Panamá is a province of Panama. It is the location of the national capital Panama City, which serves as its provincial capital; the governor of the province is Rafael Pino Pinto, appointed by President Varela and sworn in on 4 July 2014. Panamá Province is divided into 55 corregimientos; the five former districts west of the Panama Canal were split off to form Panamá Oeste Province on 1 January 2014. 1 These corregimientos represent as Panama City2 These corregimientos represent as San Miguelito City
Herrera is a province in Panama. Named after General Tomás Herrera, the province was founded on January 18, 1915 from a division of the Los Santos province; the capital city of Herrera is Chitré, located near the province's coastline. Herrera is bordered on the north by the provinces Veraguas and Coclé, on the south by Los Santos, on the east by Golfo de Parita and Los Santos, on the west by Veraguas. After gaining independence from Spain in 1821, the isthmus of Panama was divided into two provinces, Panamá and Veraguas; the province Panamá consisted of the districts of Natá, Portobelo and Darién. At the time, the location now occupied by the city of Chitré was inhabited by a small population of indigenous persons, near La Villa de Los Santos and was governed from Natá, it came under the control of the Los Santos government. The province of Herrera was created in 1854 and eliminated in 1860. 55 years in 1915 the province was created again by the president of Panama Dr. Belisario Porras. Chitré was founded on October 19, 1848 by Ventura Solís, Matías Rodríguez, José Ríos, José María Benavidez, Ildelfonso Pérez, Blas Tello, Eugenio Barrera, José Burgos y Carlos Rodríguez.
Chitré, was included in the province of Los Santos. It was not until 1915 under the Porras administration that Chitré became a part of Herrera and was made the province's capital. Of Panama's nine provinces, Herrera ranks third in sugarcane production. Other commercial mainstays in Herrera include retail, equipment repair and domestic service. Prominent industries include dairy, commercial fishing, ceramics, clay products and cement; the famous Festival del Manito Ocueño has its origin in the city of Ocú in Herrera. The pottery work in the province is extensive, consisting of high-quality reproductions of pre-Columbian artifacts. Herrera's pottery is the best-known in the country. Panama's most famous alcoholic drink, "seco", is produced in Herrera, a sugarcane liqueur said to be drier than normal rum. Varela Hermanos, a company based in Pesé, sells seco under the trade name Seco Herrerano. Herrera's baseball team has won sixteen national championships, more than any other team in the country, including the 2005, 2006 and 2007 titles.
The best-known carnivals are celebrated in Chitré, Parita and Ocú. Chitré's carnival is one of the most popular in Panama, but those in Ocú have risen in prominence in recent years. Herrera Province is divided into 7 districts and 49 corregimientos
La Chorrera, Panama
La Chorrera is a city and municipality in central Panama, located about 30 km south-west of Panama City. Is the capital of the province of Panamá Oeste and one of the larger cities in the country and is fond of the phrase "La Bella, Enamoradora y Querendona, La Gran Chorrera" as a tribute to its beautiful women, kind people, happy nightlife. La Chorrera is renowned for its international fair and famous as being the home of Bollo and Chicheme. It's the home of San Francisco F. C. Mariano Rivera, Vicente Mosquera, José Luis Garcés. La Chorrera has a warm tropical climate with heavy seasonal rains in the months of May to November, leading to extensive grasslands that favor the raising of cattle and to a lesser extent pigs; the fertile lands yield good crops of pineapple, coffee, cassava and sugar cane. 2% of the country's lumber comes from this district. La Chorrera is located on the Panamerican Highway between the districts of Capira and Arraiján, is about 7 kilometers from the Pacific coast, it has not been determined where the origin of the name of La Chorrera, but it is assumed that it is due to the large number of waterfalls that exist, which include El Chorro de La Chorrera, El Chorro Trinidad, El Chorro de Canoa Quebrada and others.
