Freemasonry and women
Freemasonry and women have a complex relationship, which can be divided into many phases with no demonstrable relationship to each other until the 20th century. A few women were involved in Freemasonry before the 18th century; the French Lodges of Adoption which spread through Continental Europe during the second half of the 18th century admitted Masons and their female relatives to a system of degrees parallel, but unrelated to the original rite. After eclipse in the 19th century, they were revived as women-only lodges in the 20th, these adopted the male degrees to give rise to French women's Masonry in the 1950s. 18th-century British lodges and their American offshoots remained male only. In the late 1800s, rites similar to adoption emerged in the United States, allowing masons and their female relatives to participate in ritual together; these bodies, were more careful to discriminate between the mixed ritual and the genuine Freemasonry of the men. In the 1890s, mixed lodges following a standard Masonic ritual started to appear in France, spread to other countries.
Women-only jurisdictions appeared soon afterwards. As a general rule, the admission of women is now recognised in Continental jurisdictions. In Anglo-American Freemasonry, neither mixed nor all-female lodges are recognised, although unofficial relations can be cordial, with premises sometimes shared. Women in Mediaeval and Renaissance Europe were assumed to be subject to their fathers to their husbands after marriage; the status of women within Mediaeval trades was dependent on the local interpretation of femme sole, the legal term for a single woman. This was the widow of a tradesman, permitted to continue her husband's business after his death, established in the rights and privileges of his trade guild or company. More single women would achieve success in their father's trade. Exceptions occurred in trades linked to traditional women's occupations, such as haberdashery and needlecraft. In Norwich, a woman called Gunnilda is listed as a mason in the Calendar for Close Rolls for 1256, it is reputed that Sabina von Steinbach, the daughter of the architect, worked on Strasbourg Cathedral in the early part of the 14th century, although the first reference to her work comes 300 years later.
In England, hints of female participation appear in the Regius Manuscript, in the Guild records at York Minster in 1408. Women were employed in administrative roles in the London Mason's Company, as such received the benefits of membership; the charge in York Manuscript No 4, dated 1693 and used as a warrant by the Grand Lodge of All England at York, contains the phrase "hee or shee, to be made mason". While a number of masonic historians have categorised this as a "misprint", Adolphus Frederick Alexander Woodford, who studied and catalogued these documents, considered it genuine. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the status of women amongst masons in Britain is to be similar to that codified in the minutes of the lodge at St. Mary's Chapel in Edinburgh. A burgess could pay for the Freedom to instruct masons; the widow of a master mason could accept commissions from his old clients, provided that she employed a journeyman of the lodge to supervise the work. As the Freemasonry of the Premier Grand Lodge of England spread in France, the French fraternity stayed within the letter of Anderson's proscription of women, but saw no reason to ban them from their banquets or their religious services.
During the 1740s, lodges of adoption began to appear. Attached to a regular lodge and female relatives of the masons would be admitted to a parallel system of degrees, with a similar moral undertone to the authentic rite of the lodge; the earliest had a nautical theme. In 1747, the Chevalier Beauchaine began the Order of Woodcutters, with rites based on an early version of the Carbonari. In 1774, the lodges of adoption came under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient de France, the published regulations show a system of four degrees: Apprentie, or Female Apprentice. Compagnonne, or Journeywoman. Maîtresse, or Mistress. Parfaite Maçonne, or Perfect Masoness. Further degrees came and went, with a ten-degree system evolving at the end of the Eighteenth century; the idea spread in Europe, but never appeared in England. After a brief eclipse during the Reign of Terror at the start of the French Revolution, lodges of adoption flourished, with the Empress Josephine presiding over one in Strasbourg in 1805.
In 1808, the Grand Orient decided that these lodges were unconstitutional, they became marginalised until re-activated by the same Grand Orient in 1901. In their new incarnation, the chair was taken by a woman, where only a man could occupy the "Chair of King Solomon". Final separation occurred in 1935, in 1959 they adopted the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, embracing regular masonry as Grande Loge féminine de France. Only one lodge, holds to the adoptive rite. Concordant rites exist with the blessing and the active support of regular masonic lodges. There are several concordant bodies in the United States which admit the wives and female relatives of Freemasons; the Dutch Order of Weavers admits only the wives, while in the American orders the men and women share in the ritual. Like the lodges of adoption, they have their own ceremonies, which means that some grand lodges view them as irregular. Order of the Eastern Star In 1850, Rob Morris created the Order of the Eastern Star for Freemasons and their female relatives.
