Kaluga Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga. Population: 1,010,930. Kaluga Oblast lies in the central part of the East European Plain; the oblast's territory is located between the Central Russian Upland, the Smolensk–Moscow Upland and the Dnepr-Desna province. Most of the oblast is occupied by plains and forests with diverse flora and fauna; the administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The western part of the oblast - located within the drift plain - is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south is an outwash plain, part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, with average elevation up to 200 m. From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30' to 55°30' northern altitude, east to west – for 220 km, its area is 29,800 km². The oblast's territory is crossed by major international motor and railways, linking Kaluga with Moscow, Kiev and Warsaw. Kaluga Oblast borders on: Bryansk Oblast to the south-west Oryol Oblast to the south Tula Oblast to the east Moscow Oblast to the north-east Smolensk Oblast to the north-west the federal city of Moscow The climate of Kaluga Oblast is moderately continental with distinct seasons: warm and humid summers, cold winters with stable snow-cover.
The average temperature in July is +18 °C in north and +20 °C in south, in January −11 °C in northeast and −8 °C in southwest. The duration of the warm period is 215–220 days; the territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation— around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual air temperature varies from 3.5 - 4.0 °C in the north and the north-east to up to 4.0 - 4.6 °C in the west and the east of the oblast. The duration of the frost-free season is 113 to 127 days; the northern part of the oblast is the coldest. In the south, in the zone of forest steppes, the climate is warm. Precipitation is distributed unevenly, varying from 780 to 826 mm in the north and the west and up to 690 – 760 mm in the south; the Oka is the main river in the oblast's river system. Others include the Ugra, the Zhizdra, the Protva, the Vorya. Lakes include Lakes Svyatoye; the total area occupied by forests is around 1,380,000 ha. As of the beginning of 2005, agricultural lands occupied an area of 1,350,000 ha.
The main crops grown include forage cereals, potatoes and feed grains, fiber-flax. Mammals include typical forest animals: brown bear, elk, polar hare, squirrel; the south of the oblast is sometimes visited by bison that were released into the Orlovskoye Polesye national park. Aquatic fauna includes 41 species of bony fish; the diversity of fish is explained by the variety of habitats. Among 11 kinds of amphibians, the most common are crested and common newts, red-bellied and green toads, various lake, pool and grass frogs. Reptiles are represented by 7 species, including snakes: the venomous adder and the harmless water snake and smooth snake. There are 267 types of birds registered as visiting the oblast, including 177 to nest, 58 to migrate and 32 to transit; the most significant bird-of-prey habitats are located in the Kaluzhskiye Zaseki reserve and the interfluve of the Bytebet and the Resseta. The largest populations are: waterfowl - mallard. According to the governmental report “On the Status of the Environment and Its Conservation in the Russian Federation” published by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Kaluga Oblast is one of the most ecologically pure regions of the Central Federal District.
There are several successful eco-settlements: the nature reserve Kaluzhskiye Zaseki, the Ugra National Park, the Tarusa natural reserve, the Kaluzhski Bor natural sanctuary. The accident in Chernobyl resulted in radioactive contamination in the oblast's southwest. Radiation monitoring is conducted in nine districts; the radiation background complies with the established radiation situation. ==History== The territory of Kaluga Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times. The oldest human sites discovered by archeologists date back to the Mesolithic period; the first mentions of Kaluga's towns are associated with events in the 12th century the feudal war between the Olegovichi and the Monomakhovichi. In the 14th century, Kaluga lands were the place for constant confrontations between Lithuania and Moscow. Traditionally, it is considered that Kaluga was established as a frontier to protect the Moscow principality from Lithuania's attacks. In 1480-1481, Kaluga's territory was the place of the great stand on the Ugra river, resulting in the liberation of Russian lands from the Tatar Yoke and Moscow's transformation into a sovereign state.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, with active development of trade and crafts, the city was advanced in the arts of wood carving and jewelry. After the reunification of Russia and the Ukraine in 1654, Kaluga's role as a trade intermediary between Moscow and the Ukraine contributed to its economic development. On August 24, 1776, Catherine II issued a decree establishing Kaluga Viceroyalty to unite Ka