Politics of Panama
The politics of Panama take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic with multi-party system, whereby the President of Panama is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the president. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The branches are according to Panama's Political Constitution of 1972, reformed by the Actos Reformatorios of 1978 and the Acto Constitucional of 1983, united in cooperation and limited through a system of checks and balances. Three independent organizations with defined responsibilities are found in the constitution: the Comptroller General of the Republic has the responsibility to manage public funds; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Panama as "flawed democracy" in 2016. The Executive Branch includes one vice-president; the president and vice-president are elected on a single ballot for a five-year term by direct popular vote. Presidents are not allowed to run for re-election, but can run again after waiting five years.
Minister of Agricultural and Livestock Development: Enrique Carles Minister of Canal Affairs: Roberto Roy Minister of Commerce and Industries: Augusto R. Arosemena M. Minister of Economy and Finance: Dulcidio de la Guardia Minister of Education: Marcela Paredes de Vásquez Ministry of Environment of Panama: Mirei Endara Minister of Foreign Affairs: Isabel Saint Malo Minister of Health: Miguel Mayo Minister of Housing: Mario Etchelecu Minister of Government: María Luisa Romero Minister of the Presidency: Álvaro Alemán Minister of Public Security: Alexis Bethancourt Minister of Public Works: Ramón Arosemena Minister of Social Development: Alcibiades Vásquez Minister of Work and Labor Development: Luis Ernesto Carles Attorney General: Kenia Isolda Porcell Alvarado Manager, National Bank of Panama: Rolando Julio de León Alba Permanent Representative to the United Nations, New York: Laura E. Flores H; the legislative branch consists of a unicameral National Assembly, composed of 71 members elected to five-year terms from single- and multi-seat constituencies.
The Judicial Organ administers justice in a permanent and expeditious manner. It comprises the Supreme Court of Justice, the Tribunals, the judges established by law, according to the constitution of Panama. An autonomous Electoral Tribunal supervises voter registration, the election process, the activities of political parties. Everyone over the age of 18 are required to vote, although those who fail to do so are not penalized; the dominant political parties in Panamanian history have been the Panameñista. These parties were founded by charismatic and strong political enemies, Omar Torrijos —the deceased father of the previous president, Martín Torrijos—and Arnulfo Arias, late husband of the ex-president, Mireya Moscoso. Though these leaders died years ago, their aura is revived by their followers, they are present in every election. Panamanian politics have been corrupt; the Panamanian society and press are auditing and fighting for improvements. A sign of this is the lack of young votes in the referendum of October 22, 2006, showing a lack of confidence in Panamanian politics and politicians.
Foreign relations of Panama Harding, Robert C.. Military Foundations of Panamanian Politics. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0075-6. Harding, Robert C.. The History of Panama. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0-313-33322-4. National Assembly of Panama Presidency of Panama
Veraguas is a province of Panama, located in the centre-west of the country. The capital is the city of Santiago de Veraguas, it is the only Panamanian province to border both the Pacific oceans. It is divided into twelve districts. Veraguas was explored by Christopher Columbus on his fourth voyage, he tried to establish the first colony in the new Spanish mainland but failed due to attacks from native Indians. Diego de Nicuesa tried to make a colony and failed, which made him create a colony to fight against the Indians called Nombre de Dios, its capital, Santiago de Veraguas, was founded about 1636. It is said that its name comes from the indigenous word "Veracua" or "Viragua", though other theories abound, it is the only province in Panama with coastlines on both the Pacific Ocean. The majority of people live on the Pacific side. Veraguas has many groups of inhabitants of Spanish-Indian origin named campesinos; this land offers visitors close contact with nature. Forests, mountains and islands where there are more than 200 varieties of orchids.
