Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 21,233, in 2017 the estimated population was 21,796. A historic seaport and popular summer tourist destination on the Piscataqua River bordering the state of Maine, Portsmouth was the home of the Strategic Air Command's Pease Air Force Base, since converted to Portsmouth International Airport at Pease. American Indians of the Abenaki and other Algonquian languages-speaking nations, their predecessors, inhabited the territory of coastal New Hampshire for thousands of years before European contact; the first known European to explore and write about the area was Martin Pring in 1603. The Piscataqua River forms a good natural harbor; the west bank of the harbor was settled by English colonists in 1630 and named Strawbery Banke, after the many wild strawberries growing there. The village was fortified by Fort Mary. Strategically located for trade between upstream industries and mercantile interests abroad, the port prospered.
Fishing and shipbuilding were principal businesses of the region. Enslaved Africans were imported as laborers as early as 1645 and were integral to building the city's prosperity. Portsmouth was part of the Triangle Trade. At the town's incorporation in 1653, it was named Portsmouth in honor of the colony's founder, John Mason, he had been captain of the port of Portsmouth, England, in the county of Hampshire, for which New Hampshire is named. When Queen Anne's War ended in 1712, Governor Joseph Dudley selected the town to host negotiations for the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth, which temporarily ended hostilities between the Abenaki Indians and English settlements of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire. In 1774, in the lead-up to the Revolution, Paul Revere rode to Portsmouth warning that the British were coming, with warships to subdue the port. Although Fort William and Mary protected the harbor, the rebel government moved the capital inland to Exeter, safe from the Royal Navy.
The Navy bombarded Falmouth on October 18, 1775. African Americans helped defend New England during the war. In 1779, 19 slaves from Portsmouth wrote a petition to the state legislature and asked that it abolish slavery, in recognition of their war contributions and in keeping with the principles of the Revolution, their petition was not answered, but New Hampshire ended slavery. Thomas Jefferson's 1807 embargo against trade with Britain withered New England's trade with Canada, several local fortunes were lost. Others were gained by men who were privateers during the War of 1812. In 1849, Portsmouth was incorporated as a city. Once one of the nation's busiest ports and shipbuilding cities, Portsmouth expressed its wealth in fine architecture, it has significant examples of Colonial and Federal style houses, some of which are now museums. Portsmouth's heart has stately brick Federalist stores and townhouses, built all-of-a-piece after devastating early 19th-century fires; the worst was in 1813. A fire district was created that required all new buildings within its boundaries to be built of brick with slate roofs.
The city was noted for the production of boldly wood-veneered Federalist furniture by the master cabinet maker Langley Boardman. The Industrial Revolution spurred economic growth in New Hampshire mill towns such as Dover, Laconia, Manchester and Rochester, where rivers provided water power for the mills, it shifted growth to the new mill towns. The port of Portsmouth declined, but the city survived Victorian-era doldrums, a time described in the works of Thomas Bailey Aldrich in his 1869 novel The Story of a Bad Boy. In the 20th century, the city founded a Historic District Commission, which has worked to protect much of the city's irreplaceable architectural legacy. In 2008, the National Trust for Historic Preservation named Portsmouth one of the "Dozen Distinctive Destinations"; the compact and walkable downtown on the waterfront draws tourists and artists, who each summer throng the cafes and shops around Market Square. Portsmouth annually celebrates the revitalization of its downtown with Market Square Day, a celebration dating back to 1977, produced by the non-profit Pro Portsmouth, Inc.
Portsmouth shipbuilding history has had a long symbiotic relationship with Kittery, across the Piscataqua River. In 1781–1782, the naval hero John Paul Jones lived in Portsmouth while he supervised construction of his ship Ranger, built on nearby Badger's Island in Kittery. During that time, he boarded at the Captain Gregory Purcell house, which now bears Jones' name, as it is the only surviving property in the United States associated with him. Built by the master housewright Hopestill Cheswell, an African American, it has been designated as a National Historic Landmark, it now serves as the Portsmouth Historical Society Museum. The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, established in 1800 as the first federal navy yard, is on Seavey's Island in Kittery, Maine; the base is famous for being the site of the 1905 signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth which ended the Russo-Japanese War. Though US President Theodore Roosevelt orchestrated the peace conference that brought Russian and Japanese diplomats to Portsmouth and the Shipyard, he never came to Portsmouth, relying on the Navy and people of New Hampshire as the hosts.
