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Province of Maine

The Province of Maine refers to any of the various English colonies established in the 17th century along the northeast coast of North America, within portions of the present-day U. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. It existed through a series of land patents made by the kings of England during this era, included New Somersetshire and Falmouth; the province was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the 1650s, beginning with the formation of York County, which extend from the Piscataqua River to just east of the mouth of the Presumpscot River in Casco Bay. Its territory grew to encompass nearly all of present-day Maine; the first patent establishing the Province of Maine was granted on August 10, 1622 to Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason by the Plymouth Council for New England, which itself had been granted a royal patent by James I to the coast of North America between the 40th to the 48th parallel "from sea to sea".

This first patent encompassed the coast between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers, an irregular parcel of land between the headwaters of the two rivers. In 1629, Gorges and Mason agreed to split the patent at the Piscataqua River, with Mason retaining the land south of the river as the Province of New Hampshire. Gorges named his more northerly piece of territory New Somersetshire. Lack of funding and the absence of a royal charter held back development, only a few small settlements were established. In 1639, Gorges obtained a renewed patent, the Gorges Patent, for the area between the Piscataqua and Kennebec Rivers, in the form of a royal charter from Charles I of England; the area was the same as that covered in the 1622 patent after the 1629 split with Mason. This renewed colonization effort was hampered by lack of money and settlers, but continued to survive after the death of Gorges in 1647. Beginning in the 1640s, the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony began claiming territories north of the Merrimack River, because the Merrimack's northernmost point was farther north than its mouth.

This resulted in its administration of the early settlements of what became New Hampshire. After a survey made in the early 1650s, Massachusetts extended its land claims as far north as Casco Bay. By 1658 Massachusetts had completed the assimilation of all of Gorges' original territory into its jurisdiction. In 1664, Charles II of England made a grant to James, Duke of York for territories north and east of the Kennebec River. Under the terms of this patent the territory was incorporated into Cornwall County, part of the duke's proprietary Province of New York; the territory stipulated in this charter encompassed the areas between the Kennebec and St. Croix Rivers; this region, called the Territory of Sagadahock, forms the eastern portion of the present-day state of Maine. Charles had intended to include the former Gorges territory in this grant, but the Gorges' heirs instead chose to sell their remaining claims to Massachusetts. In 1691 William III and Mary II issued a charter for the new Province of Massachusetts Bay that encompassed the former claims of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, those of the Duke of York.

The region remained a part of Massachusetts, the District of Maine, until it achieved statehood of its own in 1820. History of Maine List of Maine land patents List of colonial governors of Maine Avalon Project Listing of early Maine patents and charters Library of Congress Grants of the Province of Maine

Iamblichus

Iamblichus was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin. He determined the direction that would be taken by Neoplatonic philosophy, he was the biographer of the Greek mystic and mathematician Pythagoras,Aside from Iamblichus' own philosophical contribution, his Protrepticus is of importance for the study of the Sophists, owing to its preservation of ten pages of an otherwise unknown Sophist known as the Anonymus Iamblichi. Iamblichus was the chief representative of Syrian Neoplatonism, though his influence spread over much of the ancient world; the events of his life and his religious beliefs are not known, but the main tenets of his beliefs can be worked out from his extant writings. According to the Suda, his biographer Eunapius, he was born at Chalcis in Syria, he was the son of a rich and illustrious family, he is said to have been the descendant of several priest-kings of the Arab Royal family of Emesa. He studied under Anatolius of Laodicea, went on to study under Porphyry, a pupil of Plotinus, the founder of Neoplatonism.

He disagreed with Porphyry over the practice of theurgy. Around 304, he returned to Syria to found his own school at Apamea, a city famous for its Neoplatonic philosophers. Here he designed a curriculum for studying Plato and Aristotle, he wrote commentaries on the two that survive only in fragments. Still, for Iamblichus, Pythagoras was the supreme authority, he is known to have written the Collection of Pythagorean Doctrines, which, in ten books, comprised extracts from several ancient philosophers. Only the first four books, fragments of the fifth, survive. Scholars noted that the Exhortation to Philosophy of Iamblichus was composed in Apamea in the early 4th c. AD. Iamblichus was said to have been a man of great learning, he was renowned for his charity and self-denial. Many students gathered around him, he lived with them in genial friendship. According to Fabricius, he died during the reign of Constantine, sometime before 333. Only a fraction of Iamblichus' books have survived. For our knowledge of his system, we are indebted to the fragments of writings preserved by Stobaeus and others.

The notes of his successors Proclus, as well as his five extant books and the sections of his great work on Pythagorean philosophy reveal much of Iamblichus' system. Besides these, Proclus seems to have ascribed to him the authorship of the celebrated treatise Theurgia, or On the Egyptian Mysteries. However, the differences between this book and Iamblichus' other works in style and in some points of doctrine have led some to question whether Iamblichus was the actual author. Still, the treatise originated from his school, in its systematic attempt to give a speculative justification of the polytheistic cult practices of the day, it marks a turning-point in the history of thought where Iamblichus stood; as a speculative theory, Neoplatonism had received its highest development from Plotinus. The modifications introduced by lamblichus were the detailed elaboration of its formal divisions, the more systematic application of the Pythagorean number-symbolism, under the influence of Oriental systems, a mythical interpretation of what Neoplatonism had regarded as notional.

