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Proxy ARP

Proxy ARP is a technique by which a proxy device on a given network answers the ARP queries for an IP address, not on that network. The proxy is aware of the location of the traffic's destination, offers its own MAC address as the destination; the traffic directed to the proxy address is typically routed by the proxy to the intended destination via another interface or via a tunnel. The process, which results in the node responding with its own MAC address to an ARP request for a different IP address for proxying purposes, is sometimes referred to as publishing. Below are some typical uses for proxy ARP: Joining a broadcast LAN with serial links. Assume an Ethernet broadcast domain using a certain IPv4 address range. One or more of the nodes is an access router accepting VPN connections; the access router gives the dial-up nodes IP addresses in the range 192.168.0.128 – 192.168.0.254. The access router uses Proxy ARP to make the dial-up node present in the subnet without being wired into the Ethernet: the access server'publishes' its own MAC address for 192.168.0.254.

Now, when another node wired into the Ethernet wants to talk to the dial-up node, it will ask on the network for the MAC address of 192.168.0.254 and find the access server's MAC address. It will therefore send its IP packets to the access server, the access server will know to pass them on to the particular dial-up node. All dial-up nodes therefore appear to the wired Ethernet nodes as if they are wired into the same Ethernet subnet. Taking multiple addresses from a LAN Assume a station with an interface connected to a network. Certain applications may require multiple IP addresses on the server. Provided the addresses have to be from the 10.0.0.0/24 range, the way the problem is solved is through Proxy ARP. Additional addresses are aliased to the loopback interface of the server and'published' on the 10.0.0.2 interface. On a firewall In this scenario a firewall can be configured with a single IP address. One simple example of a use for this would be placing a firewall in front of a single host or group of hosts on a subnetwork.

Example- A network has a server which should be protected a proxy-arp firewall can be placed in front of the server. In this way the server is put behind a firewall without making any changes to the network at all. Mobile-IP In case of Mobile-IP the Home Agent uses Proxy ARP in order to receive messages on behalf of the Mobile Node, so that it can forward the appropriate message to the actual mobile node's address. Transparent subnet gatewaying A setup that involves two physical segments sharing the same IP subnet and connected together via a router; this use is documented in RFC 1027. RedundancyARP manipulation techniques are the basis for protocols providing redundancy on broadcast networks, most notably Common Address Redundancy Protocol and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. Disadvantage of Proxy ARP include scalability as ARP resolution by a proxy is required for every device routed in this manner, reliability as no fallback mechanism is present, masquerading can be confusing in some environments.

Proxy ARP can create DoS attacks on networks. For example, a misconfigured router with proxy ARP has the ability to receive packets destined for other hosts, but may not have the ability to forward these packets on to their final destination, thus blackholing the traffic. Proxy ARP can hide device misconfigurations, such as a missing or incorrect default gateway. OpenBSD implements Proxy ARP. RFC 925 – Multi-LAN Address Resolution RFC 1027 – Using ARP to Implement Transparent Subnet Gateways W. Richard Stevens; the Protocols. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-63346-9

Tyrrell 011

The Tyrrell 011 was a Formula One car designed by Maurice Philippe for the Tyrrell Racing Organisation. It made its debut in the hands of American Eddie Cheever at the 1981 German Grand Prix where he qualified 18th and finished the race in the points with 5th place; the car was powered by the Cosworth DFV V8 engine and ran on Avon tyres though the team switched to Goodyear rubber. The 011 raced in three seasons of Formula One although its only full season was 1982. Drivers for Tyrrell in that time included Cheever, Michele Alboreto, Brian Henton, Slim Borgudd and Danny Sullivan. Tyrrell were able to win 2 races both by Alboreto; the first win at the 1982 Caesars Palace Grand Prix was Alboreto's first and the last 011 victory was the 1983 Detroit Grand Prix. This race was the last of 155 Grand Prix wins for the Cosworth DFV engine which had made its F1 debut 16 years earlier in 1967; the 1983 cars were green and black in colour and were sponsored by the Italian fashion brand Benetton. The 011 was replaced two-thirds of the way through the 1983 season by the Tyrrell 012.

* 6 points scored in 1981 using the Tyrrell 010* 1 point scored in 1983 using the Tyrrell 012

Teltow and Magdeburg Wars

The Teltow and Magdeburg Wars were fought between 1239 and 1245 over possession of Barnim and Teltow in the present-day federal German state of Brandenburg. They took place in the 13th century during the course of the Eastern German Expansion; the opposing sides during the armed conflict, which took place on two fronts were: The Margraviate of Brandenburg, led by the Ascanian rulers John I, Margrave of Brandenburg and Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg. The Margravate of Meissen, led by Henry III, Margrave of Meissen of the House of Wettin, Wilbrand von Käfernburg, the then-Archbishop of Magdeburg. At the time the Ascanians were expanding Cölln as trade centre and economic competitor to the House of Wettin's Köpenick, which laid the foundations for Berlin's subsequent economic and political domination of the area. After Ascanian victory in 1245 the Barnim and Teltow plateaus remained as part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the subsequent Province of Brandenburg until the unification of Germany in 1871.

