Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park is the first national park in Nepal. It was established in 1973 and granted the status of a World Heritage Site in 1984, it covers an area of 952.63 km2 and is located in the subtropical Inner Terai lowlands of south-central Nepal in the districts of Nawalpur, Parsa and Makwanpur. In altitude it ranges from about 100 m in the river valleys to 815 m in the Churia Hills. In the north and west of the protected area the Narayani-Rapti river system forms a natural boundary to human settlements. Adjacent to the east of Chitwan National Park is Parsa National Park, contiguous in the south is the Indian Tiger Reserve Valmiki National Park; the coherent protected area of 2,075 km2 represents the Tiger Conservation Unit Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki, which covers a 3,549 km2 huge block of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests. Since the end of the 19th century Chitwan – Heart of the Jungle – used to be a favorite hunting ground for Nepal’s ruling class during the cool winter seasons.
Until the 1950s, the journey from Kathmandu to Nepal’s south was arduous as the area could only be reached by foot and took several weeks. Comfortable camps were set up for the feudal big game hunters and their entourage, where they stayed for a couple of months shooting hundreds of tigers, rhinocerosses and sloth bears. In 1950, Chitwan’s forest and grasslands extended over more than 2,600 km2 and was home to about 800 rhinos; when poor farmers from the mid-hills moved to the Chitwan Valley in search of arable land, the area was subsequently opened for settlement, poaching of wildlife became rampant. In 1957, the country's first conservation law inured to the protection of their habitat. In 1959, Edward Pritchard Gee undertook a survey of the area, recommended creation of a protected area north of the Rapti River and of a wildlife sanctuary south of the river for a trial period of ten years. After his subsequent survey of Chitwan in 1963, this time for both the Fauna Preservation Society and the International Union for Conservation of Nature, he recommended extension of the sanctuary to the south.
By the end of the 1960s, 70% of Chitwan’s jungles had been cleared, malaria eradicated using DDT, thousands of people had settled there, only 95 rhinos remained. The dramatic decline of the rhino population and the extent of poaching prompted the government to institute the Gaida Gasti – a rhino reconnaissance patrol of 130 armed men and a network of guard posts all over Chitwan. To prevent the extinction of rhinos the Chitwan National Park was gazetted in December 1970, with borders delineated the following year and established in 1973 encompassing an area of 544 km2; when the first protected areas were established in Chitwan, Tharu communities were forced to relocate from their traditional lands. They were thus forced into a situation of landlessness and poverty; when the Chitwan National Park was designated, Nepalese soldiers destroyed the villages located inside the boundary of the park, burned down houses, beat the people who tried to plough their fields. Some threatened Tharu people at gun point to leave.
In 1977, the park was enlarged to its present area of 932 km2. In 1997, a bufferzone of 766.1 km2 was added to the north and west of the Narayani-Rapti river system, between the south-eastern boundary of the park and the international border to India. The park's headquarters is in Kasara. Close-by the gharial and turtle conservation breeding centres have been established. In 2008, a vulture breeding centre was inaugurated aiming at holding up to 25 pairs of each of the two Gyps vultures species now critically endangered in Nepal - the Oriental white-backed vulture and the slender-billed vulture. Chitwan has a tropical monsoon climate with high humidity all through the year; the area is located in the central climatic zone of the Himalayas, where monsoon starts in mid June and eases off in late September. During these 14–15 weeks most of the 2,500 mm yearly precipitation falls – it is pouring with rain. After mid-October the monsoon clouds have retreated, humidity drops off, the top daily temperature subsides from ±36 °C / 96.8 °F to ±18 °C / 64.5 °F.
Nights cool down to 5 °C / 41.0 °F until late December, when it rains for a few days. Temperatures start rising gradually; the typical vegetation of the Inner Terai is Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests with predominantly sal trees covering about 70% of the national park area. The purest stands of sal occur on well drained lowland ground in the centre. Along the southern face of the Churia Hills sal is interspersed with chir pine. On northern slopes sal associates with smaller flowering tree and shrub species such as beleric, axlewood, elephant apple, grey downy balsam and creepers such as Bauhinia vahlii and Spatholobus parviflorus. Seasonal bushfires and erosion evoke an ever-changing mosaic of riverine forest and grasslands along the river banks. On deposited alluvium and in lowland areas groups of catechu with rosewood predominate, followed by groups of kapok with rhino apple trees, the fruits of which rhinos savour so much. Understorey shrubs of velvety beautyberry, hill glory bower and gooseberry offer shelter and lair to a wide variety of species.
