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A provirus is a virus genome, integrated into the DNA of a host cell. In the case of bacterial viruses, proviruses are referred to as prophages; this state can be a stage of virus replication, or a state that persists over longer periods of time as either inactive viral infections or an endogenous viral element. In inactive viral infections the virus will not replicate itself except through replication of its host cell; this state can last over many host cell generations. Endogenous retroviruses are always in the state of a provirus; when a retrovirus invades a cell, the RNA of the retrovirus is reverse-transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase inserted into the host genome by an integrase. A provirus does not directly make new DNA copies of itself while integrated into a host genome in this way. Instead, it is passively replicated along with the host genome and passed on to the original cell's offspring; this is known as lysogenic viral reproduction. Integration can result in a productive infection.

In a productive infection, the provirus is transcribed into messenger RNA which directly produces new virus, which in turn will infect other cells via the lytic cycle. A latent infection results. A latent infection may become productive in response to changes in the host's environmental conditions or health; this can result in the destruction of its host cell because the cell's protein synthesis machinery is hijacked to produce more viruses. Proviruses may account for 8% of the human genome in the form of inherited endogenous retroviruses. A provirus not only refers to a retrovirus but is used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, another example being adeno-associated virus. Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts. All families of bacterial viruses with circular DNA genomes or replicating their genomes through a circular intermediate have temperate members. Prophage Phage Retrotransposon Germline Horizontal gene transfer Endogenous retrovirus Endogenous viral element Adeno-Associated Virus Bornavirus Paleovirus

Canton of Basel-Landschaft

The canton of Basel-Landschaft, is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. The capital is Liestal, it shares borders with the Swiss cantons of Basel-Stadt, Solothurn and Aargau, with the French région of Grand Est and the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Basel-Landschaft, together with Basel-Stadt, formed the historic Canton of Basel until they separated following the uprising of 1833. In Roman times, the area of Basel was a centre of Roman activity. There are well-preserved. Around 200 AD there were about 20,000 people living in this city, now part of the much smaller Augst; the remains are on display in an open-air museum. The museum attracts over 140,000 visitors per year. Many of these visitors are schoolchildren from other parts of Switzerland; the site of Augusta Raurica includes the best-preserved amphitheatre north of the Alps, a reconstructed Roman villa. The lands of the canton Basel-Landschaft are part of the lands acquired by the city of Basel; until the end of the 16th century, most of the canton's land belonged to the city of Basel.

After Napoleon’s visit in 1798, the country achieved equality with the city. The country was economically dependent on the city, most because of the cost and difficulty in transporting agricultural goods to further markets, the financing of land transactions and crop production by city-based merchants. Low levels of education and literacy in the agricultural areas of Europe was typical in that era; the best students would be sent away for higher learning. The city of Basel remained the economic centre of both Basel half cantons until then. Castles and residences of Basel merchants dominated much of the landscape in Basel-Landschaft. After 1830 there were armed conflict in the canton of Basel; some of these were concerned with the rights of the population in the agricultural areas. They led to the separation of the canton Basel-Landschaft from the city of Basel on 26 August 1833. Since there has been a movement for reunification; this movement gained momentum after 1900. The two half cantons agreed in principle to merge, but in 1969 the people of Basel-Landschaft voted down a referendum on this proposal in favour of retaining their independence.

It is thought that the closing economic gap between the two cantons was the main reason why the population changed their attitude. That vote was not the end of a close relationship between the two Basels; the two half cantons have since signed a number of agreements to co-operate. The contribution of Basel-Landschaft to the University of Basel since 1976 is just one example; the canton of Basel-Landschaft lies in the northwestern corner of Switzerland just south of the canton of Basel-Stadt. With a few exceptions, it includes the towns of the Laufental along the river Birs, the Birseck and the Leimental, as well as the towns along the Ergolz and its tributaries; the shape of the canton is irregular, its borders cut across several towns. In terms of size, it is one of the smaller cantons of Switzerland. However, it is number 10 in terms of population. Basel-Landschaft borders on the east and north with the canton of Aargau and the Rhine, which forms the border with Germany. On the northwest, it borders with France On the south, it borders on the canton of Solothurn, with a few exclaves of that canton within its western area.

In the extreme southwest, it borders on the canton of Jura. The Jura mountain chain traverses the canton; the rivers Ergolz and Birs drain the lands of the canton. The thirty rivers of Baselland are: Since the decision to remain independent from Basel-Stadt in 1969 there have been a number of requests in the parliament for Basel-Landschaft to become a full canton. In 1988 the canton of Basel-Landschaft had this aim written into its constitution; the aim remains to change the Swiss constitution to recognize the two cantons of Basel as full members. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the GPS The nine municipalities of the Arlesheim district used to belong to the diocese of Basel. In 1792 French troops occupied the district and in 1793 the lands were annexed by France, which explains the linguistic switch of the Family of the House of Basel's name from "von Basel" to "de Bâle", since Arlesheim holds their manor. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna the district joined Basel.