Roosevelt won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his diplomacy in bringing about an end to the War. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.8 square miles, of
Mary II of England
Mary II was Queen of England and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the adoption of the English Bill of Rights and the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694, he reigned as such until his own death in 1702. Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him, though he relied on her, she did, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful and effective ruler. Mary, born at St James's Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of the Duke of York, his first wife, Anne Hyde. Mary's uncle was King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, she was baptised into the Anglican faith in the Chapel Royal at St James's, was named after her ancestor, Queen of Scots.
Her godparents included Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Although her mother bore eight children, all except Mary and her younger sister Anne died young, King Charles II had no legitimate children. For most of her childhood, Mary was second in line to the throne after her father; the Duke of York converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669 and the Duchess about eight years earlier, but Mary and Anne were brought up as Anglicans, pursuant to the command of Charles II. They were moved to their own establishment at Richmond Palace, where they were raised by their governess Lady Frances Villiers, with only occasional visits to see their parents at St James's or their grandfather Lord Clarendon at Twickenham. Mary's education, from private tutors, was restricted to music, drawing and religious instruction, her mother died in 1671, her father remarried in 1673, taking as his second wife Mary of Modena, a Catholic, only four years older than Mary. From about the age of nine until her marriage, Mary wrote passionate letters to an older girl, Frances Apsley, the daughter of courtier Sir Allen Apsley.
Mary signed herself'Mary Clorine'. In time, Frances became uncomfortable with the correspondence, replied more formally. At the age of fifteen, Mary became betrothed to her cousin, the Protestant Stadtholder of Holland, William III of Orange. William was the son of the King's late sister, Princess Royal, thus fourth in the line of succession after James and Anne. At first, Charles II opposed the alliance with the Dutch ruler—he preferred that Mary wed the heir to the French throne, the Dauphin Louis, thus allying his realms with Catholic France and strengthening the odds of an eventual Catholic successor in Britain; the Duke of York agreed to the marriage, after pressure from chief minister Lord Danby and the King, who incorrectly assumed that it would improve James's popularity among Protestants. When James told Mary that she was to marry her cousin, "she wept all that afternoon and all the following day". William and a tearful Mary were married in St James's Palace by Bishop Henry Compton on 4 November 1677.
Mary accompanied her husband on a rough sea crossing back to the Netherlands that month, after a delay of two weeks caused by bad weather. Rotterdam was inaccessible because of ice, they were forced to land at the small village of Ter Heijde, walk through the frosty countryside until met by coaches to take them to Huis Honselaarsdijk. On 14 December, they made a formal entry to The Hague in a grand procession. Mary's animated and personable nature made her popular with the Dutch people, her marriage to a Protestant prince was popular in Britain, she was devoted to her husband, but he was away on campaigns, which led to Mary's family supposing him to be cold and neglectful. Within months of the marriage Mary was pregnant, she suffered further bouts of illness that may have been miscarriages in mid-1678, early 1679, early 1680. Her childlessness would be the greatest source of unhappiness in her life. From May 1684, King Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, lived in the Netherlands, where he was fêted by William and Mary.
Monmouth was viewed as a rival to the Duke of York, as a potential Protestant heir who could supplant the Duke in the line of succession. William, did not consider him a viable alternative and assumed that Monmouth had insufficient support. Upon the death of Charles II without legitimate issue in February 1685, the Duke of York became king as James II in England and Ireland and James VII in Scotland. Mary was playing cards when her husband informed her of her father's accession, that she was heir presumptive; when Charles's illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth assembled an invasion force at Amsterdam, sailed for Britain, William informed James of the Duke's departure, ordered English regiments in the Low Countries to return to Britain. To William's relief, Monmouth was defeated and executed, but both he and Mary were dismayed by James's subsequent actions
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing southward for 406 miles through four states. It rises at the U. S. border with Quebec and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses five U. S. states and one Canadian province, 11,260 square miles via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70 % of Long Island Sound's fresh water; the Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of two million people surrounding Springfield and Hartford, Connecticut. The word "Connecticut" is a French corruption of the Mohegan word quinetucket, which means "beside the long, tidal river"; the word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, called "The Great River". Prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614, numerous indigenous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems from English accounts written during the 1630s.
