House of Representatives (Nepal)
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Federal parliament of Nepal, with the Upper house being the National Assembly. Members of the House of Representatives are elected through a parallel voting system, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the International Convention Centre in Kathmandu; the House has 275 members. The House of Representatives, unless dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, in a state of emergency, the term of the House of Representatives may be extended, not exceeding one year in accordance with federal law; the current House of Representatives was elected in 2017 and its first meeting was held on 4 March 2018. The House of Representatives was first provisioned by the "Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990", which replaced old panchayat system of parliament with bicameral parliament.
It consisted of 205 members directly elected from single member constituencies. It had five-year terms, but it could be dissolved by the King on the advice of the Prime Minister before the ending of its term. In 2002, the House of Representatives was dissolved by King Gyanendra on advice from The Prime Minister, Sher Bahadur Deuba, in May 2002 in order to hold new elections. Elections could not take place due to the ongoing civil war, which led King Gyanendra to stage a royal coup. Following the democracy movement of 2006, the King reinstated the earlier legislature. On 15 January 2007, the House of Representatives was transformed into an Interim legislature; the Interim legislature consisted of members appointed by an agreement between the Seven Party Alliance and the Communist Party of Nepal. The constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1959 proclaimed on 12 February 1959 mentions Pratinidhi Sabha first as below: There shall be a Parliament which shall consist of His Majesty and two Houses, to be known as the Senate and the Pratinidhi Sabha.
The constitution of Kingdom of Nepal, 1959 lasted till 16 December 1962. On 16 December 1962 a new Constitution Constitution of Kingdom of Nepal, 1962 proclaimed and the parliament of the Kingdom of Nepal became unicameral; the composition and powers of the house are established by Parts 8 and 9 of the Constitution of Nepal. The qualifications for becoming a member of the House are laid out in Article 87 of the Constitution and House of Representatives Election Act, 2017. Members must be: a citizen of Nepal twenty five years or older on date of nomination without a criminal offense conviction involving moral turpitude not disqualified by any federal law not hold any office of profit. In addition to this no member can be a member of both the House of Representatives and the National Assembly; the seat of a member of House of Representatives may be considered vacant in the following circumstances: if he or she resigns in writing to the Speaker or Chairperson, if he or she does not meet the requirements under Article 91, if his or her term of office expires or if the term of the House of Representatives expires, if he or she remains absent from ten consecutive meetings without notification to the House, if the party of which he or she was a member when elected provides notification in the manner set forth by law that he or she has abandoned the party.
If he or she dies. Rashtriya Sabha Elections in Nepal Parliament of Nepal
Birgunj is a metropolitan city and border town in Parsa District in the Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. It lies 135 km south of the capital Kathmandu, attached in the north to Raxaul in the border of the Indian state of Bihar; as an entry point to Nepal from Patna and Kolkata, it is known as the "Gateway to Nepal". The town has significant economic importance for Nepal as most of the trade with India is via Birgunj and the Indian town of Raxaul. Tribhuvan Highway links Birgunj to Kathmandu, it was declared a Metropolitan City on 22 May 2017 along with Pokhara. Birgunj is the second largest city in the Terai region of Nepal, the sixth most populated metropolis of the nation. Vijay Kumar Sarawagi is the mayor and Shanti Karki is the deputy mayor who won the local elections on September 27, 2017. Birgunj was established as a conglomerate of several villages around Gahawa Mai Temple. Gahawa Mai Temple remains the epicenter of the town; the settlement was named after the Rana Prime Minister Bir Shamsher, thus acquiring the name Birgunj.
According to the 2011 Census, Birgunj had a population of 133,238. It is the second biggest city in Terai and the fifth biggest city in Nepal after Kathmandu, Pokhara and Biratnagar, it serves as the headquarters of the Parsa District. Although Nepali is the official language, the native Bhojpuri language is the main language spoken. In addition to Bhojpuri, several other languages are spoken, including Maithili, Hindi and Newari. Birgunj was founded in 1897 by 3rd Rana Prime Minister Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. On 18 May 2006, the parliament of Nepal declared; this led to unrest by Hindu fundamentalist groups across Nepal. Birgunj is a major business centre of Nepal for trade with India. All trade with India occurs through this route; the Indian border town of Raxaul has become one of the busiest towns for heavy transportation due to high trade volume. The 29 km distance from Birgunj to Pathlaiya is the busiest highway in Nepal. Most industries are represented, including agriculture, textiles, petroleum, etc.
56% of the total products of Birgunj are exported to the Indian state of Bihar. Birgunj was built as the closest Nepalese city connecting the capital Kathmandu with India. Birgunj railway station was connected by the Nepal Government Railway to Raxaul station in Bihar across the border with India; the 47 km railway extended north to Amlekhganj in Nepal. It was built in 1927 by the British but discontinued beyond Birgunj in December 1965. Trains run to major cities of India from Raxaul station and Sugauli station including the Satyagrah Express to Delhi, Mithila Express to Kolkata, Lokmanya Tilak express to Mumbai, HYD-RXL express to Hyderabad. Thus, Birgunj has direct connectivity to major Indian cities like - Patna, Allahabad, New Delhi, Bhopal, Guwahati, Lucknow, Kanpur, Raipur, Hyderabad, etc. Birgunj is served by Simara Airport. Regular flights operate between Simara; the Second International Airport of Nepal in under construction at Nijgadh. There are plans to connect the new airport and Kathmandu via a "Fasttrack" expressway after its completion.
