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Proxy server

In computer networking, a proxy server is a server application or appliance that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from servers that provide those resources. A proxy server thus functions on behalf of the client when requesting service masking the true origin of the request to the resource server. Instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource, such as a file or web page for example, the client directs the request to the proxy server, which evaluates the request and performs the required network transactions; this serves as a method to simplify or control the complexity of the request, or provide additional benefits such as load balancing, privacy, or security. Proxies were devised to add encapsulation to distributed systems. A proxy server may reside on the user's local computer, or at any point between the user's computer and destination servers on the Internet. A proxy server that passes unmodified requests and responses is called a gateway or sometimes a tunneling proxy.

A forward proxy is an Internet-facing proxy used to retrieve data from a wide range of sources. A reverse proxy is an internal-facing proxy used as a front-end to control and protect access to a server on a private network. A reverse proxy also performs tasks such as load-balancing, authentication and caching. An open proxy is a forwarding proxy server, accessible by any Internet user; as of 2008, Gordon Lyon estimates that "hundreds of thousands" of open proxies are operated on the Internet. Anonymous proxy – Thіs server reveаls іts іdentіty as а proxy server, but does not dіsclose the originating IP аddress of the client. Although thіs type of server cаn be dіscovered easіly, іt cаn be benefіcіаl for some users as іt hіdes the originating IP address. Trаnspаrent proxy – Thіs server not only іdentіfіes іtself as a proxy server, but wіth the support of HTTP heаder fields such as X-Forwarded-For, the originating IP аddress cаn be retrieved as well; the mаіn benefіt of usіng thіs type of server іs іts аbіlіty to cаche a websіte for faster retrieval.

A reverse proxy is a proxy server. Reverse proxies forward requests to one or more ordinary servers; the response from the proxy server is returned as if it came directly from the original server, leaving the client with no knowledge of the original server. Reverse proxies are installed in the neighborhood of one or more web servers. All traffic coming from the Internet and with a destination of one of the neighborhood's web servers goes through the proxy server; the use of "reverse" originates in its counterpart "forward proxy" since the reverse proxy sits closer to the web server and serves only a restricted set of websites. Several reasons for installing reverse proxy servers may be cited: Encryption / SSL acceleration: when secure web sites are created, the Secure Sockets Layer encryption is not done by the web server itself, but by a reverse proxy, equipped with SSL acceleration hardware. Furthermore, a host can provide a single "SSL proxy" to provide SSL encryption for an arbitrary number of hosts.

This problem can be overcome by using the SubjectAltName feature of X.509 certificates. Load balancing: the reverse proxy can distribute the load to several web servers, each web server serving its own application area. In such a case, the reverse proxy may need to rewrite the URLs in each web page. Serve/cache static content: A reverse proxy can offload the web servers by caching static content like pictures and other static graphical content. Compression: the proxy server can optimize and compress the content to speed up the load time. Spoon feeding: reduces resource usage caused by slow clients on the web servers by caching the content the web server sent and "spoon feeding" it to the client; this benefits dynamically generated pages. Security: the proxy server is an additional layer of defence and can protect against some OS and Web Server specific attacks. However, it does not provide any protection from attacks against the web application or service itself, considered the larger threat. Extranet Publishing: a reverse proxy server facing the Internet can be used to communicate to a firewall server internal to an organization, providing extranet access to some functions while keeping the servers behind the firewalls.

If used in this way, security measures should be considered to protect the rest of your infrastructure in case this server is compromised, as its web application is exposed to attack from the Internet. A content-filtering web proxy server provides administrative control over the content that may be relayed in one or both directions through the proxy, it is used in both commercial and non-commercial organizations to ensure that Internet usage conforms to acceptable use policy. Content filtering proxy servers will support user authentication to control web access, it usually produces logs, either to give detailed information about the URLs accessed by specific users, or to monitor bandwidth usage statistics. It may communicate to daemon-based and/or ICAP-based antivirus software to provide security against virus and other malware by scanning incoming content in real time before it enters the network. Many workplaces and colleges restrict the web sites and online services that are accessible and available in their buildings.


