Santa Cruz Province, Argentina
Santa Cruz Province is a province of Argentina, located in the southern part of the country, in Patagonia. It borders Chubut Province to the north, Chile to the west and south, with an Atlantic coast on its east. Santa Cruz is the second-largest province of the country, the least densely populated in mainland Argentina; the indigenous people of the province are the Tehuelches, who despite European exploration from the 16th century onwards, retained independence until the late 19th century. Soon after the Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s, the area was organised as the Territory of Santa Cruz, named after its original capital in Puerto Santa Cruz; the capital moved to Rio Gallegos in 1888 and has remained there since. Immigrants from various European countries came to the territory in the late 19th and early 20th century during a gold rush. Santa Cruz became a province of Argentina in 1957; the Tehuelches inhabited these lands before the arrivals of the Spanish colonisation. In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan arrived to what is known as San Julián Bay.
15 years Martín de Alcazaba explored the area near the Chico River, which he named Gallegos River. Because of the attacks of British privateers, after the visit of Francis Drake in 1578, the Spaniards sent Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to fortify and map the Strait of Magellan and prevent access to Spanish posts in the Pacific. In the middle of the 18th century, the Jesuits settled in the area; when the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776, the region was set under the rule of Buenos Aires. Antonio de Biedma founded Nueva Colonia near present Puerto Deseado and Floridablanca not far from Puerto San Julián, both of them shut down by Viceroy Vertíz. Between 1825 and 1836 there were a series of explorations of the regions, including that of Charles Darwin in 1834. In 1860 commander Luis Piedrabuena established a base on Isla Pavón in the estuary of Puerto Deseado. In 1878 the Government of Patagonia was created, with capital in Viedma, but six years it was split into smaller entities, with the territory declared National Government of Santa Cruz, whose capital was the city of Santa Cruz.
In 1901 the capital was moved to its current location at the city of Río Gallegos. At the beginning of the 20th century, a large European immigration began to arrive to the uninhabited zone, they came to escape the growing conflicts of World War I, were attracted by the wool industry of the area. The end of the war meant a sharp reduction in the amount of exports, bringing a serious economic crisis to Santa Cruz; the ideals of progressivism, brought by the Spanish immigrants, grew among the workers who, working in Santa Cruz's harsh environment under sub-human conditions, decided to strike in 1922. The strike was and harshly repressed by the government, culminating in the events of the Patagonia Trágica, the execution of dozens of strikers. In 1944, the Military zone of Comodoro Rivadavia was created, which encompassed the northern part of the National Government of Santa Cruz and the southern part of Chubut Province; this jurisdiction lasted until the abolition of the measures in 1955. The Territory of Santa Cruz acquired province status in 1957.
In 1973, voters in Santa Cruz elected a Peronist. An advocate of labor rights, Gov. Cepernic worked with film maker Osvaldo Bayer to make La Patagonia Rebelde, a documentary drama on the ill-fated 1922 sheep ranch laborers' strike. For this, Gov. Cepernic was imprisoned following the March 1976 coup; the return to democracy in Argentina in 1983 brought new young leadership to Santa Cruz's elected posts, among them a well-known local country lawyer named Néstor Kirchner, elected that year to the Río Gallegos City Council. Elected mayor in 1987 and governor in 1991, Kirchner helped negotiate a US$535 million payout for his province following the 1993 privatization of the state-owned oil concern YPF. Earning plaudits for his careful administration of the funds, Kirchner was elected president of Argentina in April 2003, following the withdrawal of Carlos Menem from a runoff which Kirchner was projected to win handily. Presiding over four years of expansion totalling 42%, Pres. Kirchner steered record spending into public works.