This is expected to reduce travel times between the capital and the commercial capital, Birgunj There are regular bus services to all major cities and towns in Nepal including Kathmandu, Patan, Biratnagar, Butwal, Dhangadhi, Janakpur, Bharatpur, etc. Local bus services provide transportation into its vicinity. Night buses from Birgunj to Kathmandu are the most luxurious bus services in all over Nepal. Birgunj bus park is the centre to find buses for any route, Horse driven carts locally called Tanga have been the mode of transport for the Madheshi people. Today it survives as a popular transportation vehicle between its sister city Raxaul; the 6 km railway track from Raxaul to Birgunj was converted to broad gauge two years after the Indian railways converted the track to Raxaul inside India to broad gauge. Now, broad gauge railway line connects Raxaul to the Sirsiya Inland Container Depot that became operational in 2005. Talks have been held to reopen the railway route from Birgunj to Amlekhganj in Nepal by converting it to broad gauge because of its socio-economic importance.
Goods are transported to and from India via Birgunj dry port, the key terminal of surface cargo delivery to Nepal. This cargo point on the south connects the heart of the country, via another key industrial city, Hetauda, it is served by Tribhuvan Highway, extending from the Indian border at Raxaul through Birgunj and Hetauda to Kathmandu with frequent bus service. Simara Airport — 9 mi north near the highway in Pipara Simara, Bara district — offers scheduled flights to Kathmandu. India and Nepal have an open border with no restrictions on the movement of their citizens. There is a customs checkpoint for the movement of third country nationals. Gadhimai Temple Parsa Wildlife Reserve Narayani StadiumGahawa Mai Temple Bindwasini Mai Temple Bhiswa Hillock Ghantaghar Shankaracharya Gate Vishwa Hindu Parishad Park Ghadiarwa Pokhari Birta Mai Temple The city has its own stadium, Narayani Stadium, Nepal's second largest sta
Janaki Mandir is a Hindu temple in Janakpur in the Mithila region of Nepal, dedicated to the Hindu goddess Sita. It is an example of Hindu-Koiri Nepali architecture, it is considered the most important model of Koiri architecture in Nepal. Built in bright white and constructed in an area of 4,860 sq. feet in a mixed style of Mughal and Koiri domes. It is a three-storied structure made of stone and marble. All its 60 rooms are decorated with the flag of Nepal, colored glass and paintings, with beautiful lattice windows and turrets. According to legends and epics, King Janak ruled this area during the Ramayana period, his daughter Janaki, during her swyambar, had chosen Lord Rama as her husband, become queen of Ayodhya. Their marriage ceremony had occurred in the nearby temple, called vivaha mandap; the site was designated as a UNESCO tentative site in 2008. The temple is popularly known as the Nau Lakha Mandir; the cost for the construction of the temple was about the same amount of money: rupees nine lakhs or nine hundred thousand, hence the name.
Queen Vrisha Bhanu of Tikamgarh, India built the temple in 1910 AD. In 1657, a golden statue of the Goddess Sita was found at the spot, Sita is said to have lived there; the legend said it that it was built on the holy site where Sannyasi Shurkishordas had found the images of Goddess Sita. In fact, Shurkishordas was the founder of modern Janakpur and the great saint and poet who preached about the Sita Upasana philosophy. Legend has claimed it; as of 26 April 2015, the temple is reported to have collapsed from the earthquake in April 2015. Every year, thousands of pilgrims from Nepal, Sri Lanka and other countries visit Ram Janaki Temple to worship Lord Ram and Sita. Many worshippers visit the temple during the festivals of Ram Nawami, Vivaha Panchami and Tihar. Sita Mai Temple Sita Upanishad Janaki Mandir on Google Maps
Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha
Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha is a Nepalese politician and the present Governor of Province No. 2 appointed by the Government of Nepal on 17 January 2018. He took oath as Governor of Province No. 2 on 19 January 2018. Earlier, he was the Secretary at Ministry of Agriculture and Director General at Department of Irrigation, Nepal. Kayastha began his political career with Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal in the 2004. Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha was born at Suga Bhawani, Mahottari on 3 May 1944 to Lal Kishore Lal & Achakmani Devi, his father was a secondary level Teacher. He was passed School Leaving Certificate in 1st division from Laxmi Chand Murarka Higher Secondary School in Jaleshwar and earned an Intermediates degree with Science from Tri-Chandra College, Kathmandu, he further studied Bachelor of Technology from the same college and he moved to IIT, Kharaghpur and Imperial College London for higher education degree. Kayastha joined Civil services of Nepal as an Engineer in 1964. Prof. Dr. Govinda Bahadur Tumbahang Anuradha Koirala Baburam Kunwar Durga Keshar Khanal
Sarlahi, a part of Province No. 2, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. According to new laws, combination of more than 2 or 4 villages makes a municipality, which covers an area of 1,259 km² and had a population of 635,701 in 2001 and 769,729 in 2011, it is bordered to the west by the Bagmati River, to the east by Mahottari District, to the north by the Sivalik Hills, to the south by Bihar State of India. The people of Sarlahi believe that the Sarlahi name comes from the name of Sarlahi Devi temple; the Sarlahi Devi temple is situated in Hempur village in the Sarlahi district. There is a believe that if someone goes to the temple at night with a light that person will die; that is. Still there is no residence around this temple; the district is famous for a couple of things. One of them is tomato supply. Lalbandi is the place of this district, famous for supplying tomato demand of whole country. Scientific tomato farming was practiced in Sarlahi district at Netragunj. Lalbandi is the most famous for growing tomato in the country, it is known as the Tomato capital of Nepal.