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands cover about 20% of the park’s area. More than 50 species are found here including some of the world
House of Representatives (Nepal)
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Federal parliament of Nepal, with the Upper house being the National Assembly. Members of the House of Representatives are elected through a parallel voting system, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the International Convention Centre in Kathmandu; the House has 275 members. The House of Representatives, unless dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, in a state of emergency, the term of the House of Representatives may be extended, not exceeding one year in accordance with federal law; the current House of Representatives was elected in 2017 and its first meeting was held on 4 March 2018. The House of Representatives was first provisioned by the "Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990", which replaced old panchayat system of parliament with bicameral parliament.
It consisted of 205 members directly elected from single member constituencies. It had five-year terms, but it could be dissolved by the King on the advice of the Prime Minister before the ending of its term. In 2002, the House of Representatives was dissolved by King Gyanendra on advice from The Prime Minister, Sher Bahadur Deuba, in May 2002 in order to hold new elections. Elections could not take place due to the ongoing civil war, which led King Gyanendra to stage a royal coup. Following the democracy movement of 2006, the King reinstated the earlier legislature. On 15 January 2007, the House of Representatives was transformed into an Interim legislature; the Interim legislature consisted of members appointed by an agreement between the Seven Party Alliance and the Communist Party of Nepal. The constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1959 proclaimed on 12 February 1959 mentions Pratinidhi Sabha first as below: There shall be a Parliament which shall consist of His Majesty and two Houses, to be known as the Senate and the Pratinidhi Sabha.
The constitution of Kingdom of Nepal, 1959 lasted till 16 December 1962. On 16 December 1962 a new Constitution Constitution of Kingdom of Nepal, 1962 proclaimed and the parliament of the Kingdom of Nepal became unicameral; the composition and powers of the house are established by Parts 8 and 9 of the Constitution of Nepal. The qualifications for becoming a member of the House are laid out in Article 87 of the Constitution and House of Representatives Election Act, 2017. Members must be: a citizen of Nepal twenty five years or older on date of nomination without a criminal offense conviction involving moral turpitude not disqualified by any federal law not hold any office of profit. In addition to this no member can be a member of both the House of Representatives and the National Assembly; the seat of a member of House of Representatives may be considered vacant in the following circumstances: if he or she resigns in writing to the Speaker or Chairperson, if he or she does not meet the requirements under Article 91, if his or her term of office expires or if the term of the House of Representatives expires, if he or she remains absent from ten consecutive meetings without notification to the House, if the party of which he or she was a member when elected provides notification in the manner set forth by law that he or she has abandoned the party.
If he or she dies. Rashtriya Sabha Elections in Nepal Parliament of Nepal
Province No. 1
Province No. 1 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar has been declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer. The Kiratas were the aborigines of the north-eastern Himalayas. According to Baburam Acharya, they ruled over it, they were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, were skillful archers, they were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas.
Yalamber the king of the Kiratas defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of the Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Trishuli River in the west. Kirata's Kingdom was divided into many principalities and chiefs ruled in eastern Nepal. Limbuwan, Morang Kingdom belonged to them. King of Gorkha unified all the kirati kingdoms or Principalities in Nepal from 1771 to 1789. Before establishment of new constitution on 20 September 2015, the area of Province No. 1 was one of the five Development Regions of Nepal, named Eastern Development Region. It had 16 districts, 14 existing districts of Province No. 1 and 2 districts Siraha and Saptari of Province No. 2. The Eastern Development Region was divided into 3 zones; the zones were: Kosi Zone and Sagarmatha Zone. Mechi included 4 districts, Kosi included Sagarmatha included 6 districts; the total area of The region was 28,456 km². Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 km2. The Province has three-fold geographical division: Himalayan in the north, Hilly in the middle and Terai in the southern part of Nepal, varying between an altitude of 60 m and 8,848 m.
