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Provost (religion)

A provost is a senior official in a number of Christian churches. The word praepositus was applied to any ecclesiastical ruler or dignitary, it was soon more applied to the immediate subordinate to the abbot of a monastery, or to the superior of a single cell, it was defined as such in the Rule of St Benedict. The dean was a ranked official. Chrodegang of Metz adopted this usage from the Benedictines when he introduced the monastic organization of canon-law colleges cathedral capitular colleges; the provostship was held by the archdeacon, while the office of dean was held by the archpriest. In many colleges, the temporal duties of the archdeacons made it impossible for them to fulfil those of the provostship, the headship of the chapter thus fell to the dean; the title became prevost before being adopted as "provost" in English. Prévôt is the equivalent in modern French. In the Nordic countries, a provost is the leader of a provsti, an administrative territorial unit within the Lutheran national churches which comprises several parishes.

The provost is the immediate superior of the ‘parish priest’ but is also a parish priest in one of the local parishes. Several provstier form a Diocese. While the modern spelling is "Propst," in an historical context the spelling "Probst" may occur; the title is found among Military chaplains, both Roman Catholic and Protestant. The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Northern Germany uses the title Propstfor pastors who are the leaders of a church district. In England, the title of provost in cathedrals was completely replaced by that of dean, although sometimes when a bishop nominated himself as dean of his own cathedral, a provost was appointed as his deputy. In cathedrals which were parish churches, however the newly created cathedrals of the 19th and 20th centuries, the senior priest continued to be known as the provost; this title was used by the head priests of Birmingham Cathedral, Blackburn Cathedral, Bradford Cathedral, Chelmsford Cathedral, Coventry Cathedral, Derby Cathedral, Leicester Cathedral, Newcastle Cathedral, Portsmouth Cathedral, St. Edmundsbury Cathedral, Sheffield Cathedral, Southwark Cathedral, Southwell Minster, Wakefield Cathedral, but all were redesignated deans in 2000.

In the Scottish Episcopal Church this tradition continues. The leading priests of the cathedrals, with the exception of the Cathedral of the Isles on Cumbrae, are called provost; the usage is preserved in the title of the heads of some colleges in England administered by the Church. In the Catholic Church, Provost is a title of a prelate, with a rank equivalent to that of a bishop. In a society of apostolic life such as an Oratory of St Philip Neri, the provost is the major religious superior of his particular oratory, it is customary among Oratorians to call the provost "THE father" as he is primus inter pares, a father in the place of the founder, Philip Neri. In some dioceses it may be an honorary title given to senior priests, while in others it may be granted to vicars in charge of coordinating the pastoral care in a portion of territory and with a certain authority over the parish priests who fall under that particular jurisdiction. In Germany, the heads of certain chapters under the Catholic church are still known as provosts, while propstei or propsteigemeinde is an honorary designation for some important, old Roman Catholic churches in Germany.

Parish priests who are provosts have the privilege of wearing a prelate's dress and using a pectoral cross hung by a ribbon. In the Archdiocese of Milan, the figure of the provost has been an important office in the administration of the archdiocese; the earliest documented testimonies of praepositi date back to the 12th century and refer not only to the city of Milan, but above all to the rest of Lombardy which belonged to the Ambrosian diocese: the provosts were in fact the head of the parishes that constituted the territory of the Duchy of Milan. One of the most important prepositural offices, for example, is that of Lecco, which in the past was a important strategic position for commercial traffic with northern Europe and for the military defense of the Duchy; the provosts were officiated in the main church of the city. In some historical periods they were directly appointed by the papal curia, they had the right to appoint the canons of their colleges and to assign for the benefit of the rents of land owned by their parish.