The province is divided into 2 distinct regions: The Andes in the west and the plateaus in the centre and east. In the Andes, there are numerous lakes such as Buenos Aires Lake, Cardiel Lake, Viedma Lake, Argentino Lake, Pueyrredón Lake, Belgrano Lake and San Martín Lake. One characteristic of the Andean region is the presence of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field that covers the central part of the Andes. From the centre to the Atlantic coast in the east, the landscape is dominated by plateaus. There are isolated pockets of depressions within this region. In Gran Bajo de San Julián, the Laguna del Carbón is 105 meters below sea level, is the lowest point in the Western and Southern Hemispheres. On the Atlantic coast, it is characterised by cliffs; the main rivers in the province are the Deseado River, Chico River, Santa Cruz River, Coig River, the Gallegos River. These rivers all originate from the Andes which drain into the lakes before moving eastwards to empty into the A
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca, it surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile. Before the Spanish conquest, numerous native peoples lived in the valleys of what is now Salta Province; the Atacamas lived in the Puna, the Wichís, in the Chaco region. The first conquistador to venture into the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535. Hernando de Lerma founded San Felipe de Lerma in 1582, following orders of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa. By 1650, the city had around five hundred inhabitants. An intendency of "Salta del Tucumán" was created within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1774, San Ramón de La Nueva Orán was founded between Tarija. In 1783, in recognition of the growing importance of the city, the capital of the intendency of Salta del Tucumán was moved from San Miguel de Tucumán to Salta.
The battle of Salta in 1813 freed the territory from Spain, but occasional attacks were mounted from the Viceroyalty of Peru as late as 1826. Gervasio de Posadas created the Province of Salta in 1814, containing the current provinces of Salta and parts of southern Bolivia and northern Chile. Exploiting internal Argentine conflicts that arose after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, Bolivia annexed Tarija in 1826. In 1834, Jujuy became a separate province; the borders of Salta were further reduced with the loss of Yacuiba to Bolivia. The National Government of Los Andes, constituted from the province in 1902 with a capital at San Antonio de los Cobres, was returned to Salta Province in 1943 as the Department of Los Andes. Antonio Alice's painting, La muerte de Güemes, which received a Gold Medal at the Centenary Exposition, is on display at the offices of the Salta Provincial Government; the total land area of the province is 155,488 km2, making it the sixth largest province by area in Argentina.
The main rivers of the province are the Pilcomayo and the Juramento, which becomes the Salado River. Salta Province is located at a geologically active region, suffers from occasional earthquakes. There have been four earthquakes of note in the province: In 1692, registering 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale, at IX on the Mercalli intensity scale, In 1844, registering 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, VII Mercalli intensity, In 1948, registering 7.0 on the Moment magnitude scale, IX Mercalli intensity, In 2010, registering 6.1 or 6.3, VI Mercalli intensity. The 1692 earthquake was the inspiration for Salta's annual citywide festival, held on 16 September, in honor of El Señor y la Virgen del Milagro; the province is located in the tropical zone and has a warm climate in general, though it has marked variation in climate types owing to the variation in altitudes. The orientation of the Andes influences the distribution of precipitation within the province; the easternmost parts of the province have a semi-arid climate with a dry winter season.
The mean annual temperature and precipitation are 500 millimetres. Temperatures can reach up to 47 °C during summers; the first slopes of the Andes force the moist, easterly winds to rise, provoking high condensation leading to the formation of clouds that generate copious amounts of rain. The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm of precipitation a year, although some places receive up to 2,500 mm of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation. Most of the precipitation is concentrated with winters being dry; the high rainfall on these first slopes creates a thick jungle that extends in a narrow strip along these ranges, creating an area of great species diversity. At higher altitudes on these slopes, the climate is cooler and more humid, with the vegetation consisting of deciduous and pine trees. Between the high altitudes to the west and the low plains to the east lie the valleys; the climate of these valleys is temperate, allowing for human settlement and agricultural activities.
Mean annual precipitation is around most of it during summer. Mean temperatures exceed 20 °C during the summer, while during winter, they are below 14 °C. Further west, the Altiplano is a plateau at 3,000 m to 4,000 m above sea level; the climate is arid and cold: high temperatures vary little, ranging from 14 °C to 21 °C. All rain falls in the summer, with values between 200 mm and 400 mm in total. Several salt flats exist in this area. At the highest altitudes found in the western parts of the province, the climate is arid and cold, with large diurnal ranges. Salta's economy is underdeveloped, yet diverse, its economy in 2006 was estimated at US$5.141 billion or, US$4,764 per capita, 45% below the national average. In 2012, its economy was estimated at $23,971 pesos per capita. Manufacturing plays a si
Santiago del Estero Province
Santiago del Estero known as Santiago, is a province in the north of Argentina. Neighbouring provinces, clockwise from the north, are Salta, Santa Fe, Córdoba and Tucumán; the indigenous inhabitants of these lands were Sanavirones and other tribes. Santiago del Estero is still home to about 100,000 speakers of the local variety of Quechua, making this the southernmost outpost of the language of the Incas; when the language reached the area, how, remains unclear—it may have arrived only with the native troops that accompanied the first Spanish expeditions. Diego de Rojas first reached this land in 1542. Francisco de Aguirre founded the city of Santiago del Estero in 1553 as the northernmost city founded by Spanish conquistadores coming from the Pacific Ocean. Santiago passed under different governments, from the intendency of Tucumán to the Audiencia de Charcas again to Tucumán, of which it was to be designated capital. However, the bishop moved to Córdoba in 1699 and the government moved to Salta two years later.
