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Proton-pump inhibitor

Proton-pump inhibitors are a group of medications whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production. Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another, they are the most potent inhibitors of acid secretion. This group of medications followed and superseded another group of medications with similar effects, but a different mode of action, called H2-receptor antagonists. PPIs are among the most sold medications in the world, the first one, omeprazole, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Cost varies between different agents; these medications are used in the treatment of many conditions, such as: Dyspepsia Peptic ulcer disease including after endoscopic treatment for bleeding As part of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy Gastroesophageal reflux disease including symptomatic endoscopy-negative reflux disease and associated laryngopharyngeal reflux causing laryngitis and chronic cough Barrett's esophagus Eosinophilic esophagitis Stress gastritis and ulcer prevention in critical care Gastrinomas and other conditions that cause hypersecretion of acid including Zollinger–Ellison syndrome Specialty professional organizations recommend that people take the lowest effective PPI dose to achieve the desired therapeutic result when used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease long-term.

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has advised that no more than three 14-day treatment courses should be used in one year. Despite their extensive use, the quality of the evidence supporting their use in some of these conditions is variable; the effectiveness of PPIs has not been demonstrated for every case. For example, although they reduce the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus, they do not change the length affected. PPIs are used longer than necessary. In about half of people who are hospitalized or seen at a primary care clinic there is no documented reason for their long-term use of PPIs; some researchers believe that, given the little evidence of long-term effectiveness, the cost of the medication and the potential for harm means that clinicians should consider stopping PPIs in many people. After four weeks, if symptoms have resolved, the PPI may be stopped in those who were using them for heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or inflammation of the esophagus if these last two were not severe.

Stopping is not recommended in a bleeding stomach ulcer. Stopping may be carried out by first decreasing the amount of medication taken or having the person take the medication only when symptoms are present. In general, proton pump inhibitors are well tolerated, the incidence of short-term adverse effects is low; the range and occurrence of adverse effects are similar for all of the PPIs, though they have been reported more with omeprazole. This may be due to its longer availability and, clinical experience. Common adverse effects include headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain and dizziness. Infrequent adverse effects include rash, flatulence, constipation and depression. Infrequently, PPI use may be associated with occurrence of myopathies, including the serious reaction rhabdomyolysis. Long-term use of PPIs requires assessment of the balance of the risks of the therapy. Various adverse outcomes have been associated with long-term PPI use in several primary reports, but reviews assess the overall quality of evidence in these studies as "low" or "very low".

They describe inadequate evidence to establish causal relationships between PPI therapy and many of the proposed associations, due to study design and small estimates of effect size. Benefits outweigh risks when PPIs are used appropriately, but when used inappropriately, modest risks become important, they recommend that PPIs should be used at the lowest effective dose in people with a proven indication, but discourage dose escalation and continued chronic therapy in people unresponsive to initial empiric therapy. A three-year trial of pantoprazole, completed in 2019, did not find any significant adverse events. Gastric acid is important for breakdown of food and release of micronutrients, some studies have shown possibilities for interference with absorption of iron, calcium and vitamin B12. With regard to iron and vitamin B12, the data are weak and several confounding factors have been identified. Low levels of magnesium can be found in people on PPI therapy and these can be reversed when they are switched to H2-receptor antagonist medications.

High dose or long-term use of PPIs carries a possible increased risk of bone fractures, not found with short-term, low dose use. Some studies have shown a correlation between use of PPIs and Clostridium difficile infections. While the data are contradictory and controversial, the FDA had sufficient concern to include a warning about this adverse effect on the label of PPI medications. Concerns have been raised about spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in older people taking PPIs and in people with irritable bowel syndrome taking PPIs. PPIs may predispose an individual to developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or fungal overgrowth. Long-term use of PPIs is associated with the development of benign polyps from fundic glands.