Geeta Mahalik

Geeta Mahalik is an Indian classical dancer, regarded by many, as one of the finest exponents of the Indian classical dance form of Odissi, the oldest among the eight Indian classical dance forms. The Government of India honored her, in 2014, with the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for her services to the field of art and culture. Gita Mahalik started learning dance at a early age from renowned guru, Deba Prasad Dash; this was followed by training under Mayadhar Raut which helped Geeta to develop a style which many connoisseurs described as sheer poetry in motion. Geeta has travelled extensively, performing in many countries across the globe like France, China, Spain, USA, Germany, Portugal and many other countries in the African continent, she has performed at all of the major dance festivals in India, Khajuraho Dance Festival, Ellora Dance Festival, Elephanta Dance Festival, Konarak Dance Festival, Mahabalipuram Festival, Mukteshwar Dance Festival, Badri Kedar Utsav, Taj Festival, Kalidas Samaroh at Ujjain, Ganga Mahotsav and Mandu Festival featuring among them.

Geeta Mahalik presently lives in Delhi. Geeta Mahalik is credited with giving a national flavor to the traditional style of Odissi, she is widely known to be a master of'Rasa'. Geeta has choreographed many dance dramas such as Lavanyavati and Draupadi - Antim Prashna which have won critical acclaim, it is reported that she has brought in many innovative interpretations and religious and secular overtones through her choreography. Geeta Mahalik has founded a non-governmental organization, Geeta's Upasana, based in Delhi, for promoting arts and culture odissi dance; the organization stages performances in Delhi and outside. Founder Director - Geeta's Upasana Member - Expert Committee on Odissi dance - Ministry of Culture Member - General Council - Sangeet Natak Akademi Member - General Council - Odisha Sangeet Natak Akademi Padma Shri - Government of India - 2014 Kendra Sangeet Natak Akademi Award - 2010 Odisha Sangeet Natak Akademi Award - 2012 Gramini Award - India International Rural Cultural Centre Senior National Fellowship - Ministry of Culture, Government of IndiaGeeta Mahalik is on the artists panel of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.

Interview in Shillong Times0 World record Odissi performance featuring 555 dancers

Western Remonstrance

The Western Remonstrance was drawn up on 17 October 1650 by Scotsmen who demanded that the Act of Classes was enforced and remonstrating against Charles, the son of the beheaded King Charles I, being crowned King of Scotland. It was presented to the Committee of Estates by Sir George Maxwell, at Stirling, on 22nd of that month; those who supported the Remonstrance are known as Remonstrants of Remonstraters. Patrick Gillespie was the principal author of the remonstrance addressed to the Scottish Parliament by the "gentlemen and ministers attending the Westland Force", in which they made charges against the public authorities, condemned the treaty with Charles II, declared that they could not take his side against Oliver Cromwell; the Remonstrators declared "freely and faithfully concerning the causes and remedies of the Lord's indignation", which had gone out against his people, among the first of which they reckoned the backsliding from the National Covenant, "the great and mother sin of the nation", as the principal.

The chief remedy proposed was to remove from the presence of the king, the judicatories and the armies, the "malignants", whom many of the committee were accused of having received "hito intimate friendship", admitting them to their councils, bringing in some of them to the parliament and committees, about the king, thereby affording "many pregnant presumptions", of a design on the part of some of the committee of estates, "to set up and employ the malignant party", or at least, giving "evidences of a strong inclination to intrust them again in the managing of the work of God". The Committee of Estates ignored the first remonstrance, a circumstance which gave such umbrage to Archibald Johnston, Lord Warriston and the leaders of the Western Association army, that they drew up another, couched in still stronger language, on 30 October, at Dumfries, where they had retired with the army on a movement made by Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army to the west. In this fresh remonstrance, the Remonstraters declared that as it was now manifest that the king was opposed to the work of God and the covenants, cleaving to the enemies of both, they would not regard him or his interest in their quarrel with the invading English.

A petition was presented to the Committee of Estates on the 19 November, requiring a satisfactory answer to the first remonstrance. On 25 November, a joint declaration was issued by the Committee, they declared that "the said paper, as it related to the parliament and civil judicatories, to be scandalous and injurious to his majesty's person, prejudicial to his authority". The declaration of the commission of the General Assembly was not only approved of by the General Assembly, but what was of equal importance, the General Assembly passed a resolution declaring that in such a perilous crisis all Scotsmen might be employed to defend their country. An exception for persons "excommunicated, notoriously profane, or flagitious, professed enemies and opposers of the covenant and cause of God", was no doubt made, but this exemption did not exclude all the "malignants"; the rescinding of the Act of Classes took effect on 13 August 1650. Gillespie and other Remonstraters protested against the General Assembly resolution, when the General Assembly met in July 1651 they protested against its legality.

