Georgia in the American Revolution
Georgia in the American Revolution refers to the role of the Province of Georgia, a significant battleground in the American Revolution. Its population was at first divided about how to respond to revolutionary activities and heightened tensions in other provinces; when violence broke out in 1775, radical Patriots took control of the provincial government, drove many Loyalists out of the province. Georgia served as the staging ground for several important raids into British-controlled Florida. Though Georgians opposed British trade regulations, many hesitated to join the revolutionary movement that emerged in the American colonies in the early 1770s and resulted in the American Revolutionary War; the colony had prospered under royal rule, many Georgians thought that they needed the protection of British troops against a possible Indian attack. Georgia did not send representatives to the First Continental Congress that met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1774; the Congress asked all colonies to form a group, called the Association, to ban trade with Great Britain.
Georgia delegates gathered in a provincial congress in Savannah on January 18, 1775, to discuss whether to join the Association, to elect representatives to the Second Continental Congress. Those who were elected declined to go to Philadelphia, because the delegates were divided on the action to be taken. St. John Parish, acting alone, sent Lyman Hall to the Second Continental Congress. News of the battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts caused many Georgians who were wavering in their allegiance to join the radical movement. A group called the Sons of Liberty broke into the powder magazine in Savannah on May 11, 1775, divided the powder with the South Carolina revolutionaries. Though Georgians continued to drink to the health of the king, they took government into their own hands when the Second Provincial Congress met in Savannah on July 4, 1775; the Congress named delegates to the Second Continental Congress, sitting in Philadelphia, adopted the Association's ban on trade with Britain.
The single most important democratic action of the Congress was the establishment of local committees to enforce the Association's ban. Thus political power devolved upon artisans and farmers, considered by royal governor James Wright to be the "wrong sort" to be allowed in government; the Congress adjourned. The heavy-handed tactics of the local committee in Augusta led to the first violence in the backcountry. On August 2, 1775, members of the committee confronted Thomas Brown at his residence on the South Carolina side of the Savannah River above Augusta. Brown had come to Georgia with seventy or so indentured servants in November 1774 in answer to Governor Wright's advertisement of the advantages of the newly Ceded Lands above Augusta and founded a settlement called Brownsborough, he attracted the anger of the Whigs by publicly denouncing the Association and summoning friends of the king to join a counterassociation. When he refused to swear to honor the Association, the crowd of Liberty men tortured him in various ways and fracturing his skull, burning his feet, hauling him, through the streets of Augusta as an object lesson to those who would denounce the Association.
When he recovered, Brown retired into the Carolina backcountry, where he and other leaders enlisted hundreds of Loyalists and threatened a march on Augusta. After much marching about and some skirmishing around the town of Ninety Six and his friends heeded South Carolina governor Sir William Campbell's advice to await the arrival of the British. Brown retreated to East Florida and persuaded its governor, Patrick Tonyn, to allow him to recruit a corps of rangers who would lead Indians to fight on the frontiers in conjunction with the expected landing on the coast. Meanwhile, rumors of a British-instigated plot to enlist slaves and Indians to help defeat the American patriots alarmed Georgians and Carolinians. Though false, the rumors were believed, John Stuart, the Indian Commissioner, fled in fear for his life from Charleston, South Carolina, to Florida. British warships that arrived in the Savannah River in January 1776 caused the first crisis in Savannah; the Council of Safety, convinced that Savannah was to be the object of a British attack, placed Governor Wright under house arrest and instructed Colonel Lachlan McIntosh to take charge of the defense of the city.
There followed the so-called Battle of the Rice Boats on March 2–3, 1776, when British marines seized rice-laden merchant ships in the Savannah harbor, some of which the militia burned. In fact, the object of the British fleet was the acquisition of provisions for the beleaguered army besieged in Boston; the fleet sailed off with some of the rice and with the fugitive Governor Wright and his chief councilors. In the absence of the governor, the next provincial congress met in Augusta and proceeded to draft a simple framework of government called "Rules and Regulations" that went into effect on May 1, 1776; the congress elected Archibald Bulloch commander in chief of militia. George Walton joined Lyman Hall and Button Gwinnett as Georgia delegates to the Philadelphia convention in time to sign the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. By August Major General Charles Lee, military commander in the South, allowed himself to be persuaded by Georgians to stage an invasion of British East Florida.