Classed as an adoptive
The Taxil hoax was an 1890s hoax of exposure by Léo Taxil intended to mock not only Freemasonry but the Catholic Church's opposition to it. Léo Taxil was the pen name of Marie Joseph Gabriel Antoine Jogand-Pagès, accused earlier of libel regarding a book he wrote called The Secret Loves of Pope Pius IX. On April 20, 1884, Pope Leo XIII published an encyclical, Humanum genus, that said that the human race was separated into two diverse and opposite parts, of which the one steadfastly contends for truth and virtue, the other of those things which are contrary to virtue and to truth; the one is the kingdom of God on earth, the true Church of Jesus Christ... The other is the kingdom of Satan... At this period, the partisans of evil seems to be combining together, to be struggling with united vehemence, led on or assisted by that organized and widespread association called the Freemasons. After this encyclical, Taxil underwent a public, feigned conversion to Roman Catholicism and announced his intention of repairing the damage he had done to the true faith.
The first book produced by Taxil after his conversion was a four-volume history of Freemasonry, which contained fictitious eyewitness verifications of their participation in Satanism. With a collaborator who published as "Dr. Karl Hacks", Taxil wrote another book called The Devil in the Nineteenth Century, which introduced a new character, Diana Vaughan, a supposed descendant of the Rosicrucian alchemist Thomas Vaughan; the book contained many tales about her encounters with incarnate demons, one of whom was supposed to have written prophecies on her back with its tail, another who played the piano in the shape of a crocodile. Diana was involved in Satanic freemasonry but was redeemed when one day she professed admiration for Joan of Arc, at whose name the demons were put to flight; as Diana Vaughan, Taxil published a book called Eucharistic Novena, a collection of prayers which were praised by the Pope. On April 19, 1897, Taxil called a press conference at which he said he would introduce Diana Vaughan to the press.
He instead announced. He thanked the clergy for their assistance in giving publicity to his wild claims; the confession was printed, in its entirety, in the Parisian newspaper Le Frondeur, on April 25, 1897, titled: Twelve Years Under the Banner of the Church, The Prank Of Palladism. Miss Diana Vaughan–The Devil At The Freemasons. A Conference held at the Hall of the Geographic Society in Paris; the hoax material is still used to this day. Chick Publications publishes such a tract called The Curse of Baphomet and Randy Noblitt's book on satanic ritual abuse and Ritual Abuse cites the Taxil hoax. In the magazine National Magazine, an Illustrated American Monthly, Volume XXIV: April – September, 1906, pages 228 and 229, Taxil is quoted as giving his true reasons behind the hoax. Ten months on March 31, 1907, Taxil died. Members of the Masonic orders understand the false exposure heaped upon that organization in anti-Mason wars; the Catholic church and many other religious orders have been the victims of these half-written and oftentimes venomous attacks.
The confession of Taxil, the French Free-thinker, who first exposed Catholics and Masons, makes interesting reading bearing on the present situation today. Similar motives actuate some of the "muck rakes" of today, as indicated in the following confession: "The public made me what I am; the crimes I laid at their door were so grotesque, so impossible, so exaggerated, I thought everybody would see the joke and give me credit for originating a new line of humor. But my readers wouldn't have it so. "Then it dawned upon me that there was lots of money in being a Munchausen of the right kind, for twelve years I gave it to them hot and strong, but never too hot. When inditing such slush as the story of the devil snake who wrote prophecies on Diana's back with the end of his tail, I sometimes said to myself:'Hold on, you are going too far,' but I didn't. My readers took kindly to the yarn of the devil who, in order to marry a Mason, transformed himself into a crocodile, despite the masquerade, played the piano wonderfully well.
"One day when lecturing at Lille, I told my audience that I had just had an apparition of Nautilus, the most daring affront on human credulity I had so far risked. But my hearers never turned a hair.'Hear ye, the doctor has seen Nautulius,' they said with admiring glances. Of course no one had a clear idea of who Nautilus was, I didn't myself, but they assumed that he was a devil. "Ah, the jolly evenings I spent with my fellow authors hatching out new plots, unheard of perversions of truth and logic, each trying to outdo the other in organized mystification. I thought I would kill myself laughing at some of the things proposed. A series of paragraphs about Lucifer are associated with the Taxil hoax, they read: That which we must say to the world is that we worship a god, but it is the god that one adores without superstition. To you, Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, we say this, that you may repeat it to the brethren of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees: The masonic Religion should be, by all of us initiates of the higher degrees, maintained in the Purity of the Luciferian doctrine.