Furthermore, the silver route between Buenos Aires and the Viceroyalty of Peru passed through Tucumán rather than through Santiago. The combination of these circumstances drastically reduced the importance of the city and the territory and, by the beginning of the 19th century, the city had 5,000 inhabitants. With the creation of the intendency of Salta, Santiago del Estero was transferred to the new intendency of Tucumán. In the middle of the national conflict, Santiago del Estero separated from Tucumán in 1820, coming under the control of pro-autonomy Governor Juan Felipe Ibarra. Among the new province's most effective advocates during its early decades was Amancio Jacinto Alcorta, a young composer of sacral music who, representing his province from 1826 to 1862, helped modernize commerce and its taxation in the unstable young nation and promoted domestic banking and credit. In 1856 the provincial constitution was formulated. At the beginning of the 20th century Santiago del Estero acquired part of the lands that were the subject of a dispute with Chaco Province.
By the province had four cities and 35,000 inhabitants, most of whom lived in precarious conditions. The construction of the Los Quiroga dam in 1950 enabled the productivity of the otherwise arid land to be increased by irrigation. During the 1890s, national policy makers were made aware of a little-publicized tourist route northwest of the city of Santiago del Estero, despite the abject lack of transportation or lodging amenities, a steady stream of visitors rode on horseback over craggy terrain for hours for the sake of enjoying a cluster of mineral springs mentioned since Spaniards had first noticed them in 1543; the Argentine Department of Agriculture commissioned University of Buenos Aires chemistry professor Hercules Corti to study the springs. Completing his report in 1918, Corti stated that the Río Hondo Hot Springs were among the most therapeutic on earth and, coming at a time when mineral springs were becoming a leading destination for health tourism, Río Hondo began attracting visitors from all over Argentina.
Set aside as a public resort in 1932, the first formal hotel facilities were opened in the late 1940s. In 1948, the province elected Peronist activist Carlos Juárez Governor of the province. Santiago del Estero's central political figure during the late 20th century, Juárez was energetic and ambitious, he soon became indispensable to local politics. Regarded as a Caudillo, by the 1990s, was ordering his opponents' deaths, including those of former Governor César Iturre in 1996 and of Bishop Gerardo Sueldo in 1998; the deaths of two local young women, exposed Juárez's assassin, Antonio Musa Azar, faced with undeniable links to Musa Azar's litany of past murders and extortions, Juárez resigned in late 2002. His wife, Nina Aragonés de Juárez, was hand-picked to replace him; the province is located completely in the flat lands of the Gran Chaco, with some depressions. In these depressions lagoons have formed at Bañado de Figueroa, Bañado de Añatuya, those near the basin of the Salado and Dulce Rivers.
The Sumampa and Ambargasta sierras are the result of the influence of the Pampas at the southwest. The soil, rich in lime and salt, is characterised by semi-deserts and steppes; the predominant weather is sub-tropical with a dry season and high temperatures during the entire year. The maximum was of 38°C before 1910; the dry season, during the winter, receives an average of 120 mm of precipitation, but the annual average is 700 mm. The province's economy, like most in northern Argentina, is underproductive and, totalled an estimated US$2.863 billion in 2006. Santiago del Estero had long been rural and agricultural and nearly lacking in manufacturing; the economy of the province still leans toward primary production, specially in agriculture, about 12% of the province's output. Centred on the basins of the Salado and Dulce Rivers, the main crops include cotton, soybean and onion. Cattle farming is a
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute
Sovereignty over the Falkland Islands is disputed by Argentina and the United Kingdom. The British claim to sovereignty dates from 1690, the United Kingdom has exercised de facto sovereignty over the archipelago continuously since 1833. Argentina has long disputed this claim, having been in control of the islands for a few years prior to 1833; the dispute escalated in 1982. Contemporary Falkland Islanders overwhelmingly prefer to remain British, they gained full British citizenship with the British Nationality Act 1983, after British victory in the Falklands War. France was the first country to establish de facto control in the Falkland Islands, with the foundation of Port Saint Louis in East Falkland by French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville, in 1764; the French colony consisted of a small fort and some settlements with a population of around 250. The Islands were named after the Breton port of St. Malo as the Îles Malouines, which remains the French name for the islands. In 1766, France agreed to leave the islands to Spain, with Spain reimbursing de Bougainville and the St. Malo Company for the cost of the settlement.