Lee had little hope of conquest, but he thought the military demonstration might impress the Indians. He was recalled to the North, taking his Virginia and North Carolina troops with him, the expedition got no farther than Sunbury, just south of Savann
Annapolis Convention (1774–1776)
The Annapolis Convention was an Assembly of the Counties of Maryland that functioned as the colony's provincial government from 1774 to 1776 during the early days leading up to the American Revolution. After 1775, it was named the Assembly of Freemen. In 1774, the committees of correspondence that had sprung up throughout the colonies were being drawn to the support of Boston, as they reacted to the closing of the port and increase of the occupying military force. Massachusetts had asked for Continental Congress to consider joint action. To forestall any such action, the royal governor of Maryland, Robert Eden prorogued the Assembly on April 19, 1774; this was the last session of the colonial assembly held in Maryland. But, the assembly members agreed to meet in June at Annapolis after they went home to determine the wishes of the citizens in the counties they represented. Over the next two and a half years, the Convention met nine times and operated as the state or colony level of Government for Maryland.
Throughout the period, they maintained some standing Committees that continued their function between sessions. The first convention lasted four days, from June 22 to June 25, 1774. All sixteen counties were represented by a total of 92 members, they elected Matthew Tilghman as their chair. Within that short time, they agreed: That. Passed resolutions supporting Boston, ordered supplies sent to them; the Convention would continue from time to time as needed. A Committee of Correspondence would continue between sessions, members were named, they would support non-importation agreements. Elected delegates to the first Continental Congress. Other sessions were held on November 21 – November 25, December 8 – December 12. July 26 – August 14 and December 7, 1775 – January 28, 1776 ASSOCIATION of the FREEMEN of MARYLAND July 26, 1775; the long premeditated, now avowed design of the British Government, to raise a revenue from the property of the colonists without their consent, on the gift and disposition of the Commons of Great Britain.
The Congress chose the latter, for the express purpose of securing and defending the united colonies, preserving them in safety, against all attempts to carry the above-mentioned acts into execution by force of arms. Resolved, that the said colonies be put into a state of defence, now supports, at the joint expense, an army to restrain the further violence, repel the future attacks of a disappointed and exasperated enemy. We therefore inhabitants of the Province of Maryland persuaded that it is necessary and justifiable to repel force by force, do approve of the opposition by Arms to the British troops, employed to enforce obedience to the late acts and statutes of the British parliament, for raising a revenue in America, altering and changing the charter and constitution of the Massachusetts Bay, for destroying the essential securities for the lives and properties of the subjects in the united colonies, and we do unite and associate, as one band and solemnly engage and pledge ourselves to each other, to America, that we will to the utmost of our power and support the present opposition, carrying on, as well by Arms, as by the continental association, restraining our commerce.
And as in these times of public danger, until a reconciliation with Great Britain, on constitutional principles is effected the energy of government may be impaired, so that zeal unrestrained, may be productive of anarchy and confusion. The original engagement of the Associators, preserved under glass at Annapolis, consists of two pieces torn apart, pasted down on card-board. On our p. 67 the order of names and arrangement of columns have been preserved, though not the spacing. On comparing these signatures with the Journal, 29 names will be found to be missing, viz: Philip Richard Fendall I of Charles Co..
The Continental Association known as the "Association", was a system created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain. Congress hoped that by imposing economic sanctions, they would pressure Great Britain into redressing the grievances of the colonies, in particular repealing the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament; the Association aimed to alter Britain's policies towards the colonies without severing allegiance. The boycott became operative on December 1, 1774; the Association was successful while it lasted. Trade with Great Britain fell and the British responded with the New England Restraining Act of 1775; the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War superseded the attempt to boycott British goods. The British Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774 to reform colonial administration in British America and, in part, to punish the Province of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Many American colonists saw the Coercive Acts as a violation of the British Constitution and a threat to the liberties of all of British America, not just Massachusetts.