Jimmy Borland

James Andrew Borland, known as Jimmy Borland or Jim Borland, was an ice hockey player who played in the English League, the English National League and for the GB national ice hockey team. Although born in Manchester, Jimmy Borland's family had emigrated to Canada and he learned to play ice hockey in Montreal. Borland returned to the United Kingdom in 1933 when he joined the Grosvenor House Canadians where he helped the team to win the English League in 1933–34. In 1934 he was selected to play for the Great Britain national ice hockey team for the World Championships which were held in Milan that year; the GB team went on to finish eighth in the competition with Borland scoring two goals. Following a year off from playing, Borland returned to play for the Brighton Tigers in the 1935–36 season as the team captain. Borland again played for the GB national team in this time at the Winter Olympics. Borland played in three games during the tournament helping the team to win gold medal. Borland played for the Brighton Tigers again during the 1936–37 season before retiring from hockey.

Olympic gold medalist in 1936. Evans, Hilary. "Jimmy Borland". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012. Biographical information and career statistics from Jimmy Borland at the British Ice Hockey Hall of Fame

Bayevo, Altai Krai

Bayevo is a rural locality and the administrative center of Bayevsky District of Altai Krai, Russia. Population: 4,707 ; the population estimate as of 2016 was 4,188 The village is located on the Kulunda Plain, 230 km from Barnaul and 37 km from the nearest railway station. The village is inhabited by Russians, Ukrainians and others. Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №16-ЗС от 4 апреля 2017 г. «О присоединении станции Железнодорожная Казарма 572 км к посёлку Октябрьскому Октябрьского сельсовета Кулундинского района Алтайского края и внесении изменений в отдельные законы Алтайского края». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г.. Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №36-ЗС от 6 мая 2006 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных и административно-территориальных образований Баевского района Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №77-ЗС от 2 сентября 2015 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципальных и административно-территориальных образований Баевского района Алтайского края"».

Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №150–151, 25 мая 2006 г

Clive Cheesman

Clive Edwin Alexander Cheesman is a British officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. He is Richmond Herald, having been appointed to that position on 7 April 2010. Cheesman was a curator in the Department of Coins and Medals in the British Museum, he served as Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary from 17 November 1998 to 7 April 2010. Son of architect Wilfrid Henry Cheesman and his wife Elizabeth Amelia, a biochemist, Cheesman has a degree in Literae Humaniores from Oxford University, where he was at Oriel. In 1993, he was awarded the degree of PhD from the Scuola Superiore di Studi Storici di San Marino, with a doctoral thesis on Roman history, he is co-editor of The Heraldry Society's journal, The Coat of Arms, from 2008 to 2013 was Chairman of The Friends of The National Archives. He received a Diploma in Law in 1995 from City University and was called to the Bar of England and Wales as a member of Middle Temple in October 1996. Cheesman's coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms shortly after his appointment as Rouge Dragon.

On 31 December 1999, arms were granted per pall Argent and Sable. These were granted along with a crest blazoned A Crow Sable gorged with an ancient British Torque Or alighting on a man's Skull resting on its side Argent. Cheeseman became Richmond Herald of Arms in Ordinary in 2010, vacating the position of Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, which remained vacant until Adam Tuck took the position in 2019. Cheesman and Williams, Rebels and Impostors, ISBN 0-312-23866-5. Cheesman, The Armorial of Haiti. Symbols of Nobility in the Reign of Henry Christophe. With a historical introduction by Marie-Lucie Vendryes and a preface by Her Excellency Michaëlle Jean, Governor-General of Canada, ISBN 978-0-9506980-2-1. Heraldry Pursuivant The College of Arms CUHAGS Officer of Arms Index Works by or about Clive Cheesman in libraries

Agostino Scilla

Agostino Scilla was an Italian Baroque painter, geologist, a pioneer in the study of fossils and in scientific illustration. He is known for his paintings and in the history of paleontology for the book La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso, introduced to English audiences by William Wotton of the Royal Society in 1696, he was among the first to promote a scientific understanding of fossils in contrast to fantastic Biblical and divine interpretations. The son of a notary in Messina, Scilla studied under Antonio Barbalunga in Messina and Andrea Sacchi in Rome and became a painter, his frescos in Messina were painted for the church of San Domenico, in the Nunziata de' Teatini, many paintings including one of San Ilarione dying painted for the church of S. Ursula, his frescos in the Cathedral of Syracuse date from 1657. After participating in an unsuccessful revolt against Spanish rule, in 1678 he was exiled from Sicily. Scilla worked as a painter in Turin and Rome for the rest of his life.