Obninsk is a city in Kaluga Oblast, located on the bank of the Protva River 100 kilometers southwest of Moscow and 80 kilometers northeast from Kaluga. Population: 104,739; the history of Obninsk began in 1945 when the First Research Institute Laboratory "V", which became known as IPPE was founded. On June 27, 1954, in Obninsk started operations of the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid; the city was built next to the plant. Scientists, construction workers and other professionals moved to Obninsk from all over the Soviet Union. Town status was granted to Obninsk on June 24, 1956; the name of the city is taken from Obninskoye, the train station in Moscow-Bryansk railroad, built in Tsarist times. Obninskoye and Obninsk were the Frontline Edges of the White/Red Armies in 1917-1924 the 1812 War with France and the 1941-1942 Battle of Moscow Campaigns in World War II. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Obninsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the City of Obninsk is incorporated as Obninsk Urban Okrug. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city was 104,739, down from 105,706 recorded in the 2002 Census, but up from 100,178 recorded in the 1989 Census; the average age of the citizens is thirty-nine years. The city is located on the main rail line between Moscow and Kiev and at the intersection of Kiev and Warsaw highways. Three international airports are within reach from Obninsk: Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo. Cargo airfield. Obninsk is one of the major Russian science cities. In 2000, it was awarded the status of the First Science City of Russia; the city is home to twelve scientific research institutes. Their main activities are nuclear power engineering, nuclear methods and radiation technology, technology of non-metallic materials, medical radiology and ecology and environmental protection; the first nuclear power plant in the world for the large-scale production of electricity opened here on June 27, 1954, it doubled as a training base for the crew of the Soviet Union's first nuclear submarine, the K-3 Leninsky Komsomol.
Obninsk is famous for its meteorological tower, built to study spreading of radiation from the nuclear station. The following institutes are located in the city: State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute for Physics and Power Engineering State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Obninsk Scientific Production Enterprise "Tekhnologiya" Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Obninsk Branch of the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation "Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry" Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information Central Pilot Expedition of the Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology Central Design Bureau of Hydrometeorological Instrumentation Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology Scientific Production Association TYPHOON In the city are the plants of companies such as Kraftway, Lotte Confectionery, Hemofarm a.d..
The head of the city administration is Vladislav Shapsha. There is a bandy club called Atom. Obninsk has three sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: Oak Ridge, United States Mianyang, China Visaginas, LithuaniaObninsk has a partnership with: Limousin, France Montpellier Agglomération, France Jyväskylä, Finland Tiraspol, Transnistria Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. №473 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Калужской области», в ред. Закона №681-ОЗ от 27 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Калужской области». Опубликован: "Весть", №79, 9 апреля 1996 г.. Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №7-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред.
Закона №620-ОЗ от 29 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калужской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением положений о муниципальном образовании "Город Калуга", для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Весть", №402–404, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #7-OZ of December 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Boro
Protvino is a town in Moscow Oblast, located about 100 kilometers south of Moscow and 15 kilometers west of Serpukhov, on the left bank of the Protva River. Population: 37,308 . Construction of an urban-type settlement intended to house a large high energy physics research laboratory started in 1958, the Rosatom Institute for High Energy Physics was opened here in 1965; the institute is known for the 70 GeV proton accelerator, the largest in the world at the time it was launched in 1967, other physics research. Town status was granted in 1989; the UNK Collider was the last big planned particle accelerator. Among the discoveries made at IHEP are that of antihelium and the Serpukhov cross-section effect. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Protvino Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, Protvino Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Protvino Urban Okrug. In the city the Protvino railroad station is located.
