Constitution of Nepal
Constitution of Nepal 2015 is the present governing Constitution of Nepal. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution which came into effect on Sept 20, 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007; the constitution of Nepal is divided into 308 Articles and 9 Schedules. The Constitution was drafted by the Second Constituent Assembly following the failure of the First Constituent Assembly to produce a constitution in its mandated period after the devastating earthquake in April 2015; the constitution was parties. Its institutions were put in place in 2010 and 2018 through a series of direct and indirect elections in all governing levels; the Interim Constitution provided for a Constituent Assembly, charged with writing Nepal's temporary constitution. Under the terms of the Interim Constitution, the new constitution was to be promulgated by April 28, 2010, but the Constituent Assembly postponed the promulgation by a year because of disagreements. On May 25, 2011, the Supreme Court of Nepal ruled that the 2010 extension of the Interim Constitution was not right.
Since May 29, 2011 the Constituent Assembly extended the Interim Constitution. On May 28, 2012, the Constituent Assembly was dissolved after it failed to finish the constitution after the latest extension, ending four years of constitution drafting and leaving the country in a legal vacuum. New elections were held on November 19, 2013 to the Second Nepalese Constituent Assembly and political leaders pledged to draft a new constitution within a year; the new assembly expressly committed that the new constitution would be promulgated on January 22, 2015. However, due to continued differences on key issues including system of governance, judicial system and federation issues like number and areas of the states to be carved, the constitution could not be finalized and promulgated in time; the constitution is written in gender neutral terms. Some of the important aspects of the constitution include the following: The Constitution restructured Nepal into a federal republic; the Constitution divided the nation into seven provinces and completed the transition of Nepal from constitutional monarchy to republicanism and from a unitary system to federalism.
Nepal is defined in article 4 as an "independent, sovereign, inclusive, socialism-oriented, federal democratic republican state." A bicameral parliamentary system was created with two Federal houses and unicameral parliamentary systems in each province. A mixed electoral system was adopted for the elections of the lower Federal house with both first-past-the-post and proportional electoral aspects used to elect members; the rights of gender and sexual minorities are protected by the new constitution with provisions of special laws to protect and develop minority groups as well as allowing them to get citizenship in their chosen gender. The rights of women were explicitly recognized, the constitution stating that “women shall have equal ancestral right without any gender-based discrimination.” Acts leading to conversions from one religion to another were banned, acts that undermine or jeopardize the religion of another prohibited. At the same time the constitution declares the nation to be secular and neutral toward all religions.
Nepal has continued not to use the death penalty. Nepal had abolished capital punishment in 1990 after the promulgation of that year's Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal. We,the Sovereign People of Nepal, Internalizing the people's sovereign right and right to autonomy and self-rule, while maintaining freedom, territorial integrity, national unity and dignity of Nepal, Recalling the glorious history of historic people's movements, armed conflict and sacrifice undertaken by the Nepalese people at times for the interest of the nation and progressive changes, respecting for the martyrs and disappeared and victim citizens, Ending all forms of discrimination and oppression created by the feudalistic, centralized, unitary system of governance and promoting social and cultural solidarity and harmony, unity in diversity by recognizing the multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural and diverse regional characteristics, resolving to build an egalitarian society founded on the proportional inclusive and participatory principles in order to ensure economic equality and social justice, by eliminating discrimination based on class, region, language and gender and all forms of caste- based untouchability, Being committed to socialism based on democratic norms and values including the people's competitive multiparty democratic system of governance, civil liberties, fundamental rights, human rights, adult franchise, periodic elections, full freedom of the press, independent and competent judiciary and concept of the rule of law, build a prosperous nation,Do hereby pass and promulgate this Constitution, through the Constituent Assembly, in order to fulfill the aspirations for sustainable peace, good governance and prosperity through the federal, republican, system of governance.
In the 68-year history of constitutional development up to this Constitution, Nepal experienced 7 different constitutions in different time periods. Previous constitutions of Nepal were enacted in 1948, 1951, 1959, 1962, 1990 and 2007. In 2004 Bikram Sambat, the Government of Nepal Act was enacted. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the country had been a monarchy where the prime ministers, from the Rana dynasty, had sweeping control over the affairs of the state; the 1948 document introduced limited democ
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G
The Bengal tiger is a Panthera tigris tigris population in the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008, was estimated at comprising fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011, it is threatened by poaching and fragmentation of habitat. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within its range is considered large enough to support an effective population of more than 250 adult individuals. India's tiger population was estimated at 1,706–1,909 individuals in 2010. By 2014, the population had reputedly increased to an estimated 2,226 individuals. Around 440 tigers are estimated in 103 tigers in Bhutan; the tiger is estimated to be present in the Indian subcontinent since the Late Pleistocene, for about 12,000 to 16,500 years. The Bengal tiger ranks among the biggest wild cats alive today, it is considered to belong to the world's charismatic megafauna. It is the national animal of both Bangladesh, it is known as the Royal Bengal tiger. Felis tigris was the scientific name used by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 for the tiger.
