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Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam

The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, or the Republic of South Vietnam for short, was formed on June 8, 1969, by North Vietnam as a purportedly independent shadow government that opposed the government of the Republic of Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu. Delegates of the National Liberation Front, as well as several smaller groups, participated in its creation; the PRG was recognized as the government of South Vietnam by most communist states. It signed the 1973 Paris Peace Treaty as an independent entity, separate from both South Vietnam and North Vietnam, it became the provisional government of South Vietnam following the military defeat of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on April 30, 1975. On July 2, 1976, the PRG and North Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the Provisional Revolutionary Government was preceded Alliance of National and Peace Forces made up of anti-government forces and headed by Trinh Dinh Thao. The Alliance was a collection of individuals who wanted a new South Vietnamese government but disagreed with the ever-present Northern Communist presence.

There had been talk of setting up an Alliance as early as 1966, but this was halted when South Vietnamese intelligence operatives arrested an influential anti-government organizer, Ba Tra. Ba Tra gave the South Vietnamese government extensive information on anti-government forces working in the city; this setback was compounded by his identification of one of the key cadre in the financial division. Under torture, Ba Tra identified more figures in the underground, who were arrested. By 1967, the entire Saigon organization had been sent further underground; the Tet Offensive during 1968 triggered a wave of oppression. These people – businessmen, middle class and other professionals – started The Alliance; the then-new American president, Richard Nixon, started a process of Vietnamization to allow the American Armed Forces to withdraw from Vietnam. One of the tenets of Vietnamization was responsible government in South Vietnam. To prevent the Americans from installing their own government, a conference was held on June 6–8, 1969, off Route 22 in Cambodia's Fishhook region.

The Alliance as well as other groups met and formed the Provisional Revolutionary Government on June 8, 1969. According to Justice Minister Trương Như Tảng, the new group's main purpose was to help the Vietcong "acquire a new international stature."There were delegates from the NLF, the Alliance of National and Peace Forces, the People's Revolutionary Party and "the usual assortment of mass organizations, ethnic groups, geopolitical regions." Banners displayed prominently at the convention proclaimed that "South Vietnam is independent, democratic and neutral". The PRG reflected a number of nationalist, anti-imperialist and communist political viewpoints, including those of the Vietnam Workers Party. Following the military and political results of the 1968 Tet Offensive and related military offensives in the South, in which the Vietcong suffered serious military losses, the PRG was envisioned as a political counter-force that could influence international public opinion in support of reunification and in opposition to the United States and the Republic of Vietnam.

The declared purpose of the PRG was to provide a formal governmental structure to the National Liberation Front and enhance its claim of representing "the Southern people". Included in this strategy was the pursuit of a negotiated settlement to the war leading to reunification, organized during the initial phase of Vietnamization. During the period 1969–70, most of the PRG's cabinet ministries operated near the Cambodian border. Starting on March 29 to late April 1970, the US and South Vietnamese offensives forced the PRG to flee deeper into Cambodia; the stressful escape caused many of the PRG officials to need extensive medical furloughs. After Trương Như Tạng returned, he noticed that new cadres from the north were causing problems for the non-communist members of the PRG. One member in particular, Ba Cap, harshly denounced most of the PRG as bourgeois. Tạng was rebuffed. Tạng saw this as the point when the PRG turned from being an independent South Vietnam-based alternative government to being a mouthpiece for Northern Vietnamese communists.

The central bodies of the PRG functioned as a provisional government. The PRG maintained diplomatic relations with many countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, such as Algeria, as well as with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. After the surrender of Saigon on April 30, 1975, the PRG assumed power in the South and subsequently participated in the political reunification of the country; the national anthem of the Government was To Liberate the South. The song was written in 1961 by Lưu Hữu Phước and adopted at that time as the anthem of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam. Porter, Gareth. Vietnam: the politics of bureaucratic socialism. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2168-6. - Total pages: 227 Tảng, Truong Như. A Vietcong memoir. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-193636-6.- Total pages: 350 GovernmentProvisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam LeadersRulers WORLD STATESMEN, Vietnam National anthem"Ethnic Music" Room

Neer Impingement Test

The Neer Impingement Test is a test designed to reproduce symptoms of rotator cuff impingement through flexing the shoulder and pressure application. Symptoms should be reproduced if there is a problem with the biceps brachii; this test is associated with the Hawkin’s Test and Jobe’s Test. The patient is asked to sit on the examination table or to stand next to it with arms in internal rotation. Examiner should stand on the side, being tested. Examiner will place one hand on the patient's scapula, the other hand on the patient's arm below the elbow; the examiner will passively flex the shoulder forward. When performing the Neer Impingement Test, the elbow should be extended, humerus in internal rotation and the forearm pronated; when the examiner is passively flexing the arm forward it is causing compression of the structures between the greater tuberosity, inferior acromion process and the acromioclavicular joint. A positive test is indicated by pain in the lateral shoulder when in full flexion.

It is indicative of problems involving the supraspinatus and the long head of the biceps brachii tendons. The examiner needs to be aware of a false positive test, due to the patient having limited forward flexion; the Neer Impingement test was created by Doctor Neer in 1972 based on what he observed as he performed shoulder operations. He noted, he found that when the arm was in flexion and internal rotation that it compressed on the tendons under the acromioclavicular joint. Therefore, he created this test to reproduce the symptoms looking for an impingement in that area

Ferdinand Liebermann

Ferdinand Liebermann was a German sculptor. Liebermann was educated at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. During the Third Reich he received numerous state commissions and served as artistic adviser to the city council of Munich, he sculpted numerous portrait busts of Hitler, including one for the Munich Rathaus. At the "Great German Art Exhibitions" in the Haus der Kunst he exhibited a total of 16 works, he completed a bronze bust of Hitler's niece Geli Raubal, from which Hitler had numerous copies made for display in his residences. Ferdinand Liebermann. In: Ulrich Thieme, Felix Becker et al.: Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Vol. 23, E. A. Seemann, Leipzig 1929, p. 199 Hans Vollmer: Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vol. 2, 1956, p. 228

Donald Sadoway

Donald Robert Sadoway is the current John F. Elliott Professor of Materials Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A faculty member in the Department of Materials Science Engineering, he is a noted expert on batteries and has done significant research on how to improve the performance and longevity of portable power sources. In parallel, he is an expert on the extraction of metals from their ores and the inventor of molten oxide electrolysis, which has the potential to produce crude steel without the use of carbon reductant thereby eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. Sadoway was born in Toronto, Canada, he did both his undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of Toronto, receiving his PhD in 1977. There he focused his studies on chemical metallurgy, he served on the National Executive of the Ukrainian Canadian Students' Union from 1972–1974. In 1977, he received a NATO postdoctoral fellowship from the National Research Council of Canada and came to MIT to conduct his postdoctoral research under Julian Szekely.

Sadoway joined the MIT faculty in 1978. On June 19, 2013, Sadoway was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Engineering by the University of Toronto in recognition of his contributions to sustainable energy and sustainable metal production as well as to higher education both in curriculum and in teaching style. In 2014, Sadoway received an honorary doctorate from NTNU, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology; as a researcher, Sadoway has focused on environmental ways to extract metals from their ores, as well as producing more efficient batteries. His research has been driven by the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while improving quality and lowering costs, he is the co-inventor of a solid polymer electrolyte. This material, used in his "sLimcell" has the capability of allowing batteries to offer twice as much power per kilogram as is possible in current lithium ion batteries. In August 2006, a team that he led demonstrated the feasibility of extracting iron from its ore through molten oxide electrolysis.

When powered by renewable electricity, this technique has the potential to eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions that are generated through traditional methods. In 2009, Sadoway disclosed the liquid metal battery comprising liquid layers of magnesium and antimony separated by a layer of molten salt that could be used for stationary energy storage. Research on this concept was being funded by ARPA-E and the French energy company Total S. A. Experimental data showed a 69% DC-to-DC storage efficiency with good storage capacity and low leakage current. In 2010, with funding from Bill Gates and Total S. A. Sadoway and two others, David Bradwell and Luis Ortiz, co-founded a company called the Liquid Metal Battery Corporation in order to scale up and commercialize the technology. For 16 years Sadoway taught 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry at MIT, one of the largest classes at MIT. Sadoway's animated teaching style was popular with students and freshman enrollment in the course increased through 2010.

In the fall of 2007, the number of students registering for 3.091 reached 570 students, over half the freshman class. The largest lecture hall available on campus seats 566 students, enough to amply house the class. Sadoway much preferred teaching in one of the smaller lecture halls, seating only 450. In contrast, most classes at MIT are small with 60% of classes at MIT having fewer than 20 students; the popularity of this course has reached outside of the MIT campus as a result of the MIT OpenCourseWare initiative. This is seen in a comment by Bill Gates who told the Seattle Post-Intelligencer "... Everybody should watch chemistry lectures -- they're far better than you think. Don Sadoway, MIT -- best chemistry lessons anywhere. Unbelievable". Sadoway's lectures included the history of science with respect to the Nobel Prize. Sadoway gave out "library assignments" in which he asked students to research Nobel Prize–winning papers, he began his lectures by playing music. For example, for the lecture on hydrogen bonding he plays Handel's Water Music.

For one of the lectures on polymers he plays Aretha Franklin's Chain of Fools. He ended his lectures with five minutes on the world around us. Examples include automotive exhaust catalytic converters, forensic examination of paintings, the mistreatment of Rosalind Franklin in the quest to discover the structure of DNA, the metallurgical failure that sank the Titanic, the clarification of champagne. On February 29, 2012, Sadoway gave a TED talk on his invention of the liquid metal battery for grid-scale storage; the talk is as much about the inventive process. Sadoway was named one of Time magazine's "100 Most Influential People in the World" in 2012 for accomplishments in energy storage as well as his approach to mentoring students. On October 22, 2012, Sadoway appeared as a guest on The Colbert Report to discuss his liquid metal battery technology and his view that electrochemistry is the key to world peace, he appeared in MIT Gangnam Style. John F. Elliott – MIT has a Chaired Professorship named after John F. Elliott.

Since 1999, Sadoway has

Howard P. Jones

Howard Palfrey Jones was a United States diplomat whose career was focused on Southeast and East Asia. Between March 1958 and April 1965, Jones served as the United States Ambassador to Indonesia during the last years of the Sukarno presidency, he was known for his warm friendship and good rapport with President Sukarno, the first President of Indonesia and the country's premier nationalist leader. Howard Jones served as a colonel in the United States Army during World War II and worked for the Economic Cooperation Administration after the War, he worked as a journalist before joining the United States Agency for International Development. Between July 1954 and July 1955, he served in the dual role as the director of the USAID program in Indonesia and the embassy's economic counsellor. At the US Embassy in Jakarta. From February 1956 to April 1957, he served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Far Eastern Economic Affairs at the State Department's headquarters in Washington, D.

C.. In addition, Jones held the position of Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs between May 1957 and February 1958. In March 1958, Howard Jones was appointed as United States Ambassador to Indonesia, a position which he would hold for the next seven years. Jones played an important role in repairing the damaged caused to United States-Indonesian relations by the Eisenhower Administration's covert support for the failed PRRI/Permesta regional uprisings in Sumatra and the Celebes. Following the capture of an American pilot Allen Lawrence Pope, participating in a Central Intelligence Agency black op in support of the Permesta rebels, Jones portrayed Pope as an American "paid soldier of fortune" and expressed his regret at the involvement of an American. According to the political scientists and Indonesia experts Audrey Kahin and George McTurnan Kahin, Pope's capture exposed United States support for the PRRI-Permesta rebels and embarrassed the Eisenhower Administration.

Ambassador Jones praised the Indonesian government for not seeking to make political capital out of the Popes affair. However, Jones expressed anger at his Government for causing the deaths of 700 civilians; the Popes affair contributed to a left-ward drift in Indonesian politics which helped the Indonesian Communist Party. Following the resignation of John Foster Dulles as Secretary of State in 1959, Howard Jones and his allies gained greater support for their accommodationist policies towards Indonesia in the United States Government; this trend was accelerated during the John F. Kennedy presidency; the Kennedy Administration repaired Washington's relations with Indonesia by helping to broker a peaceful settlement to the West New Guinea dispute in August 1962. In addition, Sukarno cultivated a warm personal relationship with Howard Jones and regarded him as friendly and trustworthy. However, Sukarno still disliked the CIA and believed that the intelligence agency was plotting to overthrow him - a belief that would be revealed to be well founded.

According to another former US diplomat and colleague Edward E. Masters, Howard Jones genuinely believed that Sukarno was a moderate, not hostile towards the United States but was instead misled by ill-intentioned advisers like the-then Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio; this optimistic view was not shared by other American diplomats including Masters and Francis Joseph Galbraith, the Deputy Chief of Mission. Despite these differences, Jones was remembered by his colleagues at the US Embassy in Jakarta as a kind, gentle man who harbored no bitterness. According to George Kahin, Howard Jones was critical of the CIA's interference in Indonesian politics; the CIA disliked Jones for his conciliatory approach towards President Sukarno and sought to have him replaced by undermining his reputation on charges of being soft on the Indonesian Communists. Jones was critical of British policies towards the creation of Malaysia. However, Jones' criticisms of the British was overruled by the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration, unsympathetic to Sukarno's policy of Confrontation with Malaysia.

Howard Jones' efforts to induce a pro-American shift in Indonesian foreign policy failed due to Sukarno's increasing hostility to the West and his rapprochement with the People's Republic of China. Despite his alleged close relationship with Sukarno, Jones tenure as ambassador coincided with On May 24, 1965, Howard Jones returned to the United States and was succeeded by Marshall Green, who abandoned Jones' conciliatory policy towards Sukarno and was present during the Transition to the New Order. In April 1971, Jones published a memoir of his experiences working in Indonesia, called Indonesia: The Possible Dream. Jones, Howard P.. Indonesia: The Possible Dream. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-144371-8. Kahin, Audrey R.. Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97618-7. Kahin, George McT.. Southeast Asia: A Testament. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-29975-6. Masters, Edward. "The United States and Indonesia: Personal Reflections".

In Murphy, Anne. Legacy of Engagement in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Pp. 311–349. ISBN 97898123077

Saul Alves Martins

Saul Alves Martins was a Brazilian anthropologist and folklorist, professor of Federal University of Minas Gerais. Formed in Social Sciences and doctor in the area and for years devoted himself to the study and teaching of anthropology, with an emphasis on folklore and the tradition of Minas Gerais, he defended his dissertation with the biography of the bandit Antonio Dó, his doctoral thesis entitled "Contribution to the scientific study of the craft," both published in book form. As a writer attentive to the nuances of popular culture and to the forms of "traditional” sociability set inside of the country-side of Minas Gerais the "rodas de São Gonçalo", Martins left a legacy for the description and systematization forms of cultural expression of Brazil's country-side. Defending a systematic study of these forms of expression, influenced by the positivism of Auguste Comte and Émile Durkheim, the anthropologist defended the folklore as a "first form" used in the culture of a society, his name was given to the "Museum of Craft Saul Alves Martins", located in the city of Vespasiano/Minas Gerais/Brazil, categorized as one of the top five museums of popular culture in Brazil.

One should notice that the museum has a collection of a large number of works donated by the anthropologist, the fruit of his research and fieldwork. Martins was a poet, publishing several books in this genre, as well as contributions to compilations; as an example of his production in this area is worth mentioning the poem "Flores do Campo" as one of the ten best of the contemporary sonnets in Minas Gerais, which led to the anthropologist the award received by the Academy of Letters of Minas Gerais in 1951. Here is a fragment of the sonnet: Besides his work as an anthropologist, he became a colonel and commanded battalions in Belo Horizonte, he is the author of the official anthem of the Military Police of Minas Gerais, pointing to his poetic bias. Canção da Terra.. 1ª Edição. Belo Horizonte. Editora “O Lutador”. Belo Horizonte. 1952. A dança de São Gonçalo. Edição Mantiqueira. Belo Horizonte.1954. Opúsculo: artes e ofícios caseiros. Separata da Revista do Arquivo. CLXIV. Obra premiada pela Discoteca Pública Municipal de São Paulo, 1959.

Os jogos infantis e as cantigas de roda. Edição do Centro Regional de Pesquisas Educacionais. MEC-INEP. Belo Horizonte, 1962. Opúsculo: o artesanato no Serro. Edição da Secretaria de Estado do Trabalho e Cultura Popular de Minas Gerais. Imprensa Oficial. Belo Horizonte, 1964. Folheto: uma oficina em cada lar. Edição da Secretaria de Estado do Trabalho e Cultura Popular de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte. Foi lema de Governo, 1964. Opúsculo: proteção ao artesanato. Edição da Secretaria de Estado do Trabalho e Cultura Popular de Minas Gerais. Imprensa Oficial. Belo Horizonte, 1966. Antônio Dó. Edição da Imprensa Oficial. Belo Horizonte. 1ª Edição, 1967. Opúsculo: o museu e as pesquisas artesanais. Editora da Academia Patense de Letras. Patos de Minas, 1969. Os Barranqueiros. Edição do Centro de Estudos Mineiros. UFMG. Belo Horizonte, 1969. Contribuição ao estudo científico do artesanato. Edição da Imprensa Oficial. Belo Horizonte, 1973. O artesanato na região de Barreiros. Campus Avançado da UFMG. Conselho de Extensão. Barreiras.

Bahia, 1973. Arte e artesanato folclóricos. Edição do MEC – FUNARTE – CDFB. Rio de Janeiro, 1976. Arte popular figurativa. Edições Carranca. Belo Horizonte, 1977. Folclore em Minas Gerais. Edição do MEC-FUNARTE-INF, com participação da UFMG. Rio de Janeiro. 1ª edição, 1982. O misterioso número três. Edições Carranca. Belo Horizonte, 1987. Folclore: teoria e método. Edição da Secretaria de Estado da Cultura de Minas Gerais. Edição da Imprensa Oficial. Belo Horizonte, 1986. Congado: família de três irmãos. Edição do SESC-MG. Belo Horizonte, 1988. Enciclopédia de literatura brasileira, de Afrânio Coutinho, edição do MEC, 1990. Folclore em Minas Gerais. Edição da UFMG. Belo Horizonte. 2ª edição, 1991. Canção da Terra.. Edição do Autor. Belo Horizonte.2ª edição, 1998. Dicionário Histórico e Biográfico Brasileiro, da Fundação Getúlio Vargas, publicado em 2002. Http://www.virtualismo.avbl.com.br/autores/silviamottapatrono.htm http://redeminas.tv/Cmi/Pagina.aspx?7854 *http://www.cultura.mg.gov.br/?task=interna&sec=2&cat=42&con=1001&all_not=y&limitstart=90 http://pt-br.wordpress.com/tag/museu-do-folclore-saul-alves-martins/ http://recantodasletras.uol.com.br/acrosticos/82321 http://www.ufmg.br/online/arquivos/014123.shtml Article that analyses the importance and academic production of Brazilian military: http://historiayespacio.univalle.edu.co/TEXTOS/28/0628.

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