Marca Brandenburgensis: John I and Otto III Marca Brandenburgensis: Battles and Campaigns in the Margraviate of Brandenburg around 1260 Willbrand von Käfenburg Reinhard E. Fischer: Die Ortsnamen der Länder Brandenburg und Berlin in Brandenburgische Historische Kommission, Brandenburgischen Historischen Studien, Volume 13, ISBN 3-937233-30-X. Michas, Uwe: Die Eroberung und Besiedlungs Nordbrandenburgs, Gesellschaft zuer Erforschung und Förderung der märkischen Eiszeitstraße, Entdeckungen entlang der Märkischen Eiszeitstraße, ISSN 0340-3718. Schich, Winfried: Das mittelalterliche Berlin in Ribbe, Wolfgang: Veröffentlichung der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Geschichte Berlins, Volume 1, ISBN 3-406-31591-7. Sello, Georg: Der Erwerb des Teltow und Barnim durch die Markgrafen Johann I Otto III. in: Forschungen zur brandenburgisch-preußischen Geschichte 5, 1892 Sello, Georg: Die halberstädter-brandenburgische Fehde 1238–1245, in: Zeitschrift des Harzvereins für Geschichte und Altertumskunde, Volume 24, pp. 201–219

1902 in jazz

This is a timeline documenting events of Jazz in the year 1902. Jelly Roll Morton start to get attention in the New Orleans scene, seventeen years of age, as a brothel piano player, he plays Ragtime and a little Blues at this point, is one of the first to play this mix, a forerunner of Jazz. He claimed to have invented Jazz in this year by combining Ragtime and Blues. January3 – Preston Jackson, American trombonist. 9 – Mel Stitzel, German-American pianist, New Orleans Rhythm Kings. 13 – Putney Dandridge, African-American bandleader, jazz pianist and vocalist. 23 – Benny Waters, American saxophonist and clarinetist. February6 – George Brunies, American trombonist. March11 – Chauncey Morehouse, American drummer. 16 – Leon Roppolo, American clarinetist. 30 – Ted Heath, English musician and big band leader. April6 – Rosy McHargue, American clarinetist. 24 – Rube Bloom, Jewish-American songwriter, arranger, band leader and author. June6 – Jimmie Lunceford, American alto saxophonist and bandleader. 7 – Ed Cuffee, American trombonist.

17 – Chris Columbus, American drummer. 26 – Artemi Ayvazyan, Soviet-Armenian composer and founder of the Armenian State Jazz Orchestra. 27 – Georg Malmstén, Finnish singer, composer, orchestra conductor, actor. July4 – Erik Tuxen, Danish big band leader and arranger. 7 – Jim McCartney, English trumpeter and pianist. 19 Buster Bailey, American clarinet, but well versed on saxophon. Cliff Jackson, American stride pianist. 21 – Omer Simeon, American clarinetist and reedist. August21 – Lloyd Scott, American drummer and bandleader. September17 – Louis Nelson, American trombonist. October12 – Jimmy Archey, American trombonist. 24 – Louis Barbarin, American drummer. 25 – Eddie Lang, American guitarist. November29 – Danny Alvin, American drummer and bandleader. December7 – Cecil Irwin, American reedist and arranger. Unknown dateBarney Josephson, founder of Café Society in Greenwich Village. Shirley Clay, American trumpeter. History Of Jazz Timeline: 1902 at All About Jazz

Naukabout Music Festival

The Naukabout Music Festival is an annual music festival held on Cape Cod. The festival is produced by Naukabout LLC; the festival takes place at the Barnstable County Fairgrounds, the site of the Annual Barnstable County Fair. Proceeds benefited the nonprofit organization the Elias Fund in 2008 and the Fresh Air Fund in 2009 and 2010. Adam Ezra Group Jukebox The Ghost David Wax Museum Sally Taylor Van Gordon Martin Band Otis Grove Tall Heights Dub Apocalypse Jeff Conley Band Tom Bianchi Sarah Blacker Dietrich Strause Baker Thomas Band Jeff Conley Band Tom Bianchi Daniel Byrnes Danielle Miraglia Molly Parmenter Hayley Sabella Kara Kulpa Ryan Montbleau Band John Brown's Body Adam Ezra Group Dune Billy All-Stars Will Evans of *Barefoot Truth Will Dailey Dub Apocalypse Tall Heights Jeff Conley Band Baker Thomas Band feat. *Danielle Miraglia Ryan Montbleau Band Zach Deputy Barefoot Truth Adam Ezra Group Will Dailey & The Rivals Jackson Wetherbee Band Jason Spooner Trio Jeff Conley Band Funktapuss Highly Suspect Sarah Blacker Ross Livermore Band Jake Hill The 3:27s Greg Loftus Derek Teichert Sara Leketa Hiding Behind Youth w/ Torn Shorts Béla Fleck, Zakir Hussain, Edgar Meyer Ryan Montbleau Band Barefoot Truth Adam Ezra Group Black Marmot Will Dailey John Beninghof Lilly Scott with Varlet Jeff Conley Band Rusted Root Ryan Montbleau Band Pete Francis Barefoot Truth The Old Silver Band Roots Down Below Emily Elbert Tripping Lily Tin Can Tele Sam Chase Daniel Byrnes Rustic Overtones Braddigan Ryan Montbleau Band The Old Silver Band Barefoot Truth Tin Can Tele Pete & Mike Band Jim Decatur Naukabout Music Festival Website