It was subordinated to the genus Panthera by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1929. Bengal is the traditional type locality of the species and the nominate subspecies Panthera tigris tigris; the validity of several tiger subspecies in continental Asia was questioned in 1999. Morphologically, tigers from different regions vary little, gene flow between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the Pleistocene. Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two subspecies as valid, namely P. t. tigris in mainland Asia, P. t. sondaica in the Greater Sunda Islands and in Sundaland. The extinct and living tiger populations in continental Asia have been subsumed to P. t. tigris since the revision of felid taxonomy in 2017. The Bengal tiger is defined by three distinct mitochondrial nucleotide sites and 12 unique microsatellite alleles; the pattern of genetic variation in the Bengal tiger corresponds to the premise that it arrived in India 12,000 years ago. This is consistent with the lack of tiger fossils from the Indian subcontinent prior to the late Pleistocene, the absence of tigers from Sri Lanka, separated from the subcontinent by rising sea levels in the early Holocene.
The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black. The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the tiger, reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal and from the former State of Rewa. However, it is not to be mistaken as an occurrence of albinism. In fact, there is only one authenticated case of a true albino tiger, none of black tigers, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846. Males have an average total length of 270 to 310 cm including the tail, while females measure 240 to 265 cm on average; the tail is 85 to 110 cm long, on average, tigers are 90 to 110 cm in height at the shoulders. The weight of males ranges from 180 to 258 kg; the smallest recorded weights for Bengal tigers are from the Bangladesh Sundarbans, where adult females are 75 to 80 kg. The tiger has exceptionally stout teeth, its canines are 7.5 to 10 cm long and thus the longest among all cats. The greatest length of its skull is 332 to 376 mm. Bengal tigers weigh up to 325 kg, reach a head and body length of 320 cm.
Several scientists indicated that adult male Bengal tigers from the Terai in Nepal and Bhutan, Assam and West Bengal in north India attain more than 227 kg of body weight. Seven adult males captured in Chitwan National Park in the early 1970s had an average weight of 235 kg ranging from 200 to 261 kg, that of the females was 140 kg ranging from 116 to 164 kg. Thus, the Bengal tiger rivals the Amur tiger in average weight. In addition, the record for the greatest length of a tiger skull was an "over the bone" length of 16.25 in. Verifiable Sundarbans tiger weights are not found in any scientific literature. Forest Department records list weight measurements. There are reports of head and body lengths, some of which are listed as over 366 cm. More researchers from the University of Minnesota and the Bangladesh Forest Department carried out a study for the US Fish and Wildlife Service and weighed three Sundarbans tigresses from Bangladesh. Two of them were captured and sedated for radio-collaring, the other one had been killed by local villagers.
The two collared tigresses were weighed using 150 kg scales, the tigress killed by villagers was weighed using a balance scale and weights. The three tigresses had a mean weight of 76.7 kg. One of the two older female's weight 75 kg weighed less than the mean because of her old age and poor condition at the time of capture; the teeth wear of the two radio-collared females indicated that they were between 12 and 14 years old. The tigress killed by the villagers was a young adult between 3 and 4 years old, she was a pre-territorial transient. Skulls and body weights of Sundarbans tigers were found to be distinct from tigers in other habitats, indicating that they may have adapted to the unique conditions of the mangrove habitat, their small sizes are due to a combination of
Bardiya National Park
Bardiya National Park spelled Bardia, is a protected area in Nepal, established in 1988 as Royal Bardia National Park. Covering an area of 968 km2 it is the largest and most undisturbed national park in Nepal's Terai, adjoining the eastern bank of the Karnali River and bisected by the Babai River in the Bardiya District, its northern limits are demarcated by the crest of the Siwalik Hills. The Nepalgunj-Surkhet highway forms the southern boundary, but disrupts the protected area. Natural boundaries to human settlements are formed in the west by the Geruwa, a branch of the Karnali River, in the southeast by the Babai River. Together with the neighboring Banke National Park, the coherent protected area of 1,437 km2 represents the Tiger Conservation Unit Bardia-Banke that extends over 2,231 km2 of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests. In 1815, Nepal lost this region to the East India Company through the Sugauli Treaty. For 45 years it was a part of British India and returned to Nepal in 1860 in recognition for supporting the suppression of the Indian Independence movement in 1857.
