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Providence Catholic High School

Providence Catholic High School is a Roman Catholic secondary school located in New Lenox, Illinois. Located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Joliet, Providence Catholic is a private school run by the Order of Saint Augustine and is a member of the Augustinian Secondary Education Association.. Located on Lincoln Highway, it is known as one of the few Catholic schools in Illinois that has a self–imposed enrollment limit. Providence Catholic High School began as St. Mary Academy for Girls, a commercial school in Joliet, Illinois run by the Sisters of Loretto; the school opened in 1880, though the original building was not opened until 1883. Academic classes were added. In 1918, the Archdiocese of Chicago invited the Sisters of Providence to take over the school. On October 22 of that year, the school's name was changed to Providence High School. In 1931, the academic classes were stopped. In 1932, the school reverted to a two-year commercial school. A four-year secretarial program opened in 1938. Though the academic courses were reinstated after the Depression, the school building was condemned as a fire hazard in 1959 and demolished.

From 1959 through 1962, the school met at St. Mary Nativity Elementary School; when the old building was demolished, it is said that students sifted through the wreckage looking for bricks that were not crushed. They sold them as souvenirs to help build the new Providence. In 1962, the modern Providence High School was opened; the most obvious change was location: the school had left Joliet and was now located a few miles to the east in New Lenox. The other major change was the shift to a coed school. Though Providence was a new school, the community of New Lenox was not populated then. Enrollment dropped, the school began suffering financially. Father Roger Kaffer was named the new principal and arrived in 1970, he began a campaign to improve the academic standing of the school and the transportation options for students traveling great distances. It was his practice to visit every family; the 1971 enrollment was 490. Growth during the late 1970s and early 1980s made additions to the school building necessary.

The Province of Our Mother of Good Counsel, the Midwest U. S. province of the Order of Saint Augustine, was invited by the diocese to take control of the school after the 1984–85 school year. A college preparatory curriculum was added; the religious studies course work was upgraded, a retreat program was begun. The name of the school was changed to "Providence Catholic High School" in 1985 to reflect these changes. In 1998, the school decided to limit enrollment in order to retain a more personal atmosphere with students; the school has added 55,000 square feet to the original building with the addition of a science and fine arts wing in 2002 and a Student Commons Addition in 2018. Today the school sits on 75 acres with three campuses. In 2018 the school celebrated its 100th Anniversary as Providence Catholic High School. Providence is a college preparatory school, uses a weighted grading system; the school offers eighteen Advanced Placement courses: English Language, English Literature, Calculus, Biology, U.

S. History, U. S. Government & Politics, European History, Spanish Language, Music Theory, Advanced Placement Computer Science and Studio Art; the school's activities involves several departments in and out of the fine arts program that tours in and out of state for competitions and exhibition performances. In addition to competitive units, it includes clubs for recreational purposes and/or volunteering around their local communities; some after school clubs that aren't competitive includes programs such as Celtic Pipers Corps, Math Team, The International Club, jazz band and many more. The more competitive programs includes the marching band, concert band, winter guard and several other teams; the marching band started their first competitive season in 2007 and since had received awards and recognition in several fields in local regional and national competitions such as Bands of America. They have performed at the halftime show of the Outback Bowl 2010 game; the marching band placed in states finals for the first time in the school history at Illinois State University in class 2A.

The winter guard competes in the MidWest Color Guard Circuit, in class SRA. The choir and concert band departments performs in performances through ILMEA, IHSA, Midwest Music Festival, Music for All in which they have several awards and medals for both groups and solo performances. Marching Band: States 2nd Place Winter Guard: SRA Division - 3rd Place. No other private High School in Illinois has more; the Providence Celtics compete in two conferences. Men's teams compete in the Chicago Catholic League, while the women compete in the Girls Catholic Athletic Conference. Providence competes in state tournaments sponsored by the Illinois High School Association; the school sponsors teams for men and women in basketball, cross country, soccer, track & field, volleyball. Men may compete in baseball, football and wrestling. Women may compete in cheerleading and softball. In 2016, the hockey team won their second Kennedy Cup against rival Benet Academy. In 2017, the S

Battle of Calliano

The Battle of Calliano on 6 and 7 November 1796 saw an Austrian corps commanded by Paul Davidovich rout a French division directed by Claude Belgrand de Vaubois. The engagement was part of the third Austrian attempt to relieve the French siege of Mantua during the French Revolutionary Wars; the battle was preceded by a clash at Cembra on 2 November and followed by actions at Rivoli Veronese on 17 and 21 November. By November 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte's French Army of Italy had reduced Field Marshal Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser's Austrian garrison of Mantua to near-starvation. Emperor Francis I of Austria appointed Feldzeugmeister Jozsef Alvinczi to lead a new army in smashing though the French blockade. Alvinczi planned to advance on Mantua from the east with the 28,000-man Friaul Corps, while Feldmarschal-Leutnant Davidovich led 19,000 soldiers of the Tirol Corps down the Adige valley from the north. See Arcola 1796 Campaign Order of Battle for a list of the major units of both armies, including the strengths and commanders of the Tyrol Corps' six columns.