If Lucifer were not God, would Adonay and his priests calumniate him? Yes, Lucifer is God, Adonay is als
Prince Hall Freemasonry
Prince Hall Freemasonry is a branch of North American Freemasonry founded by Prince Hall on September 29, 1784 and composed predominantly of African Americans. There are two main branches of Prince Hall Freemasonry: the independent State Prince Hall Grand Lodges, most of which are recognized by Regular Masonic jurisdictions, those under the jurisdiction of the National Grand Lodge. Prior to the American Revolutionary War, Prince Hall and fourteen other free black men petitioned for admittance to the white Boston St. John's Lodge, they were declined. The Masonic fraternity was attractive to some free blacks like Prince Hall because freemasonry was founded upon ideals of liberty and peace. Having been rejected by colonial American Freemasonry, Hall and 14 others sought and were initiated into Masonry through Lodge No. 441 of the Grand Lodge of Ireland on March 6, 1775. The military lodge was attached to the 38th Foot in 1782; the Lodge was attached to the British forces stationed in Boston. Hall and other freedmen founded African Lodge No. 1 and he was elected Master.
Other African Americans included Cyrus Johnston, Bueston Slinger, Prince Rees, John Canton, Peter Freeman, Benjamin Tiler, Duff Ruform, Thomas Santerson, Prince Rayden, Cato Speain, Boston Smith, Peter Best, Forten Horward, Richard Titley, all of whom were free by birth. When men wished to become Masons in the new nation the existing members of the Lodge had to vote unanimously to accept the petitioner. If any one white member voted against a black petitioner that person would be rejected. In a letter by General Albert Pike to his brother in 1875 he said, "I am not inclined to mettle in the matter. I took my obligations to white men, not to Negroes; when I have to accept Negroes as brothers or leave Masonry, I shall leave it." Masonic and Grand Lodges excluded African Americans. Since the votes were anonymous, it was impossible to identify the member who had voted against accepting a black member; the effect was the black men who had legitimately been made Masons in integrated jurisdictions could be rejected.
Racial segregation still persists in some jurisdictions. The black Masons therefore had limited power; when the military lodges left the area, they were given the authority to meet as a lodge, take part in the Masonic procession on St. John's Day, bury their dead with Masonic rites but could not confer Masonic degrees or perform any other essential functions of a operating Lodge. Unable to create a charter, they applied to the Grand Lodge of England; the Grand Master of the Mother Grand Lodge of England, H. R. H; the Duke of Cumberland, issued a charter for the African Lodge No. 1 renamed African Lodge No. 459 September 29, 1784. The lodge was the country's first African Masonic lodge. Due to the African Lodge's popularity and Prince Hall's leadership, the Grand Lodge of England made Hall a Provincial Grand Master on January 27, 1791, his responsibilities included reporting on the condition of lodges in the Boston area. Six years on March 22, 1797 Prince Hall organized a lodge in Philadelphia, called African Lodge #459, under Prince Hall's Charter.
They received their own charter. On June 25, 1797 he organized African Lodge at Rhode Island. Author and historian James Sidbury said "Prince Hall and those who joined him to found Boston's African Masonic Lodge built a fundamentally new "African" movement on a preexisting institutional foundation. Within that movement they asserted emotional and genealogical links to the continent of Africa and its peoples. In 1788 John Marrant became the chaplain of the African Masonic Lodge; the lodge met during the 1780s and 1790s. They met at Kirby Street Temple in Boston. By 1797 there were at least thirty-four members in the Boston black lodge, but still the lodge was overlooked by mainstream Boston Masons. Integration with the American white Masons was not imminent. Since they were unable to attain integration, the blacks concentrated on recognition from white Masons that black Masonry, descending from Prince Hall of Massachusetts, was legitimate and not "clandestine"; that it had received its charter from the English Grand Lodge and was thus entitled to all Masonic rights such as intervisitation between black and white lodges without prejudice.