Today, this annexed area is still called Naya Muluk meaning new country. An area of 368 km2 was set aside as Royal Hunting Reserve in 1969 and gazetted as Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve in 1976. In 1982, it was proclaimed as Royal Bardia Wildlife Reserve and extended to include the Babai River Valley in 1984. In 1988, the protected area was gazetted as national park; the 1500 people who used to live in this valley have been resettled elsewhere. Since farming has ceased in the Babai Valley, the natural regenerated vegetation makes the area a prime habitat for wildlife. About 70% of the park is covered with forest, with the balance a mixture of grassland and riverine forest; the flora recorded in the park comprises 839 species of flora, including 173 vascular plant species comprising 140 dicots, 26 monocots, six fern, one gymnosperm species. The wide range of vegetation types in forest and grassland provides excellent habitat for 642 faunal species; the Karnali-Babai river system, their small tributaries and myriads of oxbow lakes is habitat for 125 recorded species of fish.
A small population of gharial inhabits the rivers. Apart from the mugger crocodiles, 23 reptile and amphibian species have been recorded; the Bardiya National Park is home to at least 53 mammals including rhinoceros, wild elephant, Bengal tiger, swamp deer, Gangetic dolphin. Rhinoceros: Translocation of rhinos from Chitwan to Bardia National Park commenced in 1986, with 58 individuals relocated until 2000. From 1994 to 2000, hunters have been unsuccessful at poaching rhinos. In April 2000, there were 67 rhinos in most of them resident in the Babai Valley. In May 2006, a reconnaissance survey was carried out in the Babai River floodplain, which revealed an alarming decline in the rhino population. Poaching was suspected to be the main cause of this decline. Subsequent surveys in 2007 and 2008 have confirmed the complete disappearance of rhinos from Babai Valley. In different habitats of the Karnali floodplain 25 rhinos were recorded based on direct observation and indirect signs of rhino dung and tracks.
They were congregated in the floodplain grassland, riverine forest and wetlands. In March 2008, only 22 rhinos were counted, two of them were poached after the count; the World Wide Fund for Nature reported that by 2015, the rhino population had risen to 29 because of increased security measures. Elephants: In 1985, two large elephant bulls were spotted for the first time in the park, named Raja Gaj and Kanchha, they made occasional visits to the females. Raja Gaj had a massive body weight, his appearance has been compared to that of a mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head. His forehead and domes were more prominent than in other Asian bull elephants. In 1993, five elephants were seen entering the park, one year another 16 individuals arrived. A population count in summer 1997 revealed 41 resident individuals. In 2002, more than 60 individuals were estimated to reside in the Karnali floodplain and the Babai Valley. Current checklists include 407 bird species, among them the Bengal florican, white-rumped vulture and bar-headed geese, which are symbolic of the park.
Lesser florican and sarus crane are present. Jane Wilson-Howarth. A Glimpse of Eternal Snows: a journey of love and loss in the Himalayas. Bradt Travel Guides, UK. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-84162-435-8. BirdLife International. "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bardia National Park". Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Nepal: Bardiya National Park
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Banke District (Nepali: बाँके जिल्लाListen, a part of Province No. 5, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. The district, located in midwestern Nepal with Nepalganj as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,337 km² and had a population of 385,840 in 2001 and 491,313 in 2011. There are three main cities in the Banke District: Nepalganj and Khajura Bajaar. Banke is bordered on the west by Bardiya district. Rapti zone's Salyan and Dang Deukhuri Districts border to the east. To the south lies Uttar Pradesh, India, a country in Asia. East of Nepalganj the international border follows the southern edge of the Dudhwa Range of the Siwaliks. Most of the district is drained by the Rapti, except the district's western edge is drained by the Babai. Rapti and Babai cross into Uttar Pradesh, a state in India, Nepal's neighboring country and join the Karnali, whose name has changed to Ghaghara. There are one Sub-metropolitan city, one Municipality and six Rural Municipalities in Banke District. Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan City Kohalpur Municipality Rapti-Sonari Rural Municipality Narainapur Rural Municipality Duduwa Rural Municipality Janaki Rural Municipality Khajura Rural Municipality Baijanath Rural Municipality Zones of Nepal "Districts of Nepal".