Terai, extended from east to west, is made up of alluvial soil. To the west of Koshi River, in between Mahabharat Range and Churia Range, there elongates a valley called Inner Terai. Churai Range, Mahabharat Range and other hills of various height, basins and valleys form the hilly region; some parts of this region are favorable for agriculture but some other parts are not. Himalayan region, in the north, consists of many mountains ranges. Mahalangur, Umvek, Lumba Sumba and Janak being some of them; the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. Nepal's lowest point, Kechana Kawal at 58 m, is located in Jhapa district of this Province. There are gentle slopes as well. Chure, many basins and valleys form the Terai region. Between the Churia and Mahabharat a low land of inner Terai exists; the Koshi river flows through the region with its seven tributaries. Tundra vegetables, coniferous forest, deciduous monsoon forests and sub-tropical evergreen woods are vegetations found here. Sub-tropical, sub-temperate, alpine and tundra types of climates are found here.
Province No. 1 includes the snow fall capped peaks including Mt. Everest, Makalu with Solukhumbu and Taplejung districts towards the north, the jungle clad hill tracts of Okhaldhunga, Bhojpur, Tehrathum and Panchthar in the middle and the alluvial fertile plains of Udayapur, Sunsari and Jhapa. Province 1 includes places like Haleshi Mahadev Temple, Pathivara Temple and Barahachhetra, which are the famous religious shrines for Hindus. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. Province no. 1 has three geographical folds: The low-land of Terai, the hilly region and the highlands of the Himalayas. The low land altitude is 59 m. Whereas the highest point is 8848 m. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Climatically, the southern belt of Province, the Terai, experiences warm and humid climate. Eastern Nepal receives 2,500 millimeters of rain annually. Province no. 1 has five seasons: spring, monsoon and winter.
Northern part of Province No. 1 has the highest mountain of the world and there are many peaks that are higher. Here is a list of mountains in Province No. 1. There are many rivers in the region which flow towards south from the Himalayas which are tributaries of other large rivers which joins Ganga River. Sapt Koshi or the Koshi is the main river of the region. Seven tributaries join the Koshi; the major rivers in the province are: Mechi River Kankai River Koshi River Below given names are tributaries: Tamor Arun River Sun Koshi Dudh Koshi Likhu Khola Bhote Koshi Indrawati River Sagarmatha National Park – 1,148 km2 Makalu Barun National Park – 1,500 km2 Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve – 175 km2 Kanchenjunga Conservation Area – 2,035 km2 Gokyo Lake Complex – 7,770 ha Kosi
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Kathmandu is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of around 1 million. Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is understood; the City of Temples stands at an elevation of 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is termed as "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of Newar culture, a cosmopolitan urban civilisation in the Himalayan foothills; the city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008. Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art and economy, it has a multiethnic population within a Buddhist majority. It is the home of the Newars. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu.
Tourism is an important part of the economy. The city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, home to seven world heritage sites: the Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka and Bhaktapur. There are seven casinos in the city. Historic areas of Kathmandu were damaged by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Some of the buildings have been restored and some are in the process of reconstruction. NCP’s Bidya Sundar Shakya is the Mayor of Kathmandu Metropolitan city and Hari Prabha Khadgi of Nepali Congress is the deputy mayor. Indigenous Newari term for Kathmandu valley is Yei; the Pahari name Kathmandu comes from Kasthamandap temple. In Sanskrit, Kastha means "Wood" and Maṇḍapa means "Pavilion"; this public pavilion known as Maru Satta: in the Newar language, was rebuilt in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The three-story structure was made of wood and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legend, all the timber used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree.
The structure collapsed during a major earthquake on 25 April 2015. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, refer to Kathmandu as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap Mahānagar in Nepal Mandala. Mahānagar means "great city"; the city is called "Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap" in a vow. Thus, Kathmandu is known as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap. During medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kāntipur; this name is derived from two Sanskrit words -- pur. "Kānti" is a word that stands for "beauty" and is associated with light and "pur" means place. Thus, giving it a meaning as "City of light". Among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeṃ Deśa, Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Deśa and Khwopa Deśa. "Yen" is the shorter form of Yambu, which referred to the northern half of Kathmandu. Archaeological excavations in parts of Kathmandu have found evidence of ancient civilisations; the oldest of these findings is a statue, found in Maligaon, dated at 185 AD. The excavation of Dhando Chaitya uncovered a brick with an inscription in Brahmi script.