The Pequots dominated a territory in the southernmost region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut northward to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the Mohegans; the Mattabesset tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the Pequot War of 1637, their culture was similar to the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area. The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the Enfield Falls on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Pocomtuc village of Agawam became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western Westfield River and eastern Chicopee River. The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped Puritan explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut River; the region stretching from Springfield north to the New Hampshire and Vermont state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and Nipmuc settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. These villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in New York, such as the Mohawk and Iroquois tribes; the Pennacook tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching from the Massachusetts border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. The Western Abenaki tribe lived in the Green Mountains region of Vermont but wintered as far south as the Northfield, Massachusetts area.
They merged with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by wars and famines. In 1614, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block became the first European to chart the Connecticut River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids, he called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the New Netherland colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of Hartford, Connecticut called the Fort Huys de Hoop. Four separate Puritan-led groups settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford and Springfield; the first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony in 1632 and founded the village of Matianuck several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the Massachusetts Bay Colony from Watertown, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford.
In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker led settlers from Cambridge, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631; the patent, had been physically lost, the annexation was certainly illegal. The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut River came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by William Pynchon to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there, his scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut River at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west—and just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage.
It was named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed S
John Cutt was the first President of the Province of New Hampshire. Cutt was born in Wales, emigrated to the colonies in 1646, became a successful merchant and mill owner in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he was married to Hannah Starr, daughter of Dr. Comfort Starr of Boston, a founder of Harvard College and a surgeon who emigrated from Ashford, England. Starr is buried in Boston. On January 1, 1680, John Cutt became the first President of the royal Province of New Hampshire, when New Hampshire was first separated from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Cutt was the head of the seven-member royal provincial council. An early copy of the document appointing Cutt and his council is now preserved by the State of New Hampshire. Soon after his appointment he fell ill. On March 1, 1681 the provincial Council and General Assembly designated March 17, 1681, "A day of public fasting and prayer." The Council and Assembly believed Cutt's illness and the recent sighting of a comet were signs of "divine displeasure."
The day of fasting and prayer was unsuccessful, as John Cutt died on April 5, 1681. After his decease Richard Waldron was named acting President. John Cutt was accompanied from Wales to Portsmouth by two brothers and Robert. A descendant of brother Robert Cutt was Hon. Hampden Cutts of Vermont. Hampden Cutts married Mary Pepperrell Sparhawk Jarvis, daughter of William Jarvis of Weathersfield and the man who introduced merino sheep to America. Cutts's wife Mary Jarvis was herself a descendant of John Cutt through her father. Genealogy of the Cutts family in America New Hampshire Almanac: History John Cutt, Seacoast NH Commission of John Cutt, 1680, The Avalon Project Gravestone of Hannah Cutt, wife of John Cutt The Origin of Robert and John Cutt, Collections and Miscellaneous, John Farmer, 1824
Governor of New Hampshire
The Governor of New Hampshire is the head of the executive branch of New Hampshire's state government. The governor is elected at the biennial state general election in November of even-numbered years. New Hampshire is one of only two states, along with bordering Vermont, to hold gubernatorial elections every two years as opposed to every four; the state's 82nd governor is Republican Chris Sununu, who has served since January 5, 2017. In New Hampshire, the governor has no term limit of any kind. No governor has served more than three terms since the 18th century with the exception of John Lynch, who won an unprecedented fourth two-year term on November 2, 2010. John Taylor Gilman had been the last governor before Lynch to serve longer than six years, serving 14 one-year terms as governor between 1794 and 1816. Unlike in many other states in which Executive Councils are advisory, the Executive Council of New Hampshire has a strong check on the governor's power; the five-member council has a veto over many actions of the governor.