Butwal Butwal Sub-Metropolitan is one of the twin cities of growing Butwal-Bhairahawa urban agglomeration in Nepal. It is the largest sub-metropalitan city in Nepal, it lies in Province No. 5, Rupandehi District and the interim capital of province 5 of Nepal. It is home to the administrative headquarters of Lumbini Zone; this city stands beside the bank of Tilottama River Tinau River, at the northern edge of the Terai plain below the Siwalik Hills. Its name, Butwal was derived from Batauli Bazaar, the town's oldest residential area, located on the western bank of Tinau river. Butwal is a lively city comprising the Panoramic views of the combination of plains. Geographically, Butwal is at the intersection of Nepal's two different National Highways, Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway, it connects western Nepal with the capital Kathmandu through air links. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in Nepal for education, highway, marketing and safety, communication and banking sectors, it has highway connections to the Indian border at Sunauli and to the hilly towns in Tansen and Pokhara valley, holds the title of being "The Best City in Nepal" five times in a row.
Notable areas within Butwal includes: Charange - Residential area on the eastern suburb of city. Traffic Chowk - City Center of Butwal. Maitri Path - Also known as IT Market Local people called Computer Market computer, Mobile, Printers, CCTV etc. Amar path - Usually known as a shopping line for clothing, furnishings, etc. Golpark - Residential area below the shades of hills. Milan chowk - Commercial site. Raj Margh Chaurah - Central junction of Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway. Kalikanagar - Chief residential area of Butwal. Devinagar - Residential area accompanying an ANFA Football Stadium. Butwal Bus Terminal - City's main transportation hub called Bus Park in Local terms and site for small business hotels. Haat Bazaar - Weekly organized market or Greengrocer. Deepnagar - Residential area at the foothills of Siwalik range. Paari Butwal - Also known as Batauli or Khasayuli; the oldest residential area of Butwal. Maina Bagar - Automobiles zone for repairs and service. Called Auto Village. Tamnagar - Former VDC, now a part of Butwal Sub-Metropolitan that lies on the western suburb of the city.
Located 10 km from the city centre. Chidiyakhola- Ward no. 03, nearby Tinau river, is known for the Sarswoti Dhara, Ramapithecus Park and Lower Sidhhababa Temple. It is surrounded by hills, has a supply of water from Sarswoti Dhara. Butwal was declared as sub-metropolitan city on 2 December 2014 by combining two neighbouring VDCs Motipur and Semlar. Fossils of ancient hominoids Ramapithecus were found near the Tinau River as early as 1932, including a 10.1-million-year-old tooth. The area was a loose settlement which acted as a trading post between the hilly districts of Lumbini zone and the Indian plains, thus Butwal connected Nepali people with their Indian neighbors. As the British East India Company annexed Awadh from its hereditary rulers while the Shah Dynasty attempted to annex the Terai, Butwal became one of bones of contention leading to the Gurkha War 1814-16; when King Tribhuvan fled to India in 1950 during the revolt against the Rana dynasty he travelled through Butwal. It was little more than a village on the western bank of Tilottama River.
Butwal is a newly urbanized area and growing only since 1960. With the completion of Siddhartha Highway in 1968, starting from the border at Sunauli through Butwal to Pokhara and in the 1990s Mahendra Highway across the full east–west expanse of Nepal's Terai; the population of Butwal is 91,733, according to present stage the population is increasing with around 150,000 above and consists of people of mixed groups and castes. The population distribution in different wards in 2011 was as follows: The majority of the population is Hindu, they celebrate Holi, Maha Shivratri, Dashain and Bhai Tika. There are Buddhists and Muslims. Nepali and English are the common languages spoken in Butwal. Gurung and Tharu people speak native language in their community. Most of the young generations and middle-aged population can communicate well in English. Butwal is a commercial and trading city, an upcoming link city for the nearby tourist spots; the GDP of Butwal was about 1 billion USD in 2018 making one of the major city in Nepal.
The economy of Butwal centers around trade and industries. The old trading spots are Traffic Chowk, B P Chowk, Raj Margh Chaurah and Nepalgunj Road. Besides modern shopping, a traditional form of market called Haat Bazar similar to greengrocer, runs twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays, it has the second largest vegetable market in the country called Butwal Sabji Mandi in local terms. All kinds of traders and entrepreneurs sell goods and vegetables directly to the retail & wholesale customers in busy market setup. Service aspects of the economy are centered on banking, education and health sectors. Thus, increasing numbers of people are involved in these sectors for their jobs. Butwal is a connecting city between nearby tourist towns of Tansen and Lumbini, it is the gateway to nearby cities of Sunwal and Bharat