As they had done during the 1760s—most during the Stamp Act crisis of 1765—colonists turned to economic boycotts to protest what they saw as unconstitutional legislation. The word boycott had not yet been coined. On May 13, 1774, the Boston Town Meeting, with Samuel Adams acting as moderator, passed a resolution that called for an economic boycott in response to the Boston Port Act, one of the Coercive Acts; the resolution said: That it is the opinion of this town, that if the other, Colonies come, into a joint resolution to stop all importation from Great Britain, exportations to Great Britain, every part of the West Indies, till the Act for blocking up this harbour be repealed, the same will prove the salvation of North America and her liberties. On the other hand, if they continue their exports and imports, there is high reason to fear that fraud and the most odious oppression, will rise triumphant over right, social happiness, freedom. Paul Revere, who served as messenger, carried the Boston resolutions to New York and Philadelphia.
Adams promoted the boycott through the colonial committees of correspondence, through which advocates of colonial rights in the various provinces kept in touch. The First Continental Congress was convened at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774, to coordinate a response to the Coercive Acts. Twelve colonies were represented at the Congress. On October 20, 1774, Congress created the Association, based on the earlier Virginia Association; the Association signified the increasing cooperation between the colonies. As a sign of the desire still prevalent at the time to avoid open revolution, the Association notably opened with a profession of allegiance to the king, they placed the blame for "a ruinous system of colony administration" upon Parliament and lower British officials rather than the king directly; the Association alleged that this system was "evidently calculated for enslaving these colonies, with them, the British Empire." The articles of the Continental Association imposed an immediate ban on British tea, a ban on importing or consuming any goods from Britain and the British West Indies to take effect on December 1, 1774.
It threatened an export ban on any products from the American colonies to Britain, Ireland, or the West Indies, to be enacted only if the complained of acts were not repealed by September 10, 1775. This was a recognition of the need and demand for American goods abroad, though the ban was deferred to avoid inflicting immediate economic hardship on American merchants. All American colonists were to direct their agents abroad to comply with these restrictions, as would all ship owners; the Association set forth policies. Merchants were restricted from price gouging. Local committees of inspection were to be established in the colonies by which compliance would be monitored, through strong-arming local businesses. Any individual observed to violate the pledges in the Articles would be condemned in print and ostracised in society "as the enemies of American liberty." Colonies would cease all trade and dealings with any other colony that failed to comply with the bans. The colonies pledged that they would "encourage frugality and industry, promote agriculture and the manufactures of this country that of wool.
Specific instructions were set forth on properly frugal funeral observations, pledging that no one "will go into any further mourning-dress, than a black crepe or ribbon on the arm or hat, for gentlemen, a black ribbon and necklace for ladies, we will discontinue the giving of gloves and scarves at funerals." These delegates signed the Association in Congress. Many local signings took place; the Continental Association went into effect on December 1, 1774. The ban did succeed for the time. However, the British retaliated by blocking colony access to the North Atlantic's fisheries. Only one colony failed to establish local enforcement committees.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
South Carolina in the American Revolution
South Carolina was outraged over British tax policies in the 1760s that violated what they saw as their constitutional right to "no taxation without representation". Merchants joined the boycott against buying British products; when the London government harshly punished Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, South Carolina's leaders joined 11 other colonies in forming the Continental Congress. When the British attacked Lexington and Concord in the spring of 1775 and were beaten back by the Massachusetts Patriots, South Carolina rallied to support the American Revolution. Loyalist and Patriots of the colony were split by nearly 50/50. Many of the South Carolinian battles fought during the American Revolution were with loyalist Carolinians and the part of the Cherokee tribe that allied with the British; this was to General Henry Clinton's advantage. His strategy was to march his troops north from St. Augustine and sandwich George Washington in the North. Clinton alienated Loyalists and enraged Patriots by attacking a fleeing army of Patriot soldiers who posed no threat.
Enslaved Africans and African Americans chose independence by escaping to British lines where they were promised freedom. Combined Continental Army and state militia forces under the command of Major General Nathanael Greene regained control of much of South Carolina by capturing the numerous interdependent chain of British held forts throughout the State. One-by-one, the British and Loyalists were surrounded in Charles Town and became dependent on supplies by sea. After preliminary peace terms had been agreed, the British evacuated Charles Town on December 14, 1782, a day now designated as "South Carolina Independence Day". Greene was awarded a Congressional Medal and numerous other official awards from the State of South Carolina for his leadership in liberating the state and for restoring an elected government. In 1787, John Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler went to Philadelphia where the Constitutional Convention was being held and constructed what served as a detailed outline for the U.