France insisted that Spain maintain the colony in Port Louis to prevent Britain from claiming the title to the Islands, Spain agreed. In 1493 Pope Alexander VI issued a Papal bull, Inter caetera, dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal; the following year, the Treaty of Tordesillas between those countries agreed that the dividing line between the two should be 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. The Falklands lie on the western side of this line. Spain made claims that the Falkland Islands were held under provisions in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht which settled the limits of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. However, the treaty only promised to restore the territories in the Americas held prior to the War of the Spanish Succession; the Falkland Islands was not held at the time, were not mentioned in the treaty. When Spain discovered the British and French colonies on the Islands, a diplomatic row broke out among the claimants. In 1766, Spain and France, who were allies at the time, agreed that France would hand over Port Saint Louis, Spain would repay the cost of the settlement.
France insisted that Spain maintain the colony in Port Louis and thus prevent Britain from claiming the title to the Islands and Spain agreed. Spain and Great Britain enjoyed uneasy relations at the time, no corresponding agreement was reached; the Spanish took control of Port Saint Louis and renamed it Puerto Soledad in 1767. On 10 June 1770, a Spanish expedition expelled the British colony at Port Egmont, Spain took de facto control of the Islands. Spain and Great Britain came close to war over the issue, but instead, concluded a treaty on 22 January 1771, allowing the British to return to Port Egmont with neither side relinquishing sovereignty claims; the British returned in 1771 but withdrew from the islands in 1774, leaving behind a flag and a plaque representing their claim to ownership, leaving Spain in de facto control. From 1774 to 1811, the islands were ruled as part of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate. In that period, 18 governors were appointed to rule the islands. In 1777, Governor Ramon de Carassa was ordered to destroy the remains at Port Egmont.
The British plaque was sent to Buenos Aires. Spanish troops remained at Port Louis, known as Port Soledad, until 1811 when Governor Pablo Guillen Martinez was called back to Montevideo as the revolutionary forces spread through the continent, he left behind a plaque claiming sovereignty for Spain. The British first landed on the Falklands in 1690, when Captain John Strong sailed through Falkland Sound, naming this passage of water after Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the First Lord of the Admiralty at that time; the British were keen to settle the islands as they had the potential to be a strategic naval base for passage around Cape Horn. In 1765, Captain John Byron landed on Saunders Island, he explored the coasts of the other islands and claimed the archipelago for Britain. The following year, Captain John MacBride returned to Saunders Island and constructed a fort named Port Egmont; the British discovered the French colony at Port Saint Louis, initiating the first sovereignty dispute.
In 1770 a Spanish military expedition was sent to the islands after authorities in Buenos Aires became aware of the British colony. Facing a greater force, the British were expelled from Port Egmont; the colony was restored a year following British threats of war over the islands. They left behind a plaque asserting British sovereignty over the islands. Although there was no British administration in the islands and American sealers used them to hunt for seals taking on fresh water as well as feral cattle and penguins for provisions. Whalers used the islands to shelter from the South Atlantic weather and to take on fresh provisions; the Government of the United Provinces of the River Plate attempted to control the islands through commerce, granting fishing and hunting rights to Jorge Pacheco in 1824. Pacheco's partner Luis Vernet established a toehold in the islands in 1826 and a fledgling colony in 1828, he visited the British consulate in 1826, 1828 and 1829 seeking endorsement of his venture and British protection for his settlement in the event of their returning to the islands.