Veraguas has various national parks. The Coiba National Park, Cerro Hoya National Park, Santa Fe National Park, La Yeguada Forest reserve and El Montuoso Forest reserve. Beaches such as Playa Santa Catalina, Playa Mariato and Torio offer great places for recreation and fishing. Other famous touristic areas is the Iglesia de San Francisco de la Montaña; this church has a Baroque architecture and dates back to 1727. It was declared a National Historical Monument on January 27, 1937. Veraguas Province is divided into 104 corregimientos. Veragua Official website of Santiago de Veraguas
El Porvenir, Guna Yala
El Porvenir is the capital of the Panamanian comarca of Guna Yala. The settlement is located on a small island and contains a landing strip, a museum, a hotel, government offices, an artisans' cooperative. There is a small beach. Media related to El Porvenir at Wikimedia Commons
Ngäbe-Buglé is the largest and most populous of Panama's three comarcas indígenas. It was created in 1997 from lands belonging to the provinces of Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Veraguas; the capital is known as Buäbti in Llano Tugrí in Spanish. Ngäbe-Buglé Comarca is sub-divided into 3 sub-regions, 9 districts and 70 corregimientos: Starting in 1972, the Panamanian government was required to establish comarcas, demarcated regions in which indigenous groups possess exclusive land rights and considerable administrative autonomy. Within comarcas, people elect a General assembly and any number of regional and local leaders, although the government still controls public expenditure and tax revenues within the territory; the comarca Ngäbe-Buglé, located in north western Panama, was formed in 1997 both as a latent result of government promise and of considerable political pressure from the Ngäbe-Buglé, united by threats of natural resource exploitation and environmental degradation on their ancestral lands.
The territory is made up of land belonging to the provinces of Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Veraguas, divided into seven districts. As the Ngäbe-Buglé population tends to identify more with their communities than with an ethnicity and is distributed rather unevenly, the political organization that prompted the formation of their comarca is unusual, but nonetheless demonstrates a powerful capacity to influence government actions. Ngäbe-Buglé comarca is characterized by mountainous terrain, steep slopes and nutrient poor soil with high rock content, all characteristics that make farming difficult. On the Caribbean slope there is no dry season and tropical forest dominates the landscape; as a result of greater seasonal variation, there are more localized geographies on the Pacific slope and vegetation consists of grasses mixed with tropical forest cover. Small perennial streams and larger rivers run on both sides of the continental divide and are used for bathing and drinking. In the region most travel is done on foot or horseback as there are few year-round access roads leading into the comarca from San Felix, a city connected to the interamericana highway via Las Cruces.
Although associated and collectively referred to as the Guaymí, the Ngäbe and Buglé are two separate linguistic/indigenous groups whose languages are mutually unintelligble. The larger group, the Ngäbe, speak Ngäbere, while the Buglé, speak Buglére. Collectively, these two groups make up the largest indigenous population in Panama. Note the difference in spelling of Ngäbe and Ngöbe; the vowel low-back-rounded sound indicated by ä does not exist in Spanish and is confused with "o". The sound represented by "ä" is similar to the sound "aw" in the word "saw"; the spelling Ngäbe, used here, is the more spread spelling in Ngäbere. The Guaymí live in houses supported by sticks with a grass or zinc roof and dirt floor, wealthier families may have a cement floor. In each house a platform under the roof is used for food storage and there are a number of raised bed platforms. Chácaras, are sturdy bags made from plant fibers, they are used both to transport materials. You can see infants being transported in a chácara.
Some women make these bags to sell so they may participate in the informal economy. Families have a few large cooking pots called pailas and many keep chicha, a corn drink, in the house. Guaymí men wear homemade multi-colored pants, straw hats and rubber boots, while women wear full bright colored dresses with shoulder and neckline adornments and embroidered bands around the waist and bottom. Women do not wear shoes; these items are made at home with hand crank sewing machines and, like chácaras, sold for extra income. The filing of teeth to a point using a machete sharpener is not uncommon among Guaymí men and women, although the practice is carried out in more traditional areas. Families are rather large and groups of women live close together so they can assist each other when caring for children. Polygamy was once common among the Ngäbe-Buglé as the number of wives and children a man has signifies prestige, it is no longer common since supporting multiple wives and large families is difficult.
Social capital and reciprocity networks formed through a kinship system are important for reducing economic and social resource vulnerability while creating opportunity for families to cooperate and take advantage of more opportunities that will help them and other members of their kinship group get by. Marriage and kinship relations play a large part in determining land ownership and use rights; as the Ngäbe-Buglé practice subsistence agriculture, definitions of land ownership and use are of pinnacle importance to every household as population increases in proportion to arable land in the comarca and productive land is degraded by excessive use. The intricate system on which land resources are allocated is based on the kinship system. Ownership rights to unclaimed land are established through occupation and farming, although little fertile land in the comarca remains unclaimed. Members of a kinship group