Public transport is provided by buses. Protvino is twinned with: Antony, France Lahojsk, Belarus Saky, Ukraine Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «Об отнесении города Озёры Озёрского района Московской области к категории города областного подчинения Московской области, упразднении Озёрского района Московской области и внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №159/2004-ОЗ от 25 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе и границе городского округа Протвино», в ред. Закона №94/2011-ОЗ от 24 июня 2011 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границе городского округа Протвино" и Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Серпуховского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №231, 4 декабря 2004 г.. Official website of Protvino Unofficial website of Protvino Institute for High Energy Physics
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Moscow Oblast, or Podmoskovye, is a federal subject of Russia. With a population of 7,095,120 living in an area of 44,300 square kilometers, it is one of the most densely populated regions in the country and is the second most populous federal subject; the oblast has no official administrative center. Moscow Oblast borders Tver Oblast in the northwest, Yaroslavl Oblast in the north, Vladimir Oblast in the northeast and east, Ryazan Oblast in the southeast, Tula Oblast in the south, Kaluga Oblast in the southwest, Smolensk Oblast in the west. In the center stands the federal city of Moscow, a separate federal subject in its own right; the oblast is industrialized, with its main industrial branches being metallurgy, oil refining, mechanical engineering, food and chemical industries. The oblast is flat, with some hills with the height of about 160 meters in the western and extensive lowlands in the eastern part. From the southwest to northeast, the oblast is crossed by the border of the Moscow glacier to the north of the common ice-erosion form with moraine ridges, to the south – only erosional landforms.
The western and northern parts of the oblast contain the Moscow Uplands. Their average height peaks at about 300 meters near Dmitrov and the upper point of 310 meters lies near the village of Shapkino in Mozhaysky District; the northern part of the Moscow Uplands is steeper than the southern part. The uplands contain lakes such as Lakes Nerskoye and Krugloye. To the north of the Moscow Uplands lies the alluvial Verhnevolzhsk Depression. To the south stretches a hilly area of the Moskvoretsko-Oksk plain, its greatest height of 254 meters lies within the Moscow city limits. The plain has defined river valleys in the south parts, occasional karst relief in Serpukhovsky District. In the extreme south, after the Oka River, lies the Central Russian Upland, it contains numerous gullies and ravines and has average height above 200 m with the maximum of 236 m near Pushchino. Most of the eastern part of Moscow Oblast is taken by the vast Meshchera Lowlands with much wetland in their eastern part, their highest hill peaks at 214 meters but the average heights are 120–150 meters.
Most lakes of the lowlands, such as Lakes Chyornoye and Svyatoye, are of glacial origin. Here lies the lowest natural elevation of the water level of Oka River at 97 meters. Moscow Oblast is located in the central part of the East European craton. Like all cratons, the latter is composed of the crystalline sedimentary cover; the basement consists of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks and the cover is deposited in the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras. The lowest depth of the basement is to the south of Serebryanye Prudy, in the south area of the oblast, the largest is to the east of Sergiyev Posad, in the northeast region. Tertiary deposits are absent within the oblast. More abundant are deposits of the Carboniferous and Jurassic periods. In the Cretaceous period, a sea was covering Moscow Oblast, as evidenced by phosphate deposits and a variety of sands. Cretaceous sediments are most common in the north of the oblast; the sea was wider in Jurassic than in Cretaceous period. Typical Jurassic deposits, in the form of black clay, are found within and around the city of Moscow and in the valley of the Moscow River.
Carboniferous deposits in Moscow Oblast are represented by dolomite and marl. Coal deposits rich in organic remains occur in the south in Serpukhovsky District, in the western regions. Devonian deposits were found within the region. Quaternary deposits are distributed in Moscow Oblast, it is believed. The first occurred in the Lower Pleistocene and spread to the east-west part of the Oka River valley, it left no trace in the region. In the Middle Pleistocene, there were two powerful glaciations; the Dnieper glacier covered a large part of the Russian Plain, whereas the Moscow glaciation stopped just south of the present city of Moscow. The last glaciation, the Valdai glaciation, occurred in the Late Pleistocene; the glaciers left behind a moraine loam with pebbles and boulders of various rocks, such as granite, quartzite, dolomite and sandstone. Its thickness varies between a few meters at 100 m at moraine ridges. Moscow Oblast is rich in minerals. Sands from the sediments of different periods are of high quality and are used in construction.
