Eircom Limited, trading as eir, is a fixed and broadband telecommunications company in Ireland, a former state-owned monopoly, incorporated in Jersey. It is the largest telecommunications operator in the Republic, with a division to service the business and corporate telecom markets in Northern Ireland and Britain; as Bord Telecom Éireann, the company was state-owned until 1999, when it was floated on the Irish and New York Stock Exchanges. Eir operates the fixed-line telephone network, an LTE, HSDPA and GSM/EDGE mobile telephone network eir Mobile and acts as an internet service provider eircom.net. As of Q1 2013, Eircom had 54% market share of fixed voice lines. By late 2007 Eircom added their 500,000th DSL subscriber but broadband share may have fallen to 44% due to growth of fixed wireless and fibre services, its main competitors are Virgin Media Ireland, Vodafone Ireland, Imagine Communications and Magnet Networks and Smart Telecom, with a mix of LLU/GLUMP from Eircom and fibre. Eir operates the largest fixed-line telecommunications network in the Republic of Ireland, under licence from the Commission for Communications Regulation.
Most homes and businesses in the state are dependent on their network. A range of telecommunications services is provided on the network including Business IP, its MPLS platform. Eir have completed a wholly owned fibre network ring around Northern Ireland and another around Belfast, their ISP division, eir Net, provides dial-up services, as well as broadband services. Any alarm-monitoring products using SMS are "hardcoded" to work with eir's SMSC, so will not work on Digiweb, BT, Smart, UPC or Magnet phone networks. DECT SMS handsets are preprogrammed for eir's SMSC. Any competing phone service, not just carrier pre-selection of eir must provide their own SMSC, but when they do, consumers may be unable to migrate from eir due to SMSC numbers in equipment that cannot be reprogrammed.eir's mobile arm, EirMobile, provides a full range of HSPA and GSM-based mobile communication services throughout the Republic of Ireland. Its GSM network operates at 1800 MHz and 900 MHz ranges, as the earlier GSM licences utilised the 900 MHz band.
GPRS and EDGE data services are available. EirMobile provide both bill-pay and pre-pay plans and has 19% of the Irish mobile market, with 1,032,000 cellular subscribers on the EirMobile network; the company has used EDGE technology on its network and has received a 3G license, formally removed from eir's competitor, Smart Telecom. As an operator with significant market power, eir is required to provide a number of wholesale products to other operators and to switch calls onto other phone networks. Many broadband products offered by other operators are resales of the eir product. A series of telephone directories is distributed annually to all households in the Republic of Ireland. An online version is available; the six annual directories list numbers in the local dialling area, regardless of whether the telephone service to the number is provided by eir or by one of its competitors. Mobile numbers are not listed. ComReg has designated eir as the organisation that has the obligation to provide a National Directory Database and a Universal White Pages directory.
The company was formed in 1984 as Bord Telecom Éireann, under the Posts and Telecommunications Act 1983. From 1991 to 2013, eir's subsidiaries included Phonewatch known as Eircom Phonewatch, which provides home monitoring services, monitored burglar-alarms, fire alarms, CCTV systems, medical alert devices. In May 2013, it announced that Phonewatch had been sold to Oslo-based company, Sector Alarm Corporation. From 1999 to 2006 sponsored RTE Weather and from 2000 to 2008, Eircom sponsored the League of Ireland. Although EU laws required the opening of the Irish telecommunications market, Ireland had a derogation from competition until 2003. Telecom Éireann was privatised, this was controversial and subject to much debate; the process began in 1995, by July 1999 the government had disposed of all of its shareholding. Eircom plc was floated on the Irish and New York Stock Exchanges on 8 July 1999, small/first-time investors were encouraged by the Irish Government to buy shares; the share price was set at €3.90 reaching a high of €4.80, a 23% increase.