S. Constitution. After Parliament began taxing the North American colonies to raise revenue to make up for the costs of the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion, to protest the Stamp Act, South Carolina sent wealthy rice planter Thomas Lynch, 26-year-old lawyer John Rutledge, Christopher Gadsden to the Stamp Act Congress. Gadsden, leader of the pro-Independence "Liberty Boys," is grouped with James Otis and Patrick Henry as the prime agitators for American independence by historians. Gadsden designed the "Don't Tread on Me" flag, first used on December 3, 1775, on the Alfred, featuring a rattlesnake with 13 rattles representing each colony. In 1767, the Townsend Acts levied new taxes on glass, wine, tea and other goods. Gadsden led the opposition and although Britain removed the taxes on everything except tea, Charlestonians mirrored the Boston Tea Party by dumping a shipment of tea into the Cooper River. Other shipments were allowed to land. Delegates from twelve colonies, all of the Thirteen Colonies except for Georgia, came together for the First Continental Congress in 1774.
Five South Carolinians, including those who represented the colony in the Stamp Act Congress, headed for Philadelphia. Henry Middleton served as president for part of Congress; the following January the South Carolina colonial assembly was disbanded by Royal Governor Lord William Campbell, it was reformed as an extralegal Provincial Congress. During this meeting and following meetings, in June 1775 and March 1776, the South Carolinians created a temporary government to rule until the colony had settled things with Britain. John Rutledge was voted "president" of the state, called the "General Assembly of South Carolina" Most Loyalists came from the Upcountry, which thought that domination by the rich, elitist Charles Town planter class in an unsupervised government was worse than remaining under the rule of the British Crown. Judge William Henry Drayton and Reverend William Tennent were sent to the Back Country to gain support for the "American Cause" and Lowcountry's General Committee and Provincial Congress but did not have much success.
In September 1775, the Royal Governor dissolved the last-ever Royal Assembly in South Carolina and left for the safety of the British warship Tamar in the Charleston Harbor. Throughout the course of the American Revolutionary War, over 200 battles were fought within South Carolina, more than in any other state. On November 19, 1775, Patriot forces of the Long Cane Militia fought Loyalists in the first battle of Ninety Six, resulting in the death of James Birmingham, the first South Carolinian and southerner of the war. Colonel Richard Richardson led a large party of Whigs into the Upcountry to arrest Loyalists and to assert the power of the revolutionary General Committee over the entire colony. Britain's strategy was to take advantage of strong Loyalist support in the South, begin a military drive in Charles Town, sweep through the Upcountry, North Carolina, Virginia while gathering men to take on Washington in the North. Under Colonel William Moultrie, the South Carolinians defeated the Royal Navy in the Battle of Sullivan's Island on June 28, 1776, brought the Patriot Continental Army a major victory.
In Philadelphia, the news reached delegates of the Second Continental Congress on July 19, over two weeks after delegates had voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence. The Battle of Sullivan's Island caused the British to rethink their strategy and leave the South for three years; the new state legislature met the next December to complet
Proclamation of Rebellion
The Proclamation of Rebellion titled A Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, was the response of George III of Great Britain to the news of the Battle of Bunker Hill at the outset of the American Revolutionary War. Issued August 23, 1775, it declared elements of the American colonies in a state of "open and avowed rebellion", it ordered officials of the British Empire "to use their utmost endeavours to withstand and suppress such rebellion". The Proclamation encouraged subjects throughout the Empire, including those in Great Britain, to report anyone carrying on "traitorous correspondence" with the rebels so that they could be punished; the Proclamation was written before Colonial Secretary Lord Dartmouth had been given a copy of the Olive Branch Petition from the Continental Congress. Because the king refused to receive the petition, the Proclamation served as an answer to the petition. On October 27, 1775, North's Cabinet expanded on the Proclamation in the Speech from the Throne read by the King at the opening of Parliament.