Women in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Women in Bosnia and Herzegovina are European women who live in and are from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to International Fund for Agricultural Development, women of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been affected by three types of transition after the Bosnian War: the "transition from war to peace", economic transition, political transition. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in 1991 and independence from the former SFR Yugoslavia in 1992; the Bosnian War was responsible for extreme acts of an economic collapse. Today Bosnia and Herzegovina is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society - the population consists of: Bosniaks 48.4%, Serbs 32.7%, Croats 14.6%, others 4.3%. Most of the population is rural: only 39.8% of total population is urban. The literacy rate for age 15 and over is higher for males than females - 2015 est. Guided by the constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country's Gender Equality Law of 2003 was passed to promote and advance the equality between men and women.

Laws related to elections, as well as other laws, were amended to be in line with the constitution. As a result, the law on election provides that "30% of all candidates must be women". Before a new Criminal Code came into force in 2003, the law on rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina contained a statutory exemption for marriage, read: "Whoever coerces a female not his wife into sexual intercourse by force or threat of imminent attack upon her life or body or the life or body of a person close to her, shall be sentenced to a prison term of one to ten years". Bosnia has a cultural and religious patriarchal tradition according to which women are expected to be submissive to men. Women are expected to perform most housework, including cooking and child rearing; the economic devastation of the civil war has had a negative effect on women's participation in the economy, although women are better integrated in agriculture work than in other fields. In post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, women are a driving force for change.

After the war, the resulting effects included the lowering of their public and social standing, some women opted to travel outside the country to search for jobs. Women from rural areas are more marginalised, because of their lower level of education and inclination to tradition, which dictates that they must be subservient to men. According to an Ottoman Muslim account of the Austro-Russian–Turkish War translated into English by C. Fraser, Bosnian Muslim women fought in battle since they "acquired the courage of heroes" against the Austrian Germans at the siege of the Osterwitch-atyk fortress. Bosnian Muslim women and men were among the casualties during the Battle of Osterwitchatyk. Bosnian Muslim women fought in the defense of the fortress of Būzin. Women and men resisted the Austrians at the Chetin Fortress; the women of the Bosnians were deemed to be militaristic according to non-Ottoman records of the war between the Ottomans and Austrians and they played a role in the Bosnian success in battle against the Austrian attackers.

Yeni Pazar, Izvornik, Östroviç-i âtık, Çetin, Būzin, Gradişka, Banaluka were struck by the Austrians. A French account described the bravery in battle of Bosnian Muslim women. According to C. Fraser: "Polygamy, so peculiar to Mohammedan countries, does not prevail to any great extent in Bosnia, both sexes enjoy the privilege of choosing their companions for life. An unmarried female appears in public without a veil, respect is shown to the mother of a family. In all these respects they differ from the inhabitants of eastern countries."According to A. J. Schem: "Polygamy has never gained prevalence among the begs; the women go veiled in public, but enjoy at home a freedom and privilege greater than those of the Turkish women. The young women are allowed to receive attentions from the young men, the young man who contemplates marriage is permitted to spend the evening with his betrothed, while she sits concealed from his view by a wall or shutter, it is related of the Bosnian women by a Turkish historian that when the first captives were taken to the Turkish court at Brussa, before the capture of Constantinople, they appeared to the chiefs like living genii from Paradise."According to János Asbóth: "Meanwhile, from the gardens on the hillsides a monotonous singing, in sharp nasal and head notes, rings through the town.

In spite of strict harems and veils, the girls know. Those out for a walk never weary of lauding a beautiful voice in proportion to the penetrating shrillness of its tones; the enchanted youth follows the sounds, creeps up to the garden fence, thus do most of the Bosnian marriages begin. The lad may have known the songstress from childhood up, when she as yet wore no veil, but only a great cloth over her head, he mayhap caught sight of a full-blown maiden during the last days. If it is the right young man, the coy doe allows herself, after a few such hedge visits, to be drawn into conversation. Should he be able once to grasp her hand through the fence or through a chink in the gate, it is a sign of agreement. Besides, under the mother's watchful eye, matters can hardly go so far, if the parents do not approve of the young man. There are scamps.