He was a censor in the Academy of Design in Rome in 1695. One of his pupils was the painter Antonio Madiona. Scilla began to study fossils found in the hills of Sicily, sometimes accompanied by botanist Paolo Boccone, his only written scientific work is La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso. The book was dedicated to the Sicilian nobleman Don Carlo di Gregorio, who founded the Accademia della Fucina in Messina. In this work Scilla argues for a scientific explanation for fossils, as opposed to them being of fantastic origin or a test of faith from God, he correctly identified the magical objects that were called glossopetrae, or "tongue stones", as the teeth of sharks. He was however not the first. Nicolas Steno had made a similar claim about three years earlier but it is not known if Scilla had seen that work. Fabio Colonna in Dissertatio de glossopetris had burnt these fossils to show that they were made of lime, organic matter, rather than minerals; the book included 29 drawings of fossils drawn from specimens by him and engraved using copper-plate by Pietro Santi Bartoli.

The book was rediscovered by William Wotton of the Royal Society in 1696 and an English summary became available. Scilla was apologetic about being but an untrained artist and the style of writing was commented on by Wotton as lacking art. Scilla argued that his training gave him a painter’s eye with the ability to probe into nature and interpret things better, depict nature without mediation. Scilla argued that fossils were not lusus naturae, whimsical simulacra of animals and plants created by God or divine Nature, he termed fossils as "jokes of time, not of nature." Athanasius Kircher had claimed that inanimate nature could produce pictures and sculptures that resembled living things. Girolamo Cardano claimed in his On the Subtlety of Things that he owned a piece agate that had the face of the Roman emperor Galba in it. Scilla dismissed Cardano's claim. Scilla may have seen fossil collections in Rome belonging to Cardinal Francesco Barberini and his secretary Cassiano dal Pozzo. Scilla had been influenced by Giovan Pietro Bellori who had lectured on the role of the artist in inquiry.

Bellori besought artists to go deep into a subject just as they examined the squaring of the circle and explored anatomy below the skin of the nudes they depicted, as depicted in Carlo Maratta's Tanto che basti. Maratta had been a student of Sacchi alongside Scilla. Scilla worked for Marcello Malpighi. Scilla is considered to have been the first to use dotted lines to indicate reconstructions in paleontological illustration. John Ray made use of some of Scilla's fossil illustrations. Scilla's fossil collection was acquired by John Woodward, an English physician, in 1717; these went into the University of Cambridge and became the nucleus of the collections of the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences. Dorsum Scilla on the Moon is named after him. List of Italian painters La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso - digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library Scan from the Biodiversity Heritage Library on the Internet Archive


Race-norming, more formally called within-group score conversion and score adjustment strategy, is the practice of adjusting test scores to account for the race or ethnicity of the test-taker. In the United States, it was first implemented by the United States federal government in 1981 with little publicity, was subsequently outlawed by the Civil Rights Act of 1991. Prior to being banned by the federal government, race-norming was practiced by 38 U. S. states' employment services. The aim of this practice is to counteract alleged racial bias in aptitude tests administered to job applicants, as well as in neuropsychological tests; the argument was that it guarantees racial balance and this was confirmed by a National Research Council panel evaluating its validity when predicting job performance. The practice compared the raw score of the test according to racial groups; the score of a black candidate is only compared to the scores of those. If his score, reported within a percentile range, fell within a certain percentile when compared to white or all candidates, it would be much higher among other black candidates.

University of Delaware professor Linda Gottfredson has been critical of this practice, as have conservative columnist George Will and law professor Robert J. Delahunty. Criticism was based on the perception. In the 1980s, the Reagan administration ordered a study into the unadjusted General Aptitude Test Battery. Definition at Oxford Living Dictionary