The speech insisted that rebellion was being fomented by a "desperate conspiracy" of leaders whose claims of allegiance to him were insincere. The speech indicated that the King intended to deal with the crisis with armed force, was considering "friendly offers of foreign assistance" to suppress the rebellion without pitting Briton against Briton. A pro-American minority in Parliament warned that the government was driving the colonists towards independence, something that many colonial leaders had insisted they did not desire; the Second Continental Congress issued a response to the Proclamation on December 6, saying that while they had always been loyal to the king, the British Parliament never had any legitimate claim to authority over them, because the colonies were not democratically represented. Congress argued that it was their duty to continue resisting Parliament's violations of the British Constitution, that they would retaliate if any supporters in Great Britain were punished for "favouring, aiding, or abetting the cause of American liberty".
Congress maintained that they still hoped to avoid the "calamities" of a "civil war". The Proclamation and the Speech from the Throne undermined moderates in the Continental Congress such as John Dickinson, arguing that the king would find a way to resolve the dispute between the colonies and Parliament; when it became clear that the king was not inclined to act as a conciliator, colonial attachment to the Empire was weakened, a movement towards declaring independence became a reality, culminating in the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Text of the Proclamation Response from the Continental Congress King George's speech of October 1775
Province of Pennsylvania
The Province of Pennsylvania known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates as "Penn's Woods", was created by combining the Penn surname with the Latin word sylvania, meaning "forest land"; the Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. "The lower counties on Delaware", a separate colony within the province, would breakaway during the American Revolution as "the Delaware State" and be one of the original thirteen states. The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn's Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor, a 72-member Provincial Council, a larger General Assembly.
The General Assembly known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, was the largest and most representative branch of government, but had little power. Succeeding Frames of Government were produced in 1683, 1696 and 1701; the fourth Frame was known as the Charter of Privileges and remained in effect until the American Revolution. At that time, the Provincial Assembly was deemed too moderate by the revolutionaries, who ignored the Assembly and held a convention which produced the Constitution of 1776 for the newly established commonwealth, creating a new General Assembly in the process. William Penn was an English real estate entrepreneur, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, he was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Le nape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. Penn, despite having the land grant from the King, embarked on an effort to purchase the lands from Native Americans.
Much of the land near present-day Philadelphia was held by the Delaware who would expect payment in exchange for a quitclaim to vacate the territory. Penn and his representatives negotiated a series of treaties with the Delaware and other tribes that had an interest in the land in his royal grant; the initial treaties were conducted between 1682 and 1684 for tracts between New Jersey and the former Swedish / Dutch colonies in present-day Delaware. The province was thus divided first into three counties, plus the three "lower counties on Delaware Bay"; the easternmost, Bucks County, Philadelphia County and Chester County, the westernmost. "The lower counties on Delaware," a separate colony within the province, constituted the same three counties that constitute the present State of Delaware: New Castle, the northernmost, the southernmost, Kent, which fell between New Castle and Sussex County. Their borders remain unchanged to this day, it was not until several decades into the next century that additional treaties with the Native Americans were concluded.
The Proprietors of the colony made treaties in 1718, 1732, 1737, 1749, 1754 and 1754 pushing the boundaries of the colony north and west. By the time the French and Indian War began in 1754, the Assembly had established the additional counties of Lancaster, Cumberland and Northampton. After the war was concluded, an additional treaty was made in 1768, that abided by the limits of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; this proclamation line was not intended to be a permanent boundary between the colonists and native American lands, but rather a temporary boundary which could be extended further west in an orderly manner but only by the royal government and not private individuals such as the Proprietors. This altered the original royal land grant to Penn; the next acquisitions by Pennsylvania were to take place as an independent commonwealth or state and no longer as a colony. The Assembly establish additional counties from the land prior to the War for American Independence; these counties were Bedford and Westmoreland.
William Penn and his fellow Quakers imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government. The Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists and government was open to all Christians; until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no public debt. It encouraged the rapid growth of Philadelphia into America's most important city, of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country hinterlands, where German religions and political refugees prospered on the fertile soil and spirit of cultural creativeness. Among the first groups were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683. 1751 was an auspicious year for the colony. Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the British American colonies, The Academy and College of Philadelphia, the predecessor to the private University of Pennsylvania, both opened. Benjamin Franklin founded both of these institutions along with Philadelphia's Union Fire Company fifteen years earlier in 1736. In 1751, the Pennsylvania State House ordered a new bell which would become known as the Liberty Bell for the new bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia.
William Penn had mandated fair dealings with Native Americans. This led to better r