Unlike Plotinus who broke from Platonic tradition and asserted an undescended soul, Iamblichus re-affirmed the soul's embodiment in matter, believing matter to be as divine as the rest of the cosmos. It is most on this account that lamblichus was venerated. Iamblichus was praised by those who followed his thought. By his contemporaries, Iamblichus was accredited with miraculous powers; the Roman emperor Julian, not content with Eunapius' more modest eulogy that he was inferior to Porphyry only in style, regarded Iamblichus as more than second to Plato, claimed he would give all the gold of Lydia for one epistle of Iamblichus. During the revival of interest in his philosophy in the 15th and 16th centuries, the name of Iamblichus was scarcely mentioned without the epithet "divine" or "most divine". At the head of his system, Iamblichus placed the transcendent incommunicable "One", the monad, whose first principle is intellect, nous. After the absolute One, lamblichus introduced a second superexistent "One" to stand between it and'the many' as the producer of intellect, or soul, psyche.

This is the initial dyad. The first and highest One, which Plotinus represented under the three stages of being and intellect, is distinguished by Iamblichus into spheres of intelligible and intellective, the latter sphere being the domain of thought, the former of the objects of thought; these three entities, the psyche, the nous split into the intelligible and the intellective, form a triad. Between the two worlds, at once separating and uniting them, some scholars think there was inserted by lamblichus, as was afterwards by Proclus, a third sphere partaking of the nature of both, but this supposition depends on a conjectural emendation of the text. We read, that in the intellectual triad he assigned the third rank to the Demiurge; the Demiurge, the Platonic creator-god, is thus identified with the perfected nous, the intellectual triad being increased to a hebdomad. The identification of nous with the Demiurge is a significant moment in the Neoplatonic tradition and its adoption into and development within the Christian tradition.

St. Augustine follows Plotinus by identifying nous, which

Thomas Cowherd

Thomas C. Cowherd was a British-born tinsmith and poet, father to 16 children in Brantford, Canada, including James H. Cowherd, the second earliest manufacturer of telephones to Alexander Graham Bell. Cowherd was born in Kendal, England to William Cowherd and Mary Cooper; when Thomas was two years of age, his mother Mary died. He apprenticed as a tinsmith from age 13 to 20 in England, his family immigrated to Canada in 1837. Cowherd settled on Colborne Street in Brantford, Ontario, he became President of the Brantford Branch Bible Society, President of the Brantford Mechanic's Institute and Literary Association, a school trustee, was elected as a town councillor in 1869. His first marriage, to Ann Batty, produced five children. Cowherd married Ann's sister, Ellen Batty of Westmoreland, England, on 26 September 1847; as Thomas Cowherd's career advanced he operated a tin and sheet iron shop plus a hardware store, opposite Brantford's grand Kerby House. His children by Ann were Mary Ann, Thomas and Anna.

Ellen gave birth to Jennie, James H. who married Mary Pickering, who worked with James producing telephones, Amelia, Ida, Charles William, Harold and Florence. The Cowherd family were friends and associates of the scientist and telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell. Bell used the Cowherds' tinsmithing services to help produce new prototypes for the telephone, to open Canada's first telephone factory. Bell called on them to string telephone lines made from common stovepipe wire, to assist in demonstrations. Thomas spent many hours speaking with Alexander on the telephone between the Cowherd home in Brantford and the Bell Homestead, Canada's first point-to-point telephone line which ran 3 miles between the two homes; the two were said to be "great chums". Canada's first telephone factory was built by James H. Cowherd, it was a three-story brick building on Wharfe Street in Brantford, Ontario, at the back of the Cowherd's home property, that soon started manufacturing telephones for the Bell System leading to the city's style as The Telephone City.

Thomas wrote verse "...with considerable merit", according to Thomas's son-in-law J. B. Parker, a journalist in Conway, Arkansas, he was a prolific poet and songwriter, much of it appeared in newspapers. He published a collection in 1884 of over 300 pages of verse, "The Emigrant Mechanic and Other Tales Said In Verse Together With Numerous Songs Upon Canadian Subjects", which included'An Address To Brantford, 1853': Other verses included'To The Christians Of Brantford', advising the public on the perils of alcohol in a moralistic overtone, as well as verses of praise to the visiting Prince of Wales: Correspondence between Thomas and Bell contained conversations about Jesus Christ. Cowherd was himself a Methodist and was called "quite preachy", their son-in-law, J. B. Parker, described Thomas's home as "Just a typical English family, enjoying its own fireside and historical and magazine reading, with Thomas H. Cowherd inclined to poetical effusions and enjoying considerable prominence as a contributor to the press and publishing a volume of his poems."

The Bells were frequent visitors to their home, Cowherd's wife was accomplished at producing home-brew from the family's mammoth vines. "...most of the brew went to invalids, for they gave much of their time and funds to looking after undernourished and aged people in temporary distress". Thomas Cowherd died in Chatham, Ontario in 1907. Bell Telephone Memorial Footnotes Citations BibliographyReville, F. Douglas. History of the County of Brant: Illustrated With Fifty Half-Tones Taken From Miniatures And Photographs, Brantford, ON: Brant Historical Society, Hurley Printing, 1920. Retrieved from Brantford. Library.on.ca on 4 May 2012. Works by Thomas Cowherd at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Thomas Cowherd at Internet Archive His poems at Poemhunter His poems at reedbookonline