After receiving assurances from the British minister chargé d'affaires, Sir Woodbine Parish, Vernet provided
2011 Argentine general election
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, 23 October 2011. Incumbent president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner secured a second term in office after the Front for Victory won just over half of the seats in the National Congress. Mercosur Parliamentarians were popularly elected for the first time. Another novelty was the introduction of open and mandatory primaries; these took place 14 August 2011 to select the candidates of each political coalition. The nation's myriad parties forged seven coalitions, of which five became contenders for a possible runoff election: Front for Victory: the ruling party, led by President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, allies, including the New Encounter; the FpV is based on the center-left Justicialist Party factions that support the current government. Federal Peronism, or Dissident Peronism: centrist or conservative PJ figures opposed to the government and allies, including the Republican Proposal; this coalition remained divided between Eduardo Duhalde's Popular Front and Alberto Rodríguez Saá's Federal Commitment both before and after the August primaries.
Union for Social Development: the Radical Civic Union, led by Congressman Ricardo Alfonsín, allies, which included Federal Peronist Francisco de Narváez. Broad Progressive Front: the Socialist Party, led by Governor Hermes Binner, allies, including GEN and the New Party. Proyecto Sur had joined this coalition. Civic Coalition: the party, led by Congresswoman Elisa Carrió, had been part of the Civic and Social Agreement, but separated from the latter in August 2010. Other coalitions of note include the Workers' Left Front, led by Jorge Altamira, Proyecto Sur, led by Pino Solanas; the Civic and Social Agreement was an alliance between the UCR and most of what became the Progressive Ample Front and the Civic Coalition, with other, minor allies. This coalition proved unwieldy as the 2011 campaign progressed, though various forms of it will be retained in certain provinces for strategic purposes; the Front for Victory candidate for the Justicialist Party primaries was current President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.
Her husband and predecessor, Néstor Kirchner, was considered a top candidate to succeed Fernández until his death on 27 October 2010. Fernández had suffered a significant decline in approval during the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector and the subsequent recession, the ruling Front for Victory lost its absolute majority in both houses of Congress during the June 2009 mid-term elections; the economy, her approval ratings, recovered during 2010, the 2011 electoral season began with Fernández' job approval at around 58 percent, with polling indicating that she would be reelected in the first round. Fernández avoided committing herself to running for a second term during the early months of 2011. Two days before the 23 June deadline, she announced her decision to run for reelection, she nominated Amado Boudou, as her running mate on 25 June. Their ticket won a landslide victory in the 14 August primaries, obtaining just over 50% and besting the runner-up by nearly 38%.
Support for Fernández was strongest among the poor and those aged 30 to 44. Her support was weakest among the upper middle class, though she remained over 24% ahead of the runner-up among those polled within that segment; the leaders of the center-right Federal Peronism were torn between running for primary elections within the PJ against the Front for Victory, or running instead in the general election through another political alliance. Former President Eduardo Duhalde was the first to informally start his pre-candidacy campaign, announcing hypothetical cabinet picks as early as December 2009; the Governors of Chubut, Mario Das Neves, of San Luis, Alberto Rodríguez Saá, as well as former Governor of Buenos Aires Province Felipe Solá stated their intention to run for president. Das Neves became the first Federal Peronist to drop out, while Solá boosted his own prospects by securing an alliance with the conservative Republican Proposal on 16 May. Duhalde narrowly defeated Rodríguez Saá in a Buenos Aires Federal Peronism primary held on 22 May, though both men remained front-runners for their party's nomination.
Each ran on separate Federal Peronist tickets. Duhalde formally announced his Popular Union candidacy on 9 June, nominating Das Neves as his running mate. Rodríguez Saá, in turn, nominated former Santa Fe Governor José María Vernet as his running mate on his Federal Commitment ticket. Solá, who struggled in the polls, withdrew on 11 June, encouraging local candidates in his fold to form alliances with Duhalde and the party's candidate for Buenos Aires Governor, Francisco de Narváez. De Narváez endorsed Rodríguez Saá. Support for Duhalde was strongest among weakest among young voters. Rodríguez Saá polled best among upper middle class voters and those age 30 to 44; the center-left Radical Civic Union had scheduled primaries for 28 April. Both Ricardo Alfonsín, son of the late former President Raúl Alfonsín, current party leader Ernesto Sanz started pre-candidacy campaigns. Vice President Julio Cobos, considered a UCR primary candidate, had stated his intention to run only in August, during the coalition primaries.
The UCR and the Socialist Party (partners in the Civic and