Together, the Governor and Executive Council approve contracts with a value of $5,000 or more, approve pardons, appoint the directors and commissioners, the Attorney General and officers in the National Guard. The governor has the sole power to veto bills and to command the National Guard while it is not in federal service. To be qualified to be governor, one must be 30 years of age, a registered voter, domiciled in New Hampshire for at least seven years. Traditionally, the governors of the Province of New Hampshire had been titled as "President of New Hampshire", beginning with the appointment of the province's first president, John Cutt, in 1679. From 1786 to 1791, "President of the State of New Hampshire" was the official style of the position; the New Hampshire Constitution was amended in 1791 to replace "President" with "Governor". OfficialOfficial websiteGeneral informationGovernor of New Hampshire at Ballotpedia Governors of New Hampshire at The Political Graveyard Works by or about Office of the Governor of New Hampshire in libraries
Dominion of New England
The Dominion of New England in America was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies. Its political structure represented centralized control similar to the model used by the Spanish monarchy through the Viceroyalty of New Spain; the dominion was unacceptable to most colonists because they resented being stripped of their rights and having their colonial charters revoked. Governor Sir Edmund Andros tried to make legal and structural changes, but most of these were undone and the Dominion was overthrown as soon as word was received that King James II had left the throne in England. One notable change was the introduction of the Church of England into Massachusetts, whose Puritan leaders had refused to allow it any sort of foothold; the Dominion encompassed a large area from the Delaware River in the south to Penobscot Bay in the north, composed of the Province of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut Colony, Province of New York, Province of New Jersey, plus a small portion of Maine.
It was too large for a single governor to manage. Governor Andros was unpopular and was seen as a threat by most political factions. News of the Glorious Revolution in England reached Boston in 1689, the Puritans launched the 1689 Boston revolt against Andros, arresting him and his officers. Leisler's Rebellion in New York deposed the dominion's lieutenant governor Francis Nicholson. After these events, the colonies, assembled into the dominion reverted to their previous forms of government, although some governed formally without a charter. New charters were issued by the new joint rulers William III of England and Queen Mary II. A number of English colonies were established in North America and in the West Indies during the first half of the 17th century, with varying attributes; some originated as commercial ventures, such as the Virginia Colony, while others were founded for religious reasons, such as Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony. The governments of the colonies varied. Virginia became a crown colony, despite its corporate beginning, while Massachusetts and other New England colonies had corporate charters and a great deal of administrative freedom.
Other areas were proprietary colonies, such as Maryland and Carolina and operated by one or a few individuals. Following the English Restoration in 1660, King Charles II sought to streamline the administration of these colonial territories. Charles and his government began a process that brought a number of the colonies under direct crown control. One reason for these actions was the cost of administration of individual colonies, but another significant reason was the regulation of trade. Throughout the 1660s, the English Parliament passed a number of laws to regulate the trade of the colonies, collectively called the Navigation Acts; the American colonists resisted these laws in the New England colonies which had established significant trading networks with other English colonies and with other European countries and their colonies Spain and the Dutch Republic. The Navigation Acts outlawed some existing New England practices, in effect turning merchants into smugglers while increasing the cost of doing business.
Some of the New England colonies presented specific problems for the king, combining those colonies into a single administrative entity was seen as a way to resolve those problems. Plymouth Colony had never been formally chartered, the New Haven Colony had sheltered two of the regicides of Charles I, the king's father; the territory of Maine was disputed by competing grantees and by Massachusetts, New Hampshire was a small established crown colony. Massachusetts had a long history of theocratic rule, in addition to their widespread resistance to the Navigation Acts, they exhibited little tolerance for non-Puritans, including supporters of the Church of England. Charles II sought to change the Massachusetts government, but they resisted all substantive attempts at reform. In 1683, legal proceedings began to vacate the Massachusetts charter; the primary motivation in London was not to attain efficiency in administration, but to guarantee that the purpose of the colonies was to make England richer.
England's desire for colonies that produced agricultural staples worked well for the southern colonies, which produced tobacco and indigo, but not so well for New England due to the geology of the region. Lacking a suitable staple, the New Englanders engaged in trade and became successful competitors to English merchants, they were now starting to develop workshops that threatened to deprive England of its lucrative colonial market for manufactured articles, such as textiles, leather goods, ironware. The plan, was to establish a uniform all-powerful government over the northern colonies so that the people would be diverted away from manufacturing and foreign trade. Following the revocation of the Massachusetts charter, Charles II and the Lords of Trade moved forward with plans to establish a unified administration over at least some of the New England colonies; the specific objectives of the dominion included the regulation of trade, reformation of land title practices to conform more to English methods and practices, coordination on matters of defense, a streamlining of the administration into fewer centers.
The Dominion comprised the territories of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of New Hampshire, the Province of Maine, the Narraganset Country (present-day Wash