The district of Laufental has the same history as that of Arlesheim. The important difference is; when the canton of Jura was created in 1979, the district of Laufental became an enclave of the canton of Bern. It was allowed self- determination and in 1980 the people decided to join the canton of Basel-Landschaft; this led to Laufental joining the canton of Basel-Landschaft on 1 January 1994 after a lengthy administrative process. There are 5 areas in Basel-Landschaft: Arlesheim capital: Arlesheim Laufen capital: Laufen Liestal capital: Liestal Sissach capital: Sissach Waldenburg capital: Waldenburg There are 86 municipalities in the canton; the population is predominantly German-speaking. Protestantism is the main religion in the c

Homer Pace

Homer St. Clair Pace was an American business educator and innovator in the field of accountancy who, jointly with his brother Charles Ashford Pace, founded Pace University in New York. A native of Rehoboth, Homer Pace first worked as an assistant to his father, John Fremont Pace, a Civil War veteran, in editing and publishing a weekly newspaper, he left journalism following his father's death in 1896. After working as a secretary and bookkeeper in Michigan and Minnesota, he secured a position with the Chicago Great Western Railroad. In January 1901, he was transferred to New York to serve as manager of the New York City office and, in 1902, became the Secretary of the Mason City and Fort Dodge Railroad, an affiliated line. In 1904 he passed the New York State C. P. A. Examination. In 1906, Homer Pace left the railroad to begin a business of his own. Together with his brother Charles, an attorney, he established the partnership of Pace & Pace for the purpose of preparing candidates for the New York State C.

P. A. Examination. In its early years, the Pace & Pace partnership ran schools that featured courses in accountancy and business law in a number of cities throughout the United States; the Pace Standardized Course could be taken by correspondence. One of these schools, the Pace Institute of Accountancy in New York City, was chartered as Pace Institute in 1935. Homer Pace served as the president of the New York State Society of CPAs from 1924 to 1926. In 1918-19 he was Acting Deputy Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service; the Pace brothers prepared their own curriculum and developed a series of lectures on the theory and practice of accounting and business law. These evolved into written textbooks used by all Pace students; the Institute he founded along with his brother Charles became Pace College in 1948 and Pace University in 1973. Charles Ashford Pace died in 1940, two years Homer Pace, who continued to serve as the first president of Pace Institute, was fatally stricken with cerebral hemorrhage while working at his office in the Institute.

He was five weeks past his 63rd birthday. During his lifetime, he always emphasized that he was and foremost, a teacher and an educator; that was how he chose to be remembered: on his gravestone is carved the epitaph he wrote for himself, “Homer St. Clair Pace, Teacher”. In 2002, The YMCA of Greater New York Hall of Fame featured a selection of the important people in the organization's history, which included original photographs of Charles and Homer Pace, among others. In 2004, The New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants inducted Homer Pace into its Hall of Fame. Homer Pace biographical timeline with photographs A brief biography of Homer Pace by professor of accounting Allan M. Rabinowitz, published in the February 2004 issue of The CPA Journal New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants May 2004 induction of Homer Pace into the Society Hall of Fame


Chiclayo is the principal city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru. It is located 13 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and 770 kilometers from the nation's capital, Lima. Founded by Spanish explorers as "Santa María de los Valles de Chiclayo" in the 16th century, it was declared a city on 15 April 1835 by president Felipe Santiago Salaverry, he named Chiclayo "the Heroic City" to recognize the courage of its citizens in the fight for independence, a title it still holds. Other nicknames for Chiclayo include "The Capital of Friendship" and the "Pearl of the North". Chiclayo is Peru's fourth-largest city, after Lima and Trujillo, with a population of 738,000 as of 2011; the Lambayeque region is the fourth most populous metropolitan area of Peru, with a population of 972,713 in 2009. The city was founded near an important prehistoric archaeological site, the Northern Wari ruins, which constitute the remains of a city from the 7th to 12th century of the Wari Empire. Many different historical accounts tell of the naming of Chiclayo.