Those initial investors who held onto their shares, until July 2000, received a 4% bonus-share allocation. The Eircom flotation is considered to have been an example of a stock market bubble — after the initial hype of the flotation died down, the stock price fell rapidly. Many of the 500,000 small investors were angered by the significant financial loss they incurred, blaming the government for not sufficiently warning them of the risks inherent in stock-market investment. Since privatisation, eir's penetration of landlines has fallen from 82% to 69%. During this period, there has been a large increase in mobile phone ownership and a significant rise in line rental to the highest in Europe. In 2001, Eircom sold its mobile subsidiary Eircell to Vodafone; the company was transferred to a separate ent
Univision is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network, owned by Univision Communications. It is the country's largest provider of Spanish-language content, followed by American competitor Telemundo; the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic Americans and includes telenovelas and other drama series, sitcoms and variety series, news programming, imported Spanish-language feature films. Univision is headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, has its major studios, production facilities, business operations based in Doral, Florida. Univision is available on pay television providers throughout most of the United States, with local stations in over 60 markets with large Latin American communities. Most of these stations air full local newscasts and other local programming in addition to network shows. Chief operating officer Randy Falco has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva in April 2010. In March 2018, it was announced Falco would be retiring and stepping down as CEO.
Univision's roots can be traced back to 1955, when Raúl Cortez started KCOR-TV, an independent station in San Antonio, the nation's first Spanish-only TV outlet. The station was not profitable during its early years, in 1961, Cortez sold KCOR-TV – now known as KWEX-TV – to a group headed by Mexican entertainment mogul Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, owner of Mexico-based Telesistema Mexicano. Cortez's son-in-law Emilio Nicolás Sr. who helped produce variety programs for the station, held a 20% stake and remained as KWEX general manager for three decades. The new owners helped to turn around the station's fortunes by investing in programming, most of it sourced from Telesistema Mexicano. On September 29, 1962, Azcárraga and his partners launched a second Spanish-language station, KMEX-TV, in Los Angeles. KWEX and KMEX formed the nucleus of the Azcárraga-owned Spanish International Network, created in late 1962. SIN was the first television network in the United States to broadcast its programming in a language other than English.
From 1963 until 1987, SIN was managed from offices in New York by Rene Anselmo, an American who had worked for Azcárraga in Mexico City for eight years as head of Telesistema's programming export subsidiary. Having supervised the launch of KMEX, Anselmo spearheaded SIN's expansion, first into the New York City area, when it founded WXTV in Paterson, New Jersey, next in Fresno, by acquiring WLTV in Miami in 1971; that year, Azcárraga and his partners incorporated these five stations as the Spanish International Communications Corporation, with Anselmo named as president. Over the next 15 years, SIN and SICC would create other top-rated Spanish-language television stations throughout the United States; the Mexican ownership interest in SIN and SICC transferred posthumously from Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta to his son, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, in 1972. On July 4, 1976, the network began distributing its national feed via satellite, delivered as a superstation-type feed of San Antonio's KWEX-TV, before switching to a direct programming feed of SIN, allowing cable television providers to carry the network on their systems at little cost.
Between the mid-1970s and late-1980s, SIN began affiliating with startup Spanish-language stations in markets such as Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston, as well as with independent stations that broadcast in English. In Chicago, SIN moved its programming from WCIU-TV to new full-time affiliate WSNS-TV in July 1985. After WSNS was sold to Telemundo in 1988, what had become Univision moved its programming back to WCIU-TV, which agreed to air Univision programming on weekday evenings and weekends. In 1994, the network purchased English-language independent WGBO-TV after WCIU-TV turned down Univision's request to become a full-time affiliate in favor of maintaining its longtime multi-ethnic programming format. WGBO-TV became an Univision-owned station on December 31, 1994; the initial logo under the Univision name Spanish International Network, used from 1987 to 1989. Televisa still uses this logo today. 1987 became a pivotal year for the Spanish International Network and its owned-and-operated station group.
The Federal Communications Commission and SIN's competitors had long questioned whether the relationship between SIN and the Azcárraga family was impermissibly tight. Both the FCC and other Spanish-language broadcasters had long suspected that Televisa was using Nicolas to skirt FCC rules prohibiting foreign ownership of broadcast media; the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department encouraged a sale of the network to a properly constituted domestic organization. Spanish International Communications began discussions with various prospective buyers, culminating in Hallmark Cards, private equity firm First Chicago Venture
Blackboard Inc. is an educational technology company with corporate headquarters in Washington, D. C.. It is known for a learning management system; the company's CEO is William L. Ballhaus president and CEO of SRA International, named chairman and president on January 4, 2016, following the resignation of Jay Bhatt, who had led Blackboard since October 2012; the firm provides education, mobile and commerce software and related services to clients including education providers and government organizations. The software consists of seven platforms called Learn, Engage, Mobile and Analytics that are offered as bundled software; the firm was founded by Stephen Gilfus, Daniel Cane, Michael Chasen and Matthew Pittinsky through a business combination in 1997, became a public company in 2004. It operated publicly until it was purchased by Providence Equity Partners in 2011; as of January 2014, its software and services are used by 17,000 schools and organizations in 100 countries. Seventy-five percent of US colleges and universities and more than half of K–12 districts in the United States use its products and services.