Moreover, within the territory of their competence, they established vicariates entrusted to other priests which revolved into rural parishes. In the case of the provosts without ecclesiastical jurisdiction over a territory, these were located in the city of Milan where they were placed at the head of the oldest or most outstanding basilicas of the city. Since the provost had the role of prefect of the chapter, the Milan cathedr

Sailing at the 1908 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad. With the exception of the 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule; the Sailing program of 1908 was open for a total of five sailing classes, but only four Sailing events were contested. The planned venue of all races, named matches, was Ryde, Isle of Wight. At the 1907 The Hague Conference of the IOC Ryde at the Isle of Wight was appointed to host the sailing regattas, for all classes, of the games of the IVth Olympiad. However, when there were only two British entries for the 12 Metre matches, both yacht were located at the Firth of Clyde, the decision was made to use Hunters Quay as a second venue The RVYC was founded on 24 May 1845 by Prince Albert to give Queen Victoria a Yacht Club which she was entitled to enter as a mere female! For the Olympic matches the race committee used the available shipping buoys as marks for the courses. For the classes the following course lengths were used: 6 Metre: 13 nautical miles 7 Metre: 13 nautical miles 8 Metre: 16 nautical miles 12 Metre: 26 nautical miles The following course areas were used during the 1908 Olympic sailing regattas: A maximum of 2 boats per country per class was allowed.

Source: Source: Although one of the oldest organized sporting activities, sailing in the early first part of the 20th century was not uniformly organized. This had a lot to do with national traditions as well as with the fact that there were no standardized boat types with uniform building instructions and measurements. A lot of development was done in the area of boat design and boat building; the shape of a boat its length, its weight and its sail area, are major parameters that determine the boat's speed. Several initiatives were started to create a formula that made it possible to have boats race each other without having to calculate the final result, but the different countries could not agree on an international system. At the Olympics of 1900 it was clear that sailing was not ready for international competition, something had to be done. In 1906 international meetings were organize to solve the problem. In Paris, October 1907 the first International Rule was ratified. Delegates from this meeting went on to form the International Yacht Racing Union, the precursor to the present International Sailing Federation.

The agreed formula gives a result in meters. During the meeting in 1907 the IOC made the decision to open the 1908 Summer Olympics for the following Metre classes: Source: This Olympic sailing event was gender independent, however only two women, Frances Rivett-Carnac in the 7 Metre, the Duchess of Westminster as extra on her 8 Metre, participated; the duchess of Westminster distributed the diplomas of special merit to the competitors of the other Olympic sports on 25 July 1908. Gender specific events however had to wait until 1988; the matches at Ryde were held in light air conditions. All members of a team had to be a citizen of the country; however the boats used did not have to be built in the same country that the team was representing since the Olympic games are considered a test of skills and handling for the team and not a test of the yacht. This in contrast with the matches for the America's cup of that time. A second 7 Metre yacht Mignonette was entered under command of Capt. R. Sloane-Stanley but failed to make it to the starting line.

At the end of the official report the following suggestion was made: It has been suggested that in the yacht racing of future Olympic Games it might be better to select a fleet of “one-design” boats in the waters where the Games are held, let all the crews entered draw lots for them every day, with the proviso that no crew should have the same boat twice. Sailing had to wait until 1920. During the Sailing regattas at the 1908 Summer Olympics among others the following persons were competing in the various classes: Norway, Johan Anker, Multiple Olympic competitor and designer of many Metre yachts as well as the 1948 Olympic Dragon, in the 8 Metre Fram Great Britain, Duchess of Westminster as owner and extra crewmember of the 8 Metre Sorais Great Britain, William Dudley Ward in the 8 Metre Sorais Sweden, Harald Wallin in Vinga "Digital Library Collection". Digital Library Collection at la84.org. La84foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014. "London 1908". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee

Festival Siembra y Lucha

Festival Siembra y Lucha is an open air metal festival held annually in San José, Costa Rica since 2012. In its first edition the festival was held on November 24 with 13 local bands and Saurom from Spain as headlining. Saurom Nautilus Asedio Mythos Kronos Peregrino Gris Eternia Corpse Garden Advent Of Bedlam Heresy Grecco NothingariaN Forever Lost Seres In its second edition the festival was held from Friday, 6 December to Sunday, 8 December with 6 local bands and 19 international bands from 11 different countries. Primal Fear Mayhem Overkill Sabaton Orphaned Land Suffocation Immolation Tim "Ripper" Owens Stratovarius Korpiklaani Alestorm Tristania WarCry Sanctuary Lujuria Kraken Gillman Virginia Clemm Delirium Saurom Colemesis Pneuma Advent Of Bedlam Grecco Final Trial Kronos List of music festivals in Costa Rica