Farhadwa is the village, famous for fish production and export. The production of sugarcane is seems to be significant in the district; the Indushankr Chini Udhog Ltd. is a notable factory in the district. The Annapurna Sugars and General Industries Pvt Ltd is one of the largest Sugar mills in the country located in Dhankaul VDC of Sarlahi; the plant commenced trial operations on January 17, 2014 with a successful crushing of over 16 lakh quintals of cane. The mill will help in meeting sugar requirements of Nepal local market by producing around 300,000 quintals of White sugar; the mill is equipped with modern machineries to produce high quality sugar. Mill is helping support livelihood of thousands of people including farmers and labors. Not only that, the historical Nunthar Pahad, famous among different religious groups because of its typical geographical location, it is located in a strategic place bordering four districts Makawanpur, Sarlahi and Sindhuli. The Nadiman lake, important Puranic place, is located nearby Malangawa, believed to be the Yaksha pool, the mystic lake owned by the Yaksha himself.
The Pattharkot temple is the best known religious place here. The Sitlamai temple, The Bajrangbali temple, The Durga temple, The Gadhimai temple and laxmipur pokhari in Balara Municipality; the Sagaranatha temple in Iswarpur, the Gopalkuti mahadev temple in Karmaiya among many others are significant places in Sarlahi. The famous Soltibazaar is located here, growing as a commercial hub of the district. According to geographical texture Sarlahi district is divided into three parts. Chure mountain of north Bhanwar region of middle Terai region of southN/A In north side of this district from east to west there is the mountain range known as the Sivalik Hills, they have an average height of 900 metres. This range separates the terai from the inner terai and harbours the fossilised remains of many mammals no longer typical of Eurasia; this region is between what is north of the Sivalik hills and the southern Terai region, in the local language, it is called as char koshe jhadi and thethi. The height of this region is from 150 m to 300 m.
Mahendra Highway is touching this area so nowadays people settlement is increasing, in this region water source level is always at low the following water is disappears because of sandiness. It is difficult to obtain water by digging. So in this region irrigation system is problematic one; this region goes to India's bihar. From ancient time this region has large public density and good place for farming, so this region is called Treasurer of grain.. However there are around a dozen other small rivulets that originate from the Chure hills and flow down the plain, they are the tributaries of the three major river system of the district. These small rivulets are the Hariwan khola, the Dhungre khola, the Soti khola, the Sotraha khola, the Chapini khola, the Pathlaiya khola, the Kalinjor khola, the Phooljor khola and the Banke Khola; the Banke Khola is the eastern demarcation of the district separating it from Mahottari district whereas the Bagmati river flows between Sarlahi and Rautahat districts.
Bagmati river systemIt is the largest river, flowing in the western side of district separating Rautahat district from Sarlahi. Lakhandei river systemThis river is the largest river inside the district, it is about 25 kilometer long, it originates from the lowest foothills of the Great Himalayan ranges. It flows into India by touching simara VDC of this district. Jhim river systemOriginated from north east side of Chure mountains of this districts into Phuljor river and Kalinjor river joins at the Vairawpur village of Jabdi VDC it becomes Jhim river, it is 29 km long and by flowing into districts passes into india, in India this river is known as Adhwara river. Adhwara river was the east border of Makwanpur region. Banke river. Banke river was the east border of Sarlhi district. There are many rivers in this district including the Adhwara River of the east which empties into the Jhim River, Manushmara river, in middle of the district Dhangra and Bhumi rivers. Bhatauliya river systemThis river is t
Siraha District (Nepali: सिराहा जिल्लाListen, a part of Province No. 2, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal. The district, with Siraha as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,188 km², it has population of 637,328 in 2011. The district consists of seventeen municipalities, out of which eight are urban municipalities and nine are rural municipalities; these are as follows: Lahan Municipality Dhangadhimai Municipality Siraha Municipality Golbazar Municipality Mirchaiya Municipality Kalyanpur Municipality Karjanha Municipality Sukhipur Municipality Bhagwanpur Rural Municipality Aurahi Rural Municipality Bishnupur Rural Municipality Bariyarpatti Rural Municipality Lakshmipur Patari Rural Municipality Naraha Rural Municipality Sakhuwanankar Katti Rural Municipality Arnama Rural Municipality Navarajpur Rural Municipality Zones of Nepal Paudhur "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G