Some attribute it to an indigenous man known as "chiclayoc" or "chiclayep" who transported plaster between the ancient cities of Zaña, Lambayeque and Morrope. Another version claims that around the time that the city was founded, the area was home to a green-colored fruit called chiclayep or chiclayop, which in the Mochican language means "green that hangs". In some towns in the highlands of Cajamarca, squashes are known as chiclayos, evidence that this fruit is the origin of the city's name. Another source indicates that the word is a translation from the extinct Moche language and is derived from the word Cheqta which means "half" and yoc which means "property of". Others say the Mochican language had words similar to the name, such as Chiclayap or Chekliayok, which means "place where there are green branches"; the coat of arms summarizes important features of the province, such as the one dedicated to the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, represented in light blue background, a Catholic town, represented on the cross, but see other items related to the history and landscape.'Tumi' the tumi is a ceremonial knife used by the Lambayeque culture, represents Naylamp.'Sea' the sea was always important for its marine resources and legends that are told of it.'Huerequeque' is the typical bird of the region, is so called because in his song seems to say Huere-que-que-que.

The Moche civilization began between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, occupying a territory that spanned much of what is now the northern coast of Peru, encompassing what is today the coastal area of the departments of Ancash, Lambayeque and La Libertad. This civilization developed a broad knowledge of hydraulic engineering: its people constructed canals to create an irrigation system in order to support agriculture, they produced surpluses, which supported a strong economy for development. The culture was characterized by intensive use of copper in the manufacture of ornamental objects and weapons. During the Moche times, Pampa Grande, near Chiclayo, was a major regional capital; the Mochicans produced ceramics with elaborate designs, representing religious themes, humans and scenes of ceremonies and myths reflecting their perception of the world. They were famous for huaco-portraits, which are preserved in museums around the country, highlighting amazing expressiveness and realism; the civilization disappeared.

The Sican culture existed between 700 and 1375AD and occupied the territory, now the department of Lambayeque, including present-day Chiclayo. This culture formed towards the end of the Moche civilization and assimilated much of the Moche knowledge and cultural traditions. At its peak, it extended over the entire Peruvian coast; the Sican excelled in architecture and navigation. A thirty-year drought around the year 1020 hastened the fall of this civilization. In the early 16th century, Chiclayo was inhabited by two ethnic groups; the chieftains of these ethnic groups donated part of their land for the construction of a Franciscan convent. This cesion of land was approved by the royal decree of 17 September 1585. Thus, with the advocation of Saint Maria of Chiclayo and under the direction of Father Fray Antonio of the Concepción, a church and a Franciscan covenant were erected at Chiclayo. At the time of construction of these Spanish-built edifices, the city of Chiclayo was founded. Unlike other major Peruvian colonial cities such as Lima, Trujillo, or Arequipa, Chiclayo was inhabited by a indigenous population rather than Spanish colonizers.

During the Peruvian War of Independence, Chiclayo supported General José de San Martín's liberating army with soldiers, weapons and other resources, under the supervision of the most progressive creole, José Leonardo Ortiz. After independence, Chiclayo was still a small village. In 1827, Chiclayo was elevated to the level of villa. On 15 April 1835, Chiclayo was proclaimed a city by then-president Felipe Santiago Salaverry, who declared it a "Heroic City" in recognition of the services its people rendered in the War of Independence; the next day, the Chiclayo Province was organized, with Chiclayo designated as its capital. Today, Chiclayo is an important Peruvian city, the financial and commercial capital of Northern Peru, its strategic geographic location makes it a rail and automotive hub. Modern touches include large supermarkets, banking chains, hospitals and galleries. Chiclayo is known as the "City of Friendship" and Perla del Norte of Perú. In Chiclayo, the mayor is the h

Jhonny Peralta

Jhonny Antonio Peralta is a Dominican former professional baseball shortstop and third baseman who played 15 seasons in Major League Baseball. The Cleveland Indians signed him as an amateur free agent in his native Dominican Republic in 1999, he made his major league debut for the Indians on June 12, 2003, he subsequently played for St. Louis Cardinals. A solid hitter with power, Peralta has rated average defensively, he throws and bats right-handed, stands 6 feet 2 inches, weighs 225 pounds. Peralta was the 2004 Indians Minor League Player of the Year as well as the International League Most Valuable Player for one of Cleveland's minor league affiliates, the Buffalo Bisons, after batting.326 with 44 doubles, 15 home runs and 86 runs batted in. Buffalo was the International League champion that same season; each year from 2005 through 2015, Peralta reached at least 100 hits, double figures in both home runs and doubles. He is a three-time MLB All-Star selection, he set single-season home run records for shortstops for two franchises – for the Indians in 2005, the Cardinals in 2014.