Many Grand Masters hoped that recognition would lead to integration but they knew it would be a long time before that happened. After the death of Prince Hall, on December 4, 1807, the brethren were eager to form a Grand Lodge. On June 24, 1808 they organized African Grand Lodge with the lodges from Philadelphia and Boston, renamed the Prince Hall Grand Lodge, in his honor; the Lodge was struck from the rolls after the 1813 merger of the Antients and the Moderns, along with many other Lodges. "At the amalgamation of the two Registers after the Union of the two Grand Lodges in England in 1813, African Lodge was omitted from the register, there having been no contact for many years. African Lodge was, not formally erased." After being refused acknowledgment by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, the African Lodge declared itself to be an independent Grand Lodge, the African Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. In 1827 the African Grand Lodge declared its independence from the United Grand Lodge of England, as the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts had done 45 years earlier.
It stated its independence from all of the white Grand Lodges in the United States. This led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American jurisdictions in North America, which are known collectively as Prince H
William Preston (Freemason)
William Preston was a Scottish author and lecturer, born in Edinburgh. After attending school and college he became secretary to the linguist Thomas Ruddiman, who became his guardian on the death of his father. On the death of Thomas, Preston became a printer for Thomas' brother. In 1760 he started a distinguished career with the printer William Strahan, he became a Freemason, instituting a system of lectures of instruction, publishing Illustrations of Masonry, which ran to several editions. It was under Preston that the Lodge of Antiquity seceded from the Moderns Grand Lodge to become "The Grand Lodge of All England South of the River Trent" for ten years, he died on 1 April 1818, after a long illness, was buried in St Paul's Cathedral. Preston was a born in Edinburgh, on 7 August 1742, his father William Preston, was a Writer to the Signet, a form of solicitor. His second, only surviving child, was encouraged in Classical studies, entering the Royal High School, Edinburgh at six, where he shone in Latin, would have studied Greek.
He continued his classical studies at college, before becoming secretary to Thomas Ruddiman, a classical scholar whose blindness now necessitated such help. Meanwhile, Preston senior's health and fortunes declined, due to bad investments and supporting the wrong side in the 1745 rebellion. On his death, in 1751, Ruddiman became young William's guardian, he was apprenticed to the printer, Walter Ruddiman, Thomas' brother, but until Thomas' death in 1757 spent most of his time reading to him, transcribing and copy-editing his work. In 1760, furnished with letters of introduction by Ruddiman, Preston arrived in London, where he took employment with William Strahan to become the King's Printer, a former pupil of the same school as Preston. Here he would spend his professional life as an editor, earning the respect of writers such as David Hume and Edward Gibbon. Shortly after Preston's arrival in London, a group of Edinburgh Freemasons living in the English capital decided to form themselves into a lodge.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland felt they could not grant them a constitution, as they recognised the jurisdiction of the Antient's Grand Lodge in the capital. They were accordingly constituted as Lodge no. 111 at the "White Hart" in the Strand on 20 April 1763. It may have been at this meeting. Unhappy with the status of the new Grand Lodge which they found themselves part of, Preston and some others began attending a lodge attached to the original Grand Lodge of England, persuaded their brethren to change allegiance. Accordingly, on 15 November 1764, Lodge no 111 of the Antients became Caledonian Lodge no 325, under a constitution, just starting to be known as the "Moderns". Antient/ancient and Modern referred to the ritual used by the respective constitutions, not to the age of the Grand Lodges; the shift of allegiance occasioned some vitriolic correspondence between Caledonian Lodge and their former Grand Lodge. Caledonian Lodge became the major component in the first Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry.
Preston soon began an extensive program of masonic research. Interviewing where he could, entering into an extensive correspondence with Freemasons in Britain and overseas, he built a vast storehouse of masonic knowledge, which he applied to explaining and organising the lectures attached to the three degrees of Freemasonry, he met with friends once or twice a week to test and refine his presentation, on 21 May 1772 he organised a Gala at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand, at his own considerable expense, to introduce the Grand Officers and other prominent masons to his system. The success of his oration on that day led to the publication that year, of his Illustrations of Masonry, which ran to twelve English editions in the authors lifetime, as well as being translated into other languages. In 1774 he organised his material into lecture courses, delivered by him at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street. There were twelve lectures per degree, at one guinea per degree. Present at the Gala were two members of the Lodge of Antiquity.
