphic complex and the component eclogite and amphibolite are known as the Raspas metamorphic complex. This section of the terrane was subducted but brought to the surface with tectonic activity; the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana is recorded in the Triassic in Ecuador with S-type granite plutons, followed by the intrusion of calc-alkaline batholiths in the Jurassic. Oceanic basalts formed in the Jurassic and Cretaceous were accreted to the edge of the continent as a separate terrane around 130 million years ago, forming a belt of basalt and diabase, together with tuff and sedimentary rocks running north–south into Ecuador. Following the accretion of new terranes to the Western Cordillera, the Cenozoic brought the extensive uplift of the Andean orogeny. Volcanic rocks vary geochemically between the Western Eastern Cordillera. In the east, they are predominantly rhyolite and andesitedacite while in the west, they are characteristically andesite and plagidacite.

These are inferred to be the result of hydrous partial melting of Basic Igneous Complex garnet amphibolite and amphibolite. Most mineable deposits in Ecuador are either epithermal gold or porphyry copper hosted in Paleogene rocks, formed from the Eocene to the Miocene, they may have originated from an enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt. Compared to other neighboring countries, copper deposits are comparatively small. Explanations have included a lack of development of magma chambers around nine million years ago due to the extent of compression in the Ecuadorian section of the Andes, or of a lack of exposure of deposits near the surface

Ludwig Franz Alexander Winther

Ludwig Franz Alexander Winther was a German pathologist and ophthalmologist, a native of Offenbach am Main. From 1848-1867, he was an associate professor of general pathology and therapy at the University of Giessen, from 1867 to 1871, he served as the first full professor of pathological anatomy and therapy. After his death in 1871, his position at Giessen was filled by Theodor Langhans. In 1847, he was a founding member of the Giessener Sonderbund, a teachers' association at the University of Giessen. Untersuchungen über den Bau der Hornhaut und des Flügelfelles, Gießen 1856. Zur Gewebelehre der Menschenhornhaut in: Band X, S. 506f. Lehrbuch der Augenheilkunde, Gießen 1856. Lehrbuch der allgemeinen pathologischen Anatomie der Gewebe des Menschen, Gießen 1860. Experimentalstudien über die Pathologie des Flügelfelles, 1866. Vorträge bei den Versammlungen der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte 1861, 1864, 1867, 1868; this article is based on a translation of an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia, whose listed sources are: Helge Dvorak: Biographisches Lexikon der Deutschen Burschenschaft, Band I Politiker, Teil 6: T–Z, Heidelberg 2005, S. 330–331.

Katrin Ursula Schmalenbeck: Ludwig Franz Alexander Winther. Erster ordentlicher Professor für Pathologie der Gießener Ludwigsuniversität. Dissertation, Universität Gießen 2007

Praveen K. L.

Kuchipudi Latha Praveen is an Indian film editor from Andhra Pradesh, working in the Tamil film industry. Praveen started his part-time video editing career and has worked along with his father in Production department of Eenadu Television. Praveen has done. After working under Balu Mahendra for his television series, Kadhai Neram, he shifted to feature films and has worked together with N. B. Srikanth on several successful Tamil films, most notably for Venkat Prabhu's directorials, he has completed 50 films so far in four languages. He is based in Singapore; the duo won the Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Editor in 2008 for Saroja. He won National Film Award for Best Editing for his work in the Tamil film Aaranya Kaandam. Praveen K. L. on IMDb

Cl├ęber Luis Alberti

Cléber Luis Alberti or Cléber is a goalkeeper player from Brazil, who plays for Portuguese Liga de Honra side GD Estoril. Made professional debut for Atlético-PR in 0-0 draw at home to Goiás in the Campeonato Brasileiro on October 5, 2002. Campeonato Paranaense in 2001 and 2002 with Atlético Paranaense Campeonato Pernambucano in 2005 with Santa Cruz Futebol Clube Campeonato Pernambucano in 2007 and 2008 with Sport Club do Recife Copa do Brasil in 2008 with Sport Club do Recife 27 April 2007 to 30 April 2010 Sport Club do Recife Official Site CBF

The Time and the Place (Art Farmer album)

The Time and the Place is an album by Art Farmer's Quintet recorded in 1967 and released on the Columbia label. Although promoted as a live album the tracks were recorded in the studio and audience overdubbed. In 2007, Mosaic Records released the original live set from the original three-track recordings as the title The Time and the Place: The Lost Concert. Ken Dryden of Allmusic states, "Although the overly enthusiastic audience tends at times to applaud prematurely and a bit too loudly, the music is first-rate". "The Time and the Place" - 4:30 "The Shadow of Your Smile" - 7:10 "One for Juan" - 8:56 "Nino's Scene" - 5:53 "Short Cake" - 5:26 "Make Someone Happy" - 6:57 "On the Trail" - 2:31 Art Farmer - flugelhorn Jimmy Heath - tenor saxophone Cedar Walton - piano Walter Booker - bass Mickey Roker - drums