Beni, sometimes El Beni, is a northeastern department of Bolivia, in the lowlands region of the country. It is the second-largest department in the country, covering 213,564 square kilometers, it was created by supreme decree on November 18, 1842 during the administration of General José Ballivián, its capital is Trinidad. With a population of 420,000, Beni is the second least-populated of the nine departments of Bolivia, after Pando. Although Beni is rich in natural resources, the poverty level of its inhabitants is high as a result of centuries of exploitation of native populations by European-descended elites; the main economic activities are agriculture and cattle. In addition, an underground economy linked to illegal narcotics activities flourished in the area during the last decades of the 20th century, with many cocaine laboratories hidden behind the façade of remote cattle ranches; the Beni region is wide and flat, featuring many large mounds connected by straight earthen causeways, which are believed by researchers to have been built by ancient inhabitants.
The earthwork mounds provide raised living areas and enable the growth of trees that could not survive otherwise in the flooded lowland area. In the 21st century and anthropologists such as Americans Clark Erickson and William Balée believe these earthwork structures are evidence of a large and sophisticated indigenous civilization that flourished for thousands of years before European colonization; the first European settlers in this area were Spanish Jesuit missionaries during the 18th century, sent to convert the native inhabitants, chiefly in the southern half of the department. The religious origins of many of the Beni's towns can be attested to by the centrality of the local church in most of the communities, in the names of the towns: Trinidad, Santa Ana, San Borja, etc. Today, the Beni region is the seat of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of El Beni; the importance of cattle ranching is prominent in the regional culture. Cowboys, or "vaqueros", still play an important role in Beni society, comprising a large portion of the working class.
Other industries significant to the region include logging, small-scale fishing and hunting, in recent years, eco-tourism. Though the Beni lies in the southern reaches of the Amazon Basin, an area renowned for tropical disease, the population has fewer health problems than in the Andes Region those related to malnutrition; the inhabitants are descendants of Cruceños who streamed north following the course of navigable rivers, native peoples. The Beniano diet consists of rice, bananas and fish; some popular dishes include Majao and others, many featuring cured/salted meats. The white/mestizo Benianos have traditionally been mistrustful, somewhat contemptuous, of Andean culture, they identify as being lighter skinned and of more Spanish ancestry than the Quechua and Aymara-speaking populations of the highlands. Considerable resentment existed against the central government, which did little to build roads or integrate the Beni into the economy and political life of Bolivia; these attitudes persisted although Beni residents benefited by the Agrarian Reform instituted following the 1952 Revolution, with many citizens gaining ownership of significant tracts of land.
Most of these turned to cattle ranching. The absence of a reliable road linking the department to the main centers of power in the country continued to contribute to the Benianos' perception of isolation, as did a downturn in the cattle industry; as a result, both the white/mestizo population and departmental authorities supported the Santa Cruz-led effort to federalize the country and devolve powers to the departments at the expense of the central government. Considerable social unrest took place in 2007 and 2008, leading some to consider separatism as plausible. Beni was a important center of a pre-Columbian civilization known as the hydraulic culture of Las Lomas, a culture that constructed over 20,000 man-made artificial hills, all interconnected by thousands of square kilometers of aqueducts, embankments, artificial lakes and lagoons, as well as terraces. Between about 4000 BC and the 13th Century AD this region was settled by sophisticated and organized groups of human societies, their civil structures were based, both environmentally and economically, on the use of specific environmental characteristics.
Miles of these channels and man-made earthworks are visible from the air. When the Spanish arrived, the region had been in decline for about three hundred years. However, this is where many products that are now used worldwide originated in native cultivation: among them tobacco, cotton, cassava and sweet potatoes; the Spanish were intensely interested in this area. During the first century of colonization, they believed the mythical city of El Dorado could be found in this region. However, they never found this legendary city of gold and they soon lost interest in the area, which would remain marginalized for several centuries after. Between the 19th and 20th centuries northern Beni became Bolivia's rubber capital; the abundance of rubber trees attracted many people to the region, many of them adventurers and workers to work in the huge rubber plantations that arose. The worl
Juan Evo Morales Ayma known as Evo Morales, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006. Regarded as the country's first president to come from the indigenous population, his administration has focused on the implementation of leftist policies, poverty reduction, combating the influence of the United States and multinational corporations in Bolivia. A socialist, he is the head of the Movement for Socialism party. Born to an Aymara family of subsistence farmers in Isallawi, Orinoca Canton, Morales undertook a basic education before mandatory military service, in 1978 moving to Chapare Province. Growing coca and becoming a trade unionist, he rose to prominence in the campesino union. In that capacity he campaigned against U. S. and Bolivian attempts to eradicate coca as part of the War on Drugs, denouncing these as an imperialist violation of indigenous Andean culture. His involvement in anti-government direct action protests resulted in multiple arrests.