John Bottomley was the Master, John Noorthouck a colleague of Preston at Strahan's printing firm. Antiquity was suffering from declining membership, these two men conceived the idea of reviving their lodge by recruiting Preston, he was elected a member, in absentia, on 1 June 1774. On his first attendance as a member, a fortnight he was elected Master of the lodge; the lodge accordingly flourished, which somehow displeased Bro Noorthouck. He complained that the younger masons who now flocked to the lodge were all Preston's creatures, which had enabled him to stay in the chair for three and a half years. During this period, commencing in 1769, Preston became the Assistant Grand Secretary, "Printer to the Society"; this gave him access to material. It gave him the opportunity to attempt to drive a wedge between the Antients and the Grand Lodge of Scotland, by challenging the basis on which the younger Grand Lodge was formed; the attempt failed, only served to widen the division between the two Grand Lodges.
On 27 December 1777, some members of the Lodge of Antiquity, including Preston, returned from church wearing their masonic regalia. This amounted to little more than crossing the road. Certain of the original members of Antiquity who were not present chose to report the incident to Grand Lodge as a proscribed M
Continental Freemasonry includes the Masonic lodges on the continent of Europe, that recognise the Grand Orient de France or belong to CLIPSAS or SIMPA. The majority of Freemasons belong to lodges that recognise the United Grand Lodge of England and do not recognise Continental Freemasons, regarding them as "irregular". Today, Freemasonry is said to consist of two branches "not in mutual regular amity". In most Latin countries, the GODF-style or European Continental Freemasonry predominates, although in most of these Latin countries there are Grand Lodges and Grand Orients that are in "regular amity" with the UGLE and the worldwide community of Grand Lodges that share "regular" fraternal relations with the UGLE; the rest of the world, accounting for the bulk of Freemasonry, tends to follow more to the UGLE style, although minor variations exist. There are many reasons why the schism in Freemasonry occurred, why it still persists; the first instance of derecognition occurred in the United States shortly after the American Civil War.
In 1869, the Grand Orient de France recognized a Masonic group in Louisiana, not recognized by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. This was seen by GLL as an invasion of its jurisdiction, it withdrew its recognition of GODF. At the request of GLL, several other American Grand Lodges withdrew recognition. There is some evidence that racial motivations may have played a part in this derecognition; the GODF had passed a resolution stating that "neither color, nor religion should disqualify a man for initiation" and the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, at that time excluded blacks and those of mixed race. However, this initial split was not unanimous in the US. Many American Grand Lodges continued to recognize the GODF well into the 20th century; the schism widened in 1877 when the GODF changed its constitutions to allow for complete religious "Laïcité". While the Anglo-American tradition had long required candidates to overtly express a belief in deity, the GODF removed that requirement, stating that Laïcité "imposes that all men are given, without distinction of class, origin or denomination, the means to be themselves, to have the freedom of choice, to be responsible for their own maturity and masters of their destiny."
In other words, the GODF would admit atheists, while those lodges in the Anglo-American tradition would not. The United Grand Lodge of England thus withdrew its recognition, declared the GODF to be "irregular." As other jurisdictions tended to follow the lead of either GODF or UGLE, the schism grew. There is some debate as to when Freemasonry in the Anglo-American tradition started requiring its members to have a belief in Deity. There are hints that this was the case from the earliest days of Freemasonry: The Regius Manuscript, the oldest known Masonic document dating from around 1425–50, states that a Mason "must love well God and holy church always." James Anderson's 1723 Constitutions state that "A Mason is oblig'd by his Tenure, to obey the moral Law, if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irreligious Libertine." However, these do not explicitly state. The GODF did not accept this requirement until 1849, accepted it until 1877, changed back. Nonetheless, it should not be understood that the difference was limited to the mere requirement in belief.
Following the 1877 changes, the Grand Orient removed all references to the Grand Architect of the Universe from its rite, removed the Volume of the Sacred Law from its ritual. These elements had been present in French freemasonry before 1849. Another point of difference between Continental and Anglo-American Freemasonry is whether political discussion is allowed within the lodges; such discussion is allowed in Lodges following the Continental tradition, while it is banned in the Anglo-American tradition. Continental Freemasonry has been concentrated in traditionally Catholic countries and has been seen by Catholic critics as an outlet for anti-Catholic disaffection. Many anti-clerical regimes in traditionally Catholic countries were perceived as having strong Masonic connections; the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia credited Freemasonry for the French Revolution and its persecution of the Church, citing a claim made in a document from the Grand Orient de France. The Encyclopedia saw Freemasonry as the primary force of French anti-clericalism from 1877 onwards, again citing official documents of French Masonry to support its claim.