While a member of the Tigers in 2013, he served a 50-game suspension for his role in the Biogenesis performance-enhancing drug scandal. In 2017 he batted.204/.259/.204, in July 2017 he was released by the Red Sox. The Cleveland Indians signed Peralta as an amateur free agent in 1999 and assigned him to the Dominican Summer League Indians that season. Peralta batted.303 with a. 514 slugging percentage. Those figures were boosted by an unsustainable.373 batting average on balls in play. The Indians promoted him aggressively. In 2000, the 18-year-old Peralta played for the Columbus RedStixx, the Class A affiliate of the Indians in the South Atlantic League, he batted.241 in 106 games. The following season he advanced to the Kinston Indians, the Cleveland Indians High-A affiliate in the Carolina League. In 125 games, he batted.240. In 2002, Peralta moved up to the Double-A Akron Aeros, where he hit.281. In 2003, he batted.257 in 63 games with the Buffalo Bisons. After his 2003 call up to the major leagues, Peralta began to draw widespread attention for his hitting with the Aeros and Bisons.

In 2004, he batted.326 with 86 runs batted in. He scored 109 runs and stroked 44 doubles, the most in the Bisons' modern era, followed by 39 for Kevin Pillar in 2014; this offensive leap helped him win the International League Most Valuable Player Award that year and helped Buffalo win the Governors' Cup as the International League champions. He received the Lou Boudreau Award as the Indians' 2004 Minor League Player of the Year. Peralta made his Major League debut with Cleveland on June 12, 2003, filling in for the injured Gold Glove shortstop Omar Vizquel, he finished with a. 227 batting average with 21 RBIs. The next season, despite his accomplishments at the Triple-A level, Peralta saw just 25 at bats in eight games at the major league level due to the presence of perennial fan-favorite Vizquel, who left the Indians as a free agent following the 2004 season. Peralta became Cleveland's full-time starting shortstop early in 2005 and batted.292. On July 3, he became affixed in the Indians' third slot in the batting order.

Cleveland won 23 of their next 33 games to put them one game behind the New York Yankees and Oakland Athletics in the Wild Card race late in August. He joined Woodie Held as the only shortstops in Indians' history to hit at least 20 HR, his 24 HR and 78 RBI set records for an Indians shortstop. On March 10, 2006, Peralta agreed to a five-year contract with an option for a sixth year to stay with the Indians until the 2011 season. However, his 2006 season saw a decline both offensively and defensively from the previous season. At the start of spring training in 2007, it was revealed that Peralta suffered from vision problems in 2006 and had corrective LASIK eye surgery to deal with it. After breaking an 0 for 8 skid on May 1, 2009, against the Detroit Tigers, Peralta's 86th career home run with the Indians broke the team record for shortstops Woodie Held had held, his HR was solo. Peralta hit his first inside-the-park home run on July 18, 2010, against Tigers pitcher Andy Oliver on a play in which outfielder Ryan Raburn crashed through the bullpen door attempting to catch the ball.

Ten days after hitting his first inside-the-park-home-run against the Tigers, the Indians traded Peralta to the Tigers for minor league pitcher Giovanni Soto and cash considerations. Because the club had retired the number 2 – Peralta's uniform number as an Indian – in honor of Hall of Famer Charlie Gehringer, he chose the number 27 instead. On July 30, Peralta hit a home run in his first plate appearance as a Tiger, another, two plate appearances later. After joining the Tigers, he returned to playing shortstop, he made 46 appearances shortstop, nine at third base, four at designated hitter and two at first base for the remainder of the 2010 season. Peralta was named to his first career All-Star Game as a replacement for Derek Jeter on July 8, 2011, he finished the regular season with a career-high.299 batting average and collected 21 home runs and 86 RBI. Playing a full season at shortstop for the first time since 2008, he committed just seven errors in 608 chances for a career-best.988 fielding percentage.

Peralta hit his first walk-off home run as a Tiger against the Chicago White Sox on May 4, 2012. On June 20, 2013, Peralta hit a walkoff two-run home run off Bos

Comstock's Bridge

Comstock's Bridge known as the Comstock Covered Bridge, is a covered bridge located in East Hampton, spanning the Salmon River, Built in 1840, it is one of only three historical covered bridges in the state. It is open to pedestrian traffic in a small park off Comstock Bridge Road; the bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 1, 1976. Comstock's Bridge is located in southeastern East Hampton, near the junction of Comstock Bridge Road and Colchester Avenue; the bridge consists of two spans: its main span is a Howe truss, 80 feet long, with a roadbed 12 feet wide. That span is sheathed in vertical board siding. Gates at either end of the bridge limit access to pedestrians. A secondary span, 30 feet in length, connects the bridge to the eastern shore; this span is uncovered. The bridge abutments are a combination of unmortared cut granite; the bridge was built in 1840. The bridge suffered major damage in the 1920s, it underwent major restoration work in the 1930s by a Civilian Conservation Corps crew, which replaced some bridge materials with parts in part recycled from old buildings, added the gates at either end.

It is now closed to traffic, is accessible from a small public park. National Register of Historic Places listings in Middlesex County, Connecticut List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Connecticut Connecticut's Historic Highway Bridges Comstock Bridge