Morales entered electoral politics in 1995, became the leader of the MAS and was elected to Congress in 1997. Coupled with populist rhetoric, his campaign focused on issues affecting indigenous and poor communities, advocating land reform and the redistribution of gas wealth, he gained increased visibility through the Cochabamba protests and gas conflict. In 2002 he was expelled from Congress for encouraging anti-government protesters, although he came second in that year's presidential election. Once elected in 2005, Morales increased taxation on the hydrocarbon industry to bolster social spending, emphasising projects to combat illiteracy, poverty and sexism. Vocally criticizing neoliberalism and reducing Bolivia's dependence on the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, his administration oversaw strong economic growth while following a policy termed "Evonomics" which sought to move from a liberal economic approach to a mixed economy. Scaling back U. S. influence in the country, he built relationships with leftist governments in the Latin American pink tide and signed Bolivia into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.
Attempting to moderate the left-indigenous activist community, his administration opposed the right-wing autonomist demands of Bolivia's eastern provinces. Winning a recall referendum in 2008, he instituted a new constitution that established Bolivia as a plurinational state and was re-elected in 2009, his second term witnessed the continuation of leftist policies and Bolivia's joining of the Bank of the South and Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. Morales has been praised for reducing poverty and illiteracy in Bolivia and has been internationally decorated with various awards, his supporters have lauded him as a champion of indigenous rights, anti-imperialism, environmentalism. Alternately, a number of leftist and environmentalist critics have accused him of failing to live up to many of his espoused values, while right-wing opponents have accused him of being excessively radical and authoritarian and claimed that his defence of coca contributes to illegal cocaine production.
Morales was born in the small rural village of Isallawi in Orinoca Canton, part of western Bolivia's Oruro Department, on 26 October 1959. One of seven children born to Dionisio Morales Choque and his wife María Ayma Mamani, only he and two siblings and Hugo, survived past childhood, his mother died from a postpartum haemorrhage following his birth. Ethnically identifying as a member of the indigenous Aymara people, in keeping with Aymara custom, his father buried the placenta produced after his birth in a place specially chosen for the occasion, his childhood home was a traditional adobe house, he grew up speaking the Aymara language, although commentators would remark that by the time he had become president he was no longer an fluent speaker. Morales's family were farmers; as a toddler, he attended Orinoca's preparatory school, at five began schooling at the single-room primary school in Isallawi. Aged 6, he spent six months in northern Argentina with his father. There, Dionisio harvested sugar cane while Evo sold ice cream and attended a Spanish-language school.
As a child, he traveled on foot to Arani province in Cochabamba with his father and their llamas, a journey lasting up to two weeks, in order to exchange salt and potatoes for maize and coca. A big fan of soccer, at age 13 he organised a community soccer team with himself as team captain. Within two years, he was elected training coach for the whole region, thus gained early experience in leadership. After finishing primary education, Morales attended the Agrarian Humanistic Technical Institute of Orinoca, completing all but the final year, his parents sent him to study for a degree in Oruro. The latter position allowed him to travel across Bolivia. At the end of his higher education he failed to collect his degree certificate. Although interested in studying journalism, he did not pursue it as a profession. Morales served his mandatory military service in the Bolivian army from 1977 to 1978. Signed up at the Centre for Instruction of Special Troops in Cochabamba, he was sent into the Fourth Ingavi Cavalry Regiment and stationed at the army headquarters in t
A municipal council is the legislative body of a municipality such as a city council or a town council. In spite of enormous differences in populations, each of the communes of the French Republic possesses a mayor and a municipal council, which manage the commune from the mairie, with the same powers no matter the size of the commune and council; the one exception is the city of Paris, where the city police is in the hands of the central state, not in the hands of the mayor of Paris. This uniformity of status is a clear legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France; the size of a commune still matters, however, in two domains: French law determines the size of the municipal council according to the population of the commune. Lists of communes of France Commune List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population Established as the Sanitary Board in 1883, the Municipal Council in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon provided municipal services to the covered regions in the British Hong Kong.