According to one historian, Masonic hostility continued into the early twentieth century with the Affaire Des Fiches and, according to the old Catholic Encyclopedia, the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State can be credited to the Grand Orient de France, based on Masonic documents. In Italy the Church linked the anticlerical and nationalist secret society, the Carbonari, to Freemasonry and blamed the anticlerical direction of Italian Unification, or Risorgimento, on Freemasonry. Into the 1890s the Church would justify its calls for Catholics to avoid dealings with the Italian state with a reference to the state's supposed "Masonic" nature. Mexican Freemasonry was seen as following the pattern of Continental Freemasonry in other Latin-speaking countries, viewed as becoming more anti-cl
Ye Antient Order of Noble Corks
Ye Antient Order of Noble Corks or Ancient & Honourable Societas Korcorum Magnae Britanniae, universally known, informally, as The Cork, is an informal degree allied to Freemasonry. It is described as a "fun" degree, with charitable fund raising as a principal aim. Distinctly nautical in form, its membership criteria vary between branches of the order. Whilst some branches will admit all Master Masons in good standing, others restrict membership to Master Masons who are either a companion in the Holy Royal Arch or a Warden, Master or Past Master of a craft Lodge; the title'Cork' or'Corks' is derived from the cork stopper of a wine bottle, the organisation's principal emblem. In different countries this emblem appears variously as a miniature cork set in a silver clasp, or a small cork suspended from a light blue ribon, or the image of a cork with a corkscrew inserted at an angle; the origins of the degree ceremony are unknown. The earliest surviving records of the degree are held by the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England, but this cannot be assumed to demonstrate that the degree originated from that organisation.
All fees received by the Lodge must be paid, in full, to the treasurer of a charity, preferably a children's charity with no deduction being made for administrative expenses. Meetings are characterised by regular humorous'fines', in which a single member, or everybody present, is required to pay a fine by throwing a coin into a bucket or other receptacle. All fines are applied to charitable purposes a children's charity. Members are required to carry a pocket cork at all times, be able to produce it on demand. Any member being unable to produce the jewel is fined, this being given to the Lodge treasurer at the next meeting for contribution to charity; the nature of the pocket cork varies. In some traditions it is a piece of cork in a metal ring, in others it is a small cork set in a silver clasp, in still others it is a flat piece of cork which may be carried in a wallet. Membership is not onerous—the only costs on top of membership being dining fees, etc; the idea and aim being to raise money for children's charities, with Corkies having fun in so doing.
In Boards under the English Great Board of Corks there are no subscriptions or joining fees. Candidates can be initiated on the same night. Compared with masonic meetings, dress is informal - as meetings tend to be boisterous affairs, in good spirits; the ritual and initiation part takes up the first part of the evening, followed by festivities that are “closer to a Scottish Harmony than an English Festive Board”. Hats are worn during the meeting, with head-gear style being of personal choice - the sillier, the better; the presiding officer is known as the Admiral. The head of a national Great Board of Corks is known as the Great Admiral. All board or lodge officers have naval titles equating to the officers in a Craft Lodge, with jewels of office being borne on strings of corks. Titles vary between countries and traditions, but the following is one example: Rather Worshipful Admiral Uncommonly Worshipful Mate Highly Worshipful Purser Hardly Worshipful Lookout Nearly Rather Worshipful Vice Admiral Undoubtedly Ship's Writer Little Less Worshipful Doctor Barely Worshipful Cook Mainly Worshipful Bosun Particularly Worthy Screw Almost Worthy Carpenter Particularly Worthy ShipmateScotland: the Cork tradition is strong in Scotland, where lodges come under the supervision of the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter.
United States of America: whilst the Cork is associated with Mark Masonry, in the United States it forms an informal and optional part of the formal system of the Allied Masonic Degrees. England and Wales: in England the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons holds the oldest known English Cork records and regalia. Before the Second World War there are various references to English Mark Lodges working the Cork degree at dinner after their formal Mark meeting. A body known as the'Great Board of Corks', consisting of senior Grand Officers of the Mark Grand Lodge, controlled the Cork degree for many years, but fell into abeyance. By 2002 it had been revived, with at least one surviving member of the original Great Board. Additionally, at least one'Board of Corks' under the authority of the Great Board, has survived the passage of time. However, the English situation is now complicated in that some old Cork lodges have histories originating without reference to the Great Board, may properly be considered independent of that body.