Bonaparte badly underestimated Davidovich's strength. To oppose the northern thrust, he deployed a division of 10,500 soldiers under General of Division Vaubois; the start of Davidovich's offensive led to a series of clashes beginning on 27 October. On 2 November the French attacked the Austrians at Cembra. Although Vaubois inflicted 1,100 casualties on his enemies at the cost of only 650 Frenchmen, he decided to pull back to Calliano when Davidovich resumed his forward movement the next day; the French 85th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade was handled. The Austrians occupied Trento on 5 November. On 6 November, Vaubois repulsed Davidovich's attacks on his position at Calliano, inflicting losses of 753 men; that night the French general detached several units to cover key positions in the area, weakening his main line. At dawn, the Austrians launched a new attack, resisted all day, Calliano changing hands several times; some Grenz infantry worked their way into the rear of the French line and this caused a panic-stricken flight from the field beginning at 4 pm.

The second day of fighting at Calliano cost Davidovich another 1,523 men for a total of 3,567 for the campaign. These heavy losses kept the Austrians from vigorously following up the fleeing Frenchmen. Vaubois suffered 4,400 casualties at Calliano. During the day of 8 November, the French soldiers retreated to Rivoli Veronese where they rallied. Furious over the misbehavior of his troops, Bonaparte issued an announcement to the army in which he harshly criticised the 39th and 85th Demi-Brigades. Meanwhile, in the Po River valley, Alvinczi defeated Bonaparte's attack at the Second Battle of Bassano on 6 November, forcing the French main army to fall back to Verona. Poor communications continued to plague the Austrian effort, it took two days for dispatches to pass between Alvinczi. Davidovich refrained from attacking the Rivoli position because he believed that André Masséna was present with his division. While Masséna was in command, he did not bring any troops with him. By this time Davidovich had 14,000 men, but this includes General-Major Johann Loudon, guarding his line of communications with the Tyrol.

Davidovich attacked on 17 November, with GM Joseph Ocskay von Ocsko moving from Monte Baldo and GM Josef Philipp Vukassovich advancing from the Adige River gorge. The Austrians gained the Rivoli plateau and forced the outnumbered French back. Again, the brittle morale of the 85th Line snapped and the result was another rout of Vaubois' division. On this occasion, the French lost 800 killed and wounded, plus 1,000 captured including Generals of Brigade Pascal Antoine Fiorella and Antoine La Valette and 7 cannons; the Austrians lost only 600 men. This field would be fought over again during the Battle of Rivoli in January 1797; the Tyrol Corps' victory came too late. Bonaparte won the Battle of Arcola on 15 -- 17 November; when Davidovich realized that the Army of Italy was moving his way in great strength, he pulled back to Rivoli on 20 November. The next morning, he ordered a retreat to the north. A short time he received a note saying that Alvinczi's army was back in the field. Davidovich told his troops to reoccupy their positions at Rivoli, but by this time the French were upon them.

In the ensuing action, French losses were about 200. The Austrians lost 251 wounded. In addition, the French captured 608 soldiers, 3 cannons, a bridging train. One authority gives Austrian losses as 9 guns; when Alvinczi heard that his colleague was in full retreat up the Adige valley, he withdrew to the Brenta River, ending the campaign. Siege of Mantua Second Battle of Bassano, 6 November 1796 Battle of Caldiero, 12 November 1796 Battle of Arcole, 15–17 November 1796 Boycott-Brown, Martin; the Road to Rivoli. London: Cassell & Co. 2001. ISBN 0-304-35305-1 Chandler, David; the Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan, 1966. Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9

Kappa Crateris

Kappa Crateris is the Bayer designation for a star in the southern constellation of Crater. It has an apparent visual magnitude of 5.94, according to the Bortle scale, can be seen with the naked eye under dark suburban skies. The distance to this star, as determined from an annual parallax shift of 14.27 mas, is around 229 light years. This is an evolved F-type giant star with a stellar classification of F5/6 III, where the F5/6 indicates the spectrum lies intermediate between types F5 and F6, it is an estimated 1.74 billion years old and is spinning with a projected rotational velocity of 39 km/s. Kappa Crateris has 1.74 times the mass of the Sun, radiates 17 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 6,545 K. Kappa Crateris has a visual companion: a magnitude 13.0 star located at an angular separation of 24.6 arc seconds along a position angle of 343°, as of 2000