Partial elections were allowed in 1887, though enabling selected persons to vote for members of the Board. The Board was reconstituted in 1935 and hence renamed as Urban Council in the following year after the government had passed the Urban Council Ordinance. Democratisation had been implemented, allowing universal suffrage to happen throughout its development. Two years after the Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the Council was disbanded in 1999 by the Chief Executive of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. All members of the council were elected through universal suffrage by the time of the dissolution; the counterpart of the Municipal Council serving the New Territories was the Regional Council established as the Provisional Regional Council in 1986. The functional select committees, district committees, sub-committees constituted the entire Regional Council. All members were elected from the constituencies and district boards. Both of the Municipal Councils in Hong Kong are now defunct.
See Nagar Palika for municipalities of India. The Municipal Council in Moldova is the governing body in five municipalities: Chișinău, Bălți, Tiraspol and Bendery; the Municipal Council serves as a consultative body with some powers of general policy determination. It is composed of a determined number of counsellors elected every four years, representing political parties and independent counsellors. Once elected, counsellors may form fractions inside of the Municipal Council. Last regional elections of local public administration held in Bălți in June 2007, brought to the power the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, which holds 21 mandates, 11 mandates are held by representatives of other parties, 3 mandates by independents. There are two fractions in the Municipal Council: "Meleag" fraction; the Mayor of the municipality is elected for four years. In Bălți, Vasile Panciuc is the incumbent from 2001 and was re-elected twice: in 2003 during the anticipated elections, in 2007. In Chișinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.
As a result, Dorin Chirtoacă, won the last mayor elections in Chișinău. In the Netherlands the municipal council is the elected assembly of the municipality, it consists of between 45 members who are elected by the citizens once every four years. The council's main tasks are setting the city's policies and overseeing the execution of those policies by the municipality's executive board; the municipal council municipal board, is the highest governing body of the municipality in Norway. The municipal council sets the scope of municipal activity, takes major decisions, delegates responsibility; the council is led by a mayor s divided into an executive council and a number of committees, each responsible for a subsection of tasks. It is not uncommon for some members of the council to sit in the county councils too, but rare that they hold legislative or Government office, without leave of absence; the municipal council dates back to 1837 with the creation of the Formannskabsdistrikt. In cities the council is called a city council.
In the Republic of China, a municipal council represents a special municipality. Members of the councils are elected through municipal elections held every 4-5 years. Councils for the special municipalities in Taiwan are Taipei City Council, New Taipei City Council, Taichung City Council, Tainan City Council, Kaohsiung City Council and Taoyuan City Council. City council Town council
2016 Bolivian constitutional referendum
A constitutional referendum was held in Bolivia on Sunday, 21 February 2016. The proposed constitutional amendments would have allowed the president and vice president to run for a third consecutive term under the 2009 Constitution; the referendum was voted down by a 51.3% majority. Article 168 of the 2009 constitution allows the President and Vice-President to put themselves forward for re-election only once, limiting the number of terms to two; the governing party, the Movement Towards Socialism–Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples sponsored an effort to amend this article. The referendum was authorized by a combined session of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly on 26 September 2015, by a vote of 112 to 41. Law 757, which convenes the February referendum, was passed 113 to 43, was promulgated on 5 November 2015. Bolivian elections are conducted under an "act of good governance," which prohibits electoral propaganda in the days before an election, regulates motorized transport.