According to Times Higher Education Reputation Ranking, 80 percent of the world's top academic institutions are said to use Blackboard tools. CourseInfo was founded in late 1996 as a cutting edge software provider founded by Cornell University students Stephen Gilfus and Daniel Cane. Gilfus wrote the business plan for CourseInfo and its Interactive Learning Network product while an undergraduate at Cornell. CourseInfo with Gilfus as the business lead and Cane as the lead developer had developed an innovative new platform for internet and networked learning called a "Course Management System" by Gilfus. Gilfus as product strategist and Cane as lead tech guru had identified a market fit and defined a category, as well as built a portfolio of 15 institutional clients including Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh and Yale Medical School; the product was sold to schools on an annual FTE licensing model - full school deployment enterprise model. Blackboard LLC. was founded in 1997 by Michael Chasen and Matthew Pittinsky and began as a consulting firm contracting to the non-profit IMS Global Learning Consortium developing a prototype for online learning and thinking through online learning standardization.
Chasen and Pittinsky started Blackboard after leaving KPMG Consulting where they both had worked as part of the company's higher education practice. In 1998, after Cane met Chasen at a conference on adaptive learning and Cane decided to merge CourseInfo LLC. with Chasen and Pittinky's Blackboard LLC. company in order to raise money and scale the business. The combined company became a corporation known as Blackboard Inc, they renamed. As an extension of CourseInfo's original two weeks for free courses, the company provided a hosted version "CourseSites" for teachers to try out for free. After having raised its seed round, the new company made a profit in its first year, its sales in 1998 approached US$1 million. Other early products included Blackboard Classroom and Blackboard Campus both derivatives of the original platform. In 2000, Blackboard acquired iCollege/College Enterprises Inc.'s campus card, introducing commerce capability to Blackboard's portfolio. By 2006, the firm's learning platform software was used in more than 40% of U.
S. college campuses and the company had gained a significant worldwide market share. This expansion was funded through venture capital from a number of investors, including Pearson PLC, Dell, AOL, The Carlyle Group and Novak Biddle Venture Partners. At this time the company renamed its "Course Management System" product category into the "Learning Management Systems" category in order to sell to the corporate space. Overseas expansion began in the early 2000s, growing to include Asia and Europe. Blackboard had its initial public offering in June 2004 under the stock market ticker BBBB. Sale of shares in the initial public offering raised an estimated $70 million for the company, making it the second-most successful technology IPO of that year. In 2006, Blackboard completed the acquisition of its largest competitor, WebCT Inc, enlarging its share of the higher education market to between 65 and 75 percent. Over the next five years, the company invested in a series of new products and acquisitions, including Blackboard Xythos, Blackboard Connect, Blackboard Mobile, Blackboard Collaborate, Blackboard Analytics.
Thus expanding beyond the learning management system market. By 2011, the firm's products were used by over half of colleges and universities in the US. On July 1, 2011, Blackboard agreed to a $1.64 billion buyout by an investor group led by Providence Equity Partners, completed on October 4, 2011. Following the sale, Providence Equity Partners merged Edline, its K-12 learning system, with Blackboard. Edline was renamed Blackboard Engage. According to a TechCrunch article from 2012, despite its success, Blackboard had become "one of the most disliked — detested — companies in education." In December 2011, Fast Company reported that 93% of respondents to the Amplicate customer opinion survey "hate" the company. In September 2017, Blackboard announced its expansion to the Indian Educational Market, it was said to partner with 50 educational institutions. Jay Bhatt succeeded Chasen as CEO of the company in October 2012. Bhatt came to the company after serving as the CEO of Progress Software; as CEO of Blackboard, Bhatt combined the company's product portfolio into offerings called solutions.
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
The Financial Times is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news. The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News; the Financial Times has over 740,000 digital subscribers. On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015. The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal; the readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the named Financial News: at the time it was cheaper to print on unbleached paper, but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.