In general, English bodies styling themselves a'Lodge of Corks' are independent, derived from Scottish tradition, whilst English bodies styling themselves a'Board of Corks' are under the jurisdiction of the Great Board of Corks. In 2012 several independent Cork Lodges, not associated with the Great Board of Corks, formed themselves into the Grand Fleet of Cork Lodges; the fleet includes mainland European Cork Lodges. Australia: while new in Australia, it follows the tradition of the Cork Order in Scotland and England. However, its membership is open to all Master Masons in good standing. There is only one authorised Cork Lodge in Australia operating in the city of Brisbane; this lodge is Endeavour Cork Lodge No.1 and was established in 2011. The following are some examples of Cork Lodges. Armada Cork Lodge, West Lothian. Maeshowe Antient & Most Noble Cork Lodge, Orkney Angus & Mearns Cork Lodge Eastmuir Cork Lodge & Chapte
Royal Order of Scotland
The Royal Order of Scotland is an appendant order within the structures of British Freemasonry. Membership is an honour extended to Freemasons by invitation; the Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland is headquartered in Edinburgh, with a total of 88 Provincial Grand Lodges in several locations around Britain, in a number of countries around the world. The order claims the King of Scots as hereditary Grand Master; the Deputy Grand Master and Governor of the order is Sir Archibald Donald Orr-Ewing, 6th Baronet. Orr-Ewing is the eldest son of Sir Ronald Archibald Orr-Ewing, 5th Baronet and was educated at Gordonstoun and Trinity College, Dublin, he was the Grand Master Mason of the Grand Lodge of Antient and Accepted Masons of Scotland, until 27 November 2008, a post he held since 2005. He held the post between 1999 and 2004, being the only person to hold that office twice, he was installed as Deputy Grand Master & Governor of the Royal Order of Scotland at Edinburgh on 3 July 2009. In times in which there is no King of Scots, the Deputy Grand Master and Governor is the worldwide leader of the Order.
Each Provincial Grand Lodge has a Provincial Grand Master, who governs for a number of years consecutively. The Provincial Grand Master will appoint Provincial officers annually. Uniquely within Freemasonry, the Royal Order of Scotland has no local Lodges, the Provincial Grand Lodge is the lowest tier of organisation and activity. New members are admitted in a Provincial Grand Lodge, or in the Grand Lodge in Edinburgh. In London the Order is administered at the Provincial level from Mark Masons' Hall, the officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge of London and Metropolitan Counties are selected from amongst the senior members of the various other Orders administered from that building; the Royal Order of Scotland's Grand Lodge and the Provincial Grand Lodges confer two degrees: Heredom of Kilwinning Knight of the Rosy CrossThe ceremonies are learnt and rehearsed without scripts, they include a considerable amount of rhyming verse. Elements of many other Masonic degrees and orders are incorporated into, or referenced within, the Royal Order of Scotland ceremonies.
The order has existed since at least 1741, based on records in the archive of the Grand Lodge demonstrating activity in London, with a further charter being granted in 1750 to work the degree at The Hague. The holder of that warrant, William Mitchell, moved to Edinburgh around 1752/3, using the charter to establish a Provincial Grand Lodge there. In 1767 this body became the Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland. Activity appears to have dwindled, with the Order nearing extinction in the early 19th century, but a resurgence culminated in the establishment of further Provincial Grand Lodges by 1843; the legends of the order date its origination to the reign of King David I in the 12th century in the Heredom degree, with the Rosy Cross degree originating in 1314 following the Battle of Bannockburn. The essential and universal qualifications for applicants are membership of the three degrees of Craft Freemasonry, five years or more continuous subscription to a St John's Lodge as a Master Mason, profession of the Trinitarian Christian faith.
These requirements cannot be altered by any Province. In addition to these fundamental requirements, Provinces are free to impose additional conditions, many do so, the most common being the requirement of membership of the Holy Royal Arch. Further qualifications for membership vary by provincial jurisdiction but may include a requirement of active membership of the 18th degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite or one of the other Christian Masonic Orders. In the United States candidates should hold the 32nd degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, or be a Knight Templar within the York Rite system. Evidence is required of services performed for the Craft, the Church, or the public. Royal Order of Scotland in Sweden Freemasonry in Scotland The Royal Order of Scotland Royal Order of Scotland, the Provincial Grand Lodge, USA