It was illegal to buy or consume alcohol for 48 hours prior to the referendum to ensure voters took note of their decision. A successful'yes' vote would have allowed President Evo Morales and Vice President Álvaro García Linera to run for another term in office in 2019. Morales had been elected three times; the first time, in 2006, is not counted as it was before the two term limit was introduced by the 2009 constitution. Despite the referendum, the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Bolivia ruled a little over one year in December 2017 that all public offices would have no term limits despite what was established in the constitution, blaming foreign support to the opposition campaigns for the nullification of the referendum's decision, thus allowing Morales to run for a fourth term
For other places and things named Trinidad, see Trinidad. Trinidad La Santísima Trinidad, is a city in Bolivia, capital of the department of Beni; the population is 130,000. The city was founded in 1686 by Father Cipriano Barace. In 1769 the town moved to its current location, 9 miles away, due to flooding; the original city was on the Mamoré River, but flooding and disease forced a move on the location of the city. It is located in the province of one of Beni's eight provinces. Sited on the southern edge of the Amazon basin on the Llanos de Moxos/Mojos, the climate is hot and humid at all times. One of the more notable features of the city is the open drains that surrounds every block of buildings; these are linked together thence to the local river. These are necessary due to the heavy rainfall that occurs between May. Trinidad, located in the Bolivian tropics, is hot and humid most of the year; this region of the country is forested and many large rivers run through Beni. Like most cities in Bolivia, it is built around a central plaza with a large Catholic cathedral as its centerpiece.
Trinidad was a small Jesuit town but is now a large city with over 100,000 inhabitants. Its mission-style church was demolished and rebuilt in 1923. Despite these changes, many of the original religious relics and statues are still housed in the cathedral, which faces the main plaza; the City is surrounded by rivers and lagoons. There are restaurants and resorts around the city's main lagoons. Trinidad is one of the first five Jesuit mission towns established and these are now part of the Misiones tour includes visits to San Javier, San Pedro and San Ignacio de Moxos as well. Trinidad and San Ignacio de Moxos both take part in the International Baroque Music Festival every two years in Bolivia. Under the Köppen climate classification, Trinidad has a tropical monsoon climate with a lengthy rainy season and a short dry season. Trinidad has two singular museums; the Museo Itícola is the third largest of its kind in South America and houses over 400 specimens of fish species found in the region’s lakes and lagoons.
It is located on the UAB University campus and is interesting. Here you can see tiny fish, a preserved pink river dolphin; the Kenneth Lee Ethno-Archeological Museum is a great place to visit. Here you can see exhibits of pottery and tools, textiles and other implements used by the Moxos culture. Of interest to ornithologists, the endangered blue-throated macaw in the surrounding countryside. Expeditions to see these can be locally arranged. Airport: Teniente Jorge Henrich Arauz Lat: 14° 48' 0 S Lon: 64° 46' 0 W Alt: 509 feet Weather in Trinidad Bolivian Yellow Pages Trinidad
The Bolivian passport is the official travel document issued to citizens of Bolivia by the Bolivian Government through its specially appointed office, Dirección General de Migración. The document can be extended abroad via consulate representatives; the current passport has undergone several modifications following international regulations as well as other regarding naming and adherence to international organisations, like the Andean Community of Nations. In an official press release the General Office on Migration details 18 safety measures including the costs and other details of the new passport which now complies with international regulations for mechanical and biometric readings. Andean passport Visa policy of Bolivia Visa requirements for Bolivian citizens Images of a 1984 Bolivian passport
Municipalities of Bolivia
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections. Municipalities are the third level of administrative divisions, below provinces; some of the provinces consist of only one municipality. In these cases the municipalities are identical to the provinces. Municipalities in Bolivia are each led by an executive office. Mayors were appointed by the national government from 1878 to 1942 and from 1949 to 1987. Local elections were held under the 1942 municipal code, in force until 1991; the 1985 Organic Law of Municipalities restored local elections for mayor and created a legislative body, the municipal council. In 1994, the entire territory of Bolivia was merged into municipalities, where only urban areas were organized as municipalities; as an effect of decentralization through the 1994 Law of Popular Participation the number of municipalities in Bolivia has risen from an initial twenty-four to 327, to 337, to 339. Of the 327 municipalities existing after 2005, 187 are inhabited by indigenous population.