Quartz sand is used in the glass industry, their production is conducted from the end of 17th century near Lyubertsy. Much of the production is halted due to environmental concerns, only the Yeganovskoye field is being exploited. Sand and gravel deposits are abundant within the Smolensk-Moscow Upland. Sandstone deposits are developed in Dmitrovsky Districts. There are numerous clay deposits within the oblas
Borovsk is a town and the administrative center of Borovsky District of Kaluga Oblast, located on the Protva River just south from the oblast's border with Moscow Oblast. Population: 12,283 , it is known to have existed since 1356 as a part of the Principality of Ryazan. In the 14th century, it was owned by Vladimir the Bold, but passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow when his granddaughter Maria of Borovsk married Vasily II. In 1444, the St. Paphnutius Monastery was founded near Borovsk, its strong walls, a massive cathedral survive from the reign of Boris Godunov. Two famous Old Believers—archpriest Avvakum Petrovich and boyarynya Feodosiya Morozova—were incarcerated at this monastery in the second half of the 17th century; the town was liberated by the Red Army on January 4, 1942. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Borovsk serves as the administrative center of Borovsky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Borovsk is incorporated within Borovsky Municipal District as Borovsk Urban Settlement.
Among the monuments of Borovsk are the oldest wooden church in the region and a museum of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, who lived and worked there as a teacher in 1880–1891. Borovsk has been known for painted façades of its down-town buildings, resulting from a work of one local painter. Pafnutyevo-Borovsky monastery, an ensemble of architectural monuments of the 16th-17th centuries. Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin Apartment Museum Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Gallery of wall paintings created by self-taught artist Vladimir Ovchinnikov Monument to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Chapel-monument to the alleged place of detention and the death of Boyar Morozova Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №7-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред.
Закона №620-ОЗ от 29 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калужской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением положений о муниципальном образовании "Город Калуга", для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Весть", №402–404, 29 декабря 2004 г.. Official website of Borovsk Borovsk and the world of art Photos from Borovsk History of Borovsk
Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Kaluga, Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga, its length exceeds 1,500 kilometres. The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries—the Moskva River; the Oka river is the homeland of the Eastern Slavic Vyatichi tribe. By 5th century the land around the Oka river was inhabited by different Slavic tribes; the Baltic tribe of Galindians lived in the western part of the Oka basin. Turkic tribes inhabited the Oka area. There is no common opinion. From the Mongol conquest until about 1633, the Oka was the last line of defense against steppe raiders; the river gave its name to the Upper Oka Principalities, situated upstream from Tarusa. In 1221 Grand Duke Yuri II of Vladimir founded Nizhny Novgorod to become one of the largest Russian cities, to protect the Oka's confluence with the Volga; the Qasim Khanate, a Muslim polity, occupied the middle reaches of the Oka in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Before the construction of the railways in the mid-19th century and the building of the Moscow Canal in the 1930s, the Oka, along with its tributary Moskva, served as an important transportation route connecting Moscow with the Volga River. Due to the Oka's and Moskva's meandering courses, travel was not fast: for example, it took Cornelis de Bruijn around 10 days to sail from Moscow down these two rivers to Nizhny Novgorod in 1703. Traveling upstream may have been slower, as the boats had to be pulled by burlaks; the banks of the river are dotted with historical and cultural sites, including the medieval monasteries of Murom, the mosques and minarets of Kasimov, the fortified kremlins of Kolomna and Serpukhov, the memorial houses of Vasily Polenov and Sergey Yesenin, the excavated ruins of Old Ryazan and the Oka Shukhov Tower. The Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve lies along the left bank of the river opposite the town of Pushchino and is known for its wisent breeding nursery. Oryol Ugra Zhizdra Upa Protva Nara Moskva Pra Osyotr Pronya Para Moksha Tyosha Klyazma Besputa Oryol Belyov Chekalin Kaluga Aleksin Tarusa Serpukhov Stupino Kashira Protvino Pushchino Kolomna Ryazan Kasimov Murom Pavlovo Navashino Gorbatov Dzerzhinsk Nizhny Novgorod The River appears as the title and main theme in a popular, nostalgia filled song of the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, formed nearby in 1943.
The unit fought all the way to Berlin alongside the Red Army. It was written by Leon Pasternak. Oka at GEOnet Names Server Media related to Oka River at Wikimedia Commons