After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent; the Lex column was introduced from Financial News. Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size and breadth of coverage, it established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT was printed in Frankfurt. Since with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U. S.
Asia and the Middle East. The European edition is distributed in continental Africa, it is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs. In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites funded by individual subscription. In 1997 the FT launched a U. S. edition, printed in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta and Washington, D.
C. although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK. In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg, its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner. FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years, it closed on 7 December 2012. The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title. Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual"Financial Times" and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 19 % of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising. Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal. Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform. In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, digital and events. In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base.
This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in sev
Topgolf is a global sports entertainment community headquartered in Dallas, Texas United States with locations throughout the North America, Australia, UAE, the UK. Topgolf operates 53 venues in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, employs 15,000 Associates and serves 15 million guests annually; the Topgolf games can be played by all ages and skill levels, the microchipped golf balls score themselves, providing players with instant feedback on each shot's accuracy and distance. Players aim for 11 giant dartboard-like targets on a 215-yard outfield; the farther the shot goes and the closer to the pin, the more points the player receives. Each Topgolf venue features climate-controlled hitting bays for year-round play, beverage, music and HDTVs on which various sports games are shown, such as football and golf. Topgolf offers golf lessons, tournaments and corporate and social events; the Topgolf technology was developed in Watford, England between 1996 and 2001 by twin brothers Steve and Dave Jolliffe.
The idea for Topgolf came when the two brothers were practicing their swings on a driving range and began thinking of different ways they could improve their experience. The Jolliffes formed a company called World Golf Systems and installed the technology in a driving range in Watford, England in 2001. WGS licensed the technology to a UK development company, Baydrive. Baydrive developed two additional UK sites; the original idea, for a casual golf and bar/dining experience came from Barry Cumbie, PhD, Mark Murray, MD, while attending college at Auburn University. The business, today known as TopGolf emerged from Golf Entertainment International, the US licensee; this company was established in London in 2006 to create a compelling customer experience and to bring the technology and the experience to the United States. GEI was formed by David Main and Eric Wilkinson. GEI transformed the early Topgolf experience to include food, drinks and new games. GEI developed its first sites in Alexandria, Dallas and Chicago, Illinois.
It acquired both World Golf Systems and the UK licensee. GEI changed its name at that point to name of the game: TopGolf. Today, Topgolf has the world's largest digital golf audience. Richard Grogan was the Company’s Chairman and Chief Executive from its formation until 2012. David Main spearheaded its US development. Eric Wilkinson was the Company’s finance director. Other investors joined the Company as it developed these first sites — among them was the Callaway Golf Company and the WestRiver Group; this allowed not only the US development but the consolidation of the varied operations as well. Thomas Dundon became a significant investor in 2011. By 2014, WestRiver Group was TopGolf’s lead investor. WestRiver was founded and is run by Erik Anderson, Erik Anderson is the Chairman of Topgolf. In 2016, TEG created three new divisions. Topgolf, the golf entertainment venues in the U. S. and U. K. Topgolf International, the division focused on Topgolf's international expansion, Topgolf Media, the division focused on enhancing the Topgolf experience through advanced digital media, strategic partnerships and sponsorships.
Additionally in 2016, Providence Equity Partners made a sizable minority investment in TEG. On June 23, 2016, it was announced that Village Roadshow Theme Parks would open a venue next door to its popular theme parks, Warner Bros. Movie World, Wet'n'Wild Gold Coast, Australian Outback Spectacular and Paradise Country in Oxenford, Queensland in Australia; this will be the first Topgolf venue outside the US and the UK. As the company expanded, Callaway Golf Company became an investor in 2006 and in 2011. In 2008, the company was incorporated as Topgolf International, Inc. In 2017, Topgolf created a new television series titled Who Will Rock You, where eight of the best unsigned bands across the country compete for $50,000 and a Topgolf tour. Depending on the venue, guests are charged per game; the U. K. locations and venues in Alexandria and Wood Dale are the only venues. Guests are required to have a membership. Information such as high scores are linked to this membership. Membership is a one-time $5 cost.
There are 53 Topgolf locations, 49 in the United States, three in the United Kingdom, one in Australia
Reuters is an international news organization. It has nearly 200 locations around the world; until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Japanese and Chinese, it was established in 1851. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange. Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House.
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia writing that "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act.
In 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s. In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989; the share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.
The last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U. S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they w