Archaeologists believe. Stone inscriptions are a ubiquitous element at heritage sites and are key sources for the history of Nepal; the earliest Western reference to Kathmandu appears in an account of Jesuit Fathers Johann Grueber and Albert d'Orville. In 1661, they passed through Nepal on their way from Tibet to India, reported that they reached "Cadmendu", the capital of Nepal kingdom; the ancient history of Kathmandu is described in its traditional legends. According to Swayambhu Purana, present-day Kathmandu was once a huge and deep lake named "Nagdaha", as it was full of snakes; the lake was cut drained by Bodhisatwa Manjusri with his sword, the water was evacuated out from there. He established a city called Manjupattan, made Dharmakar the ruler of the valley land. After some time, a demon named Banasur closed the outlet, the valley again turned into a lake. Lord Krishna came to Nepal, killed Banasur, again drained out the water, he made Bhuktaman the king of Nepal. Kotirudra Samhita of Shiva Purana, Chapter 11, shloka 18 refers to the place as Nayapala city, famous for its Pashupati Shivalinga.
The name Nepal originates from this city Nayapala. Few historical record exists of the period before medieval Licchavis rulers. According to Gopalraj Vansawali, a genealogy of Nepali monarchy, the rulers of Kathmandu Valley before the Licchavis were Gopalas, Aabhirs and Somavanshi; the Kirata dynasty was established by Yalamber. During the Kirata era, a settlement called. In some of the Sino-Tibetan languages, Kathmandu is still called Yambu. Another smaller settlement called Yengal was present in the southern half of old Kathmandu, near Manjupattan. During the reign of the seventh Kirata ruler, Buddhist monks entered Kathmandu valley and established a forest monastery at Sankhu; the Licchavis from the Indo-Gangetic plain migrated north and defeated the Kiratas, establis
A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move.
There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ — a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros.
The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.
The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.
In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68
Province No. 2
Province No. 2 is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal, formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, smallest province by area, it borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal; the Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west; the province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri and Nepali; the Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism.
It is thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times. The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal; the town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province; as per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2. Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister; the region is surrounded by: The Sunsari District of Province No. 1 to the East. The Chitwan District of Province No. 3 to the West. The Makwanpur District and Sindhuli District of Province No. 3 and Udayapur District of Province No. 1 to the North. India to the South; as per Central Bureau of Statistics the province covers about 9,661 km2. of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2. With total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is the second most populous province in Nepal.
The province is located on flat plains of Terai, Chure or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. The southern side has an international border with the India. Koshi River on its eastern side acting as a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series. Koshi River, Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River and Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Janakpur High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha, Mohammad Lalbabu Raut and Udaya Prakash Chapagain. The province has 107 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 2 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years.
The Provincial Assembly of Province No. 2 is temporarily housed at the District Education Office in Janakpur. Province No. 2 is divided into eight districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city, three sub-metropolitan cities and 73 municipalities. There are 59 rural municipalities in the province. Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the transportation has not been well developed in the region due to lack of investments and negligence. The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from this highway. Janakpurdham, Birgunj AND Gaur lie 25,10,24 and 42 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively; the Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is most important link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the India.
The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important International Gateway and trade way for this province and entire country and hence known as "The Gateway of Nepal". In terms of revenue generation, Birjung custom point is the largest. Birendra highway whhich is connected to Mahendra highway from Headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahpur. Which is 42km in length. Mahendra Highway - Part Postal Highway - Part Tribhuvan Highway - Part Birendra Highway - part A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railway for business and tourism promotion. Janakpur to Lhasa Bardibas, Janakpur to Jainagar, Bihar Janakpur to Kathmandu Janakpur to Biratnagar Janakpur to Nepalgunj Janakpur to Birgunj Province No. 2 has 3 airports: Rajbiraj Airport, in Rajbiraj Janakpur Airport in Janakpur.
Simara Airport in Pipara Simara close to Birganj. Nijgadh International Airport in Bara district. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal