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Provisional government

A provisional government called an interim government or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration. Provisional governments are appointed, arise, either during or after civil or foreign wars. Provisional governments maintain power until a new government can be appointed by a regular political process, an election, they may be involved with defining the legal structure of subsequent regimes, guidelines related to human rights and political freedoms, the structure of the economy, government institutions, international alignment. Provisional governments differ from caretaker governments, which are responsible for governing within an established parliamentary system and serve as placeholders following a motion of no confidence, or following the dissolution of the ruling coalition. In opinion of Yossi Shain and Juan J. Linz, provisional governments can be classified to four groups: Revolutionary provisional governments.

Power sharing provisional governments. Incumbent provisional governments. International provisional governments; the establishment of provisional governments is tied to the implementation of transitional justice. Decisions related to transitional justice can determine, allowed to participate in a provisional government; the early provisional governments were created to prepare for the return of royal rule. Irregularly convened assemblies during the English Revolution, such as Confederate Ireland, were described as "provisional"; the Continental Congress, a convention of delegates from 13 British colonies on the east coast of North America became the provisional government of the United States in 1776, during the American Revolutionary War. The government shed its provisional status in 1781, following ratification of the Articles of Confederation, continued until it was supplanted by the United States Congress in 1789; the practice of using "provisional government" as part of a formal name can be traced to Talleyrand's government in France in 1814.

In 1843, American pioneers in the Oregon Country, in the Pacific Northwest region of North America established the Provisional Government of Oregon—as the U. S. federal government had not yet extended its jurisdiction over the region—which existed until March 1849. The numerous provisional governments during the Revolutions of 1848 gave the word its modern meaning: A liberal government established to prepare for elections. Numerous provisional governments have been established since the 1850s, including: Provisional Government of Spain, pending the election of a new Constitutional Monarch. Provisional Government of Hawaii, established in 1893 after the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and renamed to the Republic of Hawaii in 1894. 1901 caretaker government of Australia, established pending the first election to the newly established Commonwealth of Australia. Provisional Government of the Republic of China, established after the success of the Wuchang uprising. Provisional Government of Albania.

State of Slovenes and Serbs, established in 1918 as the unrecognized first incarnation of Yugoslavia and merged with the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro to form the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Provisional Government of Western Thrace, established in modern Greece in opposition to annexation by Bulgaria during the Second Balkan War. Provisional Government of Northern Epirus, established against annexation to Albania. Provisional Government of India, established in Kabul. Republic of Van, established in Western Armenia. South West Caucasian Republic, established in Kars. Provisional Government of the Irish Republic, a title adopted by the leadership of the short-lived Easter Rising. Provisional Government of National Defence, 1916 Russian Provisional Government, established as a result of the February Revolution which led to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. Estonian Provisional Government. Latvian Provisional Government. Ukrainian Provisional Government. Provisional Government of the Northern Region.

South West Caucasian Republic, established in Kars. Government of the Grand National Assembly Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, established in exile based in Shanghai, China and in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. Provisional Government of Ireland, established by agreement between the British government and Irish revolutionaries, in order to pave the way for the establishment of the Irish Free State in the same year. Provisional Government of the Republic of China, established by the Empire of Japan when invading Eastern China. Provisional Government of Lithuania, established when Lithuanians overthrew the Soviet occupation during the Lithuanian 1941 independence, it functioned until Nazi Germany annexed the country. Provisional Government of Free India, established by Indian nationalists in southeast Asia, had nominal sovereignty over Axis controlled Indian territories, had diplomatic relationships with nine countries. Provisional National Government of Hungary.

Provisional Government of the Democratic Federal Yugosla

Herbert Waite

Herbert Roswell Waite was an American public relations executive, political figure, lobbyist who served as chairman of the Massachusetts Republican State Committee from February to September 1971. Waite was born and raised in Belmont and graduated from Belmont High School. During World War II, he served with the United States Marine Corps in China. After the war he graduated with a degree in American government. In 1952 he married Mary Arroll of Massachusetts, their marriage would end in divorce in 1976. In 1951, Waite joined New England Electric Systems as a student trainee; the following year he became a sales promotion assistant at the Narragansett Electric Company, New England Power's Rhode Island-based subsidiary. He rejoined New England Electric in 1954 as a member of their public information department. Here he served as the editor of the company's award-winning employee publication Contact. In 1960 he was promoted to director of public information, he was promoted again in this time to vice president.

From 1957 to 1960, Waite served on Massachusetts Board of Selectmen. In 1960 he moved to Swampscott, where he served as a town meeting member and a member of the Republican town committee. In August 1970 he moved to Massachusetts. In January 1971, Governor Francis W. Sargent recommended Waite for the position of chairman of the Republican State Committee. Sargent liked Waite for the job because he was a moderate Republican, not affiliated with either the liberal or conservative wings of the party. After two weeks of discussion between the staffs of Sargent and U. S. Senator Edward Brooke, the two agreed to recommend that Waite be appointed to the position of chairman and that he would serve full-time and receive a salary of about $25,000 a year. Waite was elected to the position on February 8, 1971. On September 28, 1971, Waite submitted his resignation to the state committee, citing personal reasons. After his resignation, Waite returned to New England Electric as vice president for public relations & advertising.

In 1973 he joined Bank of Boston as its first vice chief lobbyist. He retired in December 1990 after he took advantage of the company's "voluntary separation program", which offered employees with at least 10 years with the bank enhanced severance pay if they chose to retire early. After retiring he represented J. P. Morgan and the Bankers Roundtable before the United States Congress. After becoming a lobbyist, Waite resided in Roanoke, Virginia. Waite died on July 23, 2007

Bonfires of Saint John

The Bonfires of Saint John is a traditional and popular festival celebrated around the world during Midsummer, which takes place on the evening of 23 June, St. John's Eve, it is customary in many towns in Spain. The biggest celebration in Portugal is held in Oporto, where it is known as the Festa de São João do Porto. In South America, the biggest celebration takes place in the northeastern states of Brazil, where it is known as Festa Junina; the bonfires are popular in many Catalan-speaking areas like Catalonia and the Valencian Community, for this reason some Catalan nationalists regard 24 June as the Catalan nation day. The festivals of Midsummer's Eve have roots in ancient celebrations related to the summer solstice. Bonfires were lit to protect against evil spirits which were believed to roam when the sun was turning southward again. In years, witches were thought to be on their way to meetings with other powerful beings. Fire features in many of the celebrations, with people gathering together and creating large bonfires from any kind of wood, such as old furniture, sharing food and drinks while teens and children jump over the fires.

In some areas, bonfires are traditionally named tequeos. Parties are organized at beaches, where bonfires are lit and a set of firework displays take place. On the Spanish Mediterranean coast in Catalonia and Valencia, special foods such as coca de Sant Joan are served on this occasion. In Alicante, since 1928, the bonfires of Saint John were developed into elaborate constructions inspired by the Falles, or Fallas, of Valencia. Midsummer tradition is especially strong in northern areas of Spain, such as Galicia and Cantabria where one can identify the rituals that reveal the pagan beliefs widespread throughout Europe in Neolithic times; these beliefs pivot on three basic ideas: the importance of medicinal plants in relation to health and beauty. What follows is a summary of Galician traditions surrounding St. John's festival in relation to these three elements. Medicinal plants: Traditionally, women collect several species of plants on St. John's eve; these vary from area to area, but include fennel, different species of fern, rosemary, dog rose, lemon verbena, St John's wort, laburnum and elder flowers.

In some areas, these are hung in doorways. In most others, they are dipped in a vessel with water and left outside exposed to the dew of night until the following morning, when people use the resulting flower water to wash their faces. Water: Tradition holds it that the medicinal plants mentioned above are most effective when dipped in water collected from seven different springs. On some beaches, it was traditional for women who wanted to be fertile to bathe in the sea until they were washed by 9 waves. Fire: Bonfires are lit around midnight both on beaches and inland, so much so that one cannot tell the smoke from the mist common in this Atlantic corner of Iberia at this time of the year, it smells burnt everywhere. A dummy is placed at the top, representing a witch or the devil. Young and old gather around them and feast on pilchards, potatoes boiled in their skins and maize bread; when it is safe to jump over the bonfire, it is done three times for good luck at the cry of "meigas fora". It is common to have Queimada, a beverage resulting from setting alight Galician orujo mixed with sugar, coffee beans and pieces of fruit, prepared while chanting an incantation against evil spirits.

Before 1928, the bonfires of Saint John had been celebrated in Alicante as it had been elsewhere in Europe: by burning old pieces of furniture on the night of Saint John on 24 June. The Bonfires festival in Alicante originated in 1928. Jose María Py, the founder of the festival, felt that Alicante needed an important fiesta, came up with an idea to combine bonfires with a Valencian tradition known as the "falles"; the festival became the most important cultural event in Alicantinian society. 19 June The Bonfires start with the'Set Up' when monuments, street ninots and archways to the "barraques" are set up in the streets. A pie of tuna and early figs are eaten at night. 19–24 June The despertá occurs at 08:00 – Neighbours are awakened with a great deal of noise in all the districts of the city. The mascletá takes place at 14:00, it is a combination of fireworks and a long string of firecrackers. At night, from 23:00 to 06:00 there are street parties in all the districts of the city. People dance and drink all night at the "racós" and the "barraques".21 June The Street Band Parade occurs at 19:00.22 June At 11:30, the Prize Giving Parade takes place At 19:00, the Flower Offering Parade to the Remedy's Virgin takes place.

In the three parades, people wear the traditional garments from Alicante, and, i