New municipalities must have 5,000 in the case of border areas. The municipalities are as follows ordered by department: Baures Municipality Exaltación Municipality Guayaramerín Municipality Huacaraje Municipality Loreto Municipality, Beni Magdalena Municipality, Beni Puerto Siles Municipality Reyes Municipality Riberalta Municipality Rurrenabaque Municipality San Andrés Municipality, Beni San Borja Municipality San Ignacio Municipality, Beni San Javier Municipality, Beni San Joaquín Municipality, Beni San Ramón Municipality, Beni Santa Ana Municipality, Beni Santa Rosa Municipality, Beni Trinidad Municipality, Beni Aiquile Municipality Alalay Municipality Anzaldo Municipality Arani Municipality Arbieto Municipality Arque Municipality Ayopaya Municipality Bolívar Municipality, Cochabamba Capinota Municipality Chimoré Municipality Cliza Municipality Cocapata Municipality Cochabamba Municipality Colcapirhua Municipality Colomi Municipality Cuchumuela Municipality Entre Ríos Municipality, Cochabamba Mizque Municipality Morochata Municipality Muela Municipality Omereque Municipality Pasorapa Municipality Pocona Municipality Pojo Municipality Puerto Villarroel Municipality Punata Municipality Quillacollo Municipality Sacaba Municipality Sacabamba Municipality San Benito Municipality Santivañez Municipality Shinahota Municipality / Shinaota Municipality / Sinahota Municipality Sicaya Municipality Sipe Sipe Municipality Tacachi Municipality Tacopaya Municipality Tapacarí Municipality Tarata Municipality Tiquipaya Municipality Tiraque Municipality Toco Municipality Tolata Municipality Totora Municipality Tunari Municipality Vacas Municipality Vila Vila Municipality Vinto Municipality Azurduy Municipality Camargo Municipality, Chuquisaca Culpina Municipality El Villar Municipality Huacareta Municipality Huacaya Municipality Icla Municipality Incahuasi Municipality Mojocoya Municipality Camataqui Municipality Las Carreras Municipality Macharetí Municipality Monteagudo Municipality Padilla Municipality Poroma Municipality Presto Municipality San Lucas Municipality Sopachuy Municipality Sucre Municipality, Bolivia Tarabuco Municipality Tomina Municipality Villa Alcalá Municipality Villa Charcas Municipality Villa Serrano Municipality Villa Vaca Guzmán Municipality Villa Zudañez Municipality Tarvita Municipality Yotala Municipality Yamparáez Municipality Achacachi Municipality Achocalla Municipality Alto Beni Municipality Ancoraimes Municipality Apolo Municipality Aucapata Municipality Ayata Municipality Ayo Ayo Municipality Batallas Municipality Cairoma Municipality Cajuata Municipality Calacoto Municipality Calamarca Municipality Caquiaviri Municipality Caranavi Municipality Catacora Municipality Chacarilla Municipality Charaña Municipality Chúa Cocani Municipality Chulumani Municipality Chuma Municipality Collana Municipality Colquencha Municipality Colquiri Municipality Comanche Municipality Combaya Municipality Copacabana Municipality, La Paz Coripata Municipality Coro Coro Municipality Coroico Municipality Curva Municipality Desaguadero Municipality El Alto Municipality, La Paz Escoma Municipality General Juan José Pérez Municipality Guanay Municipality Guaqui Municipality Huatajata Municipality Huarina Municipality Humanata Municipality Ichoca Municipality Inquisivi Municipality Irupana Municipality Ixiamas Municipality La Asunta Municipality La Paz Municipality Laja Municipality Licoma Pampa Municipality Luribay Municipality Malla Municipality Mecapaca Municipality Mocomoco Municipality Nazacara de Pacajes Municipality Palca Municipality Palos Blancos Municipality Papel Pampa Municipality Patacamaya Municipality Pelechuco Municipality Pucarani Municipality Puerto Acosta Municipality Puerto Carabuco Municipality Puerto Pérez Municipality Quiabaya Municipality Quime Municipality San Buenaventura Municipality, La Paz San Pedro de Curahuara Municipality San Pedro de Tiquina Municipality Santiago de Callapa Municipality Santiago de Huata Municipality Santiago de Machaca Municipality Sapahaqui Municipality Sica Sica Municipality Sorata Municipality Tacacoma Municipality Tiwanaku Municipality Tipuani Municipality Tito Yupanqui Municipality Umala Municipality Viacha Municipality Waldo Ballivián Municipality Yaco Municipality Yanacachi Municipality Andamarca Municipality Antequera Municipality Belén de Andamarca Municipality Caracollo Municipality Carangas Municipality Challapata Municipality Chipaya Municipality Choquecota Municipality Coipasa Municipality Corque Municipality Cruz de Machacamarca Municipality Curahuara de Carangas Municipality El Choro Municipalit