For this he and two others were deposed from the ministry. They and their sympathisers disregarded the sentence, made a schism in the church. Gillespie and those who held similar views would become known as Protestors for protesting against the resolution to rescind the act, while those who supported the resolution to rescind the act would become known as Resolutioners; the divisions in the Kirk and the Scottish Nation made the subjugation of Scotland easier for the English both militarily as the New Model Army could engage and defeat disparate Scottish armies in detail, politically the English Commonwealth was able use the disunity to gain a political advantage over both parties. Third Civil War in Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms English invasion of Scotland in Third English Civil War Battle of Dunbar Browne, James. A history of the Highlands and of the Highland clans. 2. A. Fullarton. P. 67. Chambers, Robert. A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. 2. Blackie and son. P. 185. Mitchison, Rosalind.

A history of Scotland. Routledge. P. 238. ISBN 0-415-27880-5. OED staff. "remonstrance, noun". Oxford English Di

Cherry Tree Lane

Cherry Tree Lane is a 2010 British urban dramatic real-time horror-thriller film and directed by Paul Andrew Williams. In a house at Cherry Tree Lane, distant couple Christine and Mike are eating dinner while their son, Sebastian, is out at football practice; when the doorbell rings and Christine goes to answer it, the couple is attacked by Rian and Teddy, who hold them both hostage and tie them up in their front room. Knowing Sebastian will be returning at 9:00PM, the group waits for his return so that they can get revenge on him for grassing on Rian's cousin and getting him sent to prison. Rian drags Christine into another room to rape her, leaving Asad to guard a frustrated Mike. Asad allows Mike to have a drink and explains that he is not as violent as Rian, tells Mike details about his life. Rian's school friends and Charman, Beth's younger brother Oscar arrive with an axe for Rian to use on Sebastian. Oscar gets sent into the kitchen, while Teddy returns with Mike's money for Rian to send to his cousin.

Sebastian returns home and is dragged upstairs to his room by the teenagers who begin to torture and beat him. Hearing his son's screams, Mike struggles to free himself, is able to knock a knife off the dinner table so that he can cut his wrists free, he goes into the next room to find a traumatised Christine tied up and naked underneath a blanket. Arming himself with a candlestick, he attempts to sneak upstairs, but his presence is alerted by Charman, exiting the bathroom. Asad, Teddy and Beth flee from the house, while Mike grapples with Rian, before beating him down with the candlestick and his fists. Christine comes upstairs to comfort a bloodied Sebastian who loses consciousness in her arms, while she hysterically screams for Mike to do something. Mike goes downstairs to call 999 goes into the kitchen to drink from the tap, when he senses someone behind him and turns around to see Oscar standing there; the film ends with Mike, knife in hand, Oscar both staring at each other, unsure of what to do next.

Rachael Blake as Christine Tom Butcher as Mike Jumayn Hunter as Rian Ashley Chin as Asad Sonny Muslim as Teddy Jennie Jacques as Beth Corinne Douglas as Charman Kieran Dooner as Oscar Tom Kane as Sebastian Based on a specially written script template, the film was made for Steel Mill Pictures. The director Paul Andrew Williams began the shooting of the psychological thriller on 16 July 2009 in North London. Ken Marshall produced the film for Steel Mill Pictures; the film premiered on 23 June 2010 as part of the Edinburgh International Film Festival 2010. Cherry Tree Lane is part of the Film4 Frightfest on 29 August 2010. Metrodome Distribution holds the rights for the sales in England; the film received mixed reviews from critics. The Film Blogger dubbed it a "moderately tense thriller", "accentuated by a well-developed class commentary and some solid performances"; the film’s name is an ironic reminder of the address of the idealised suburban Banks family in the popular 1964 film Mary Poppins, as well as in the series of books on which the film is based.

List of films featuring home invasions Cherry Tree Lane on IMDb

Víctor Borda

Víctor Ezequiel Borda Belzu is a Bolivian lawyer and politician. He was President of the Chamber of Deputies of Bolivia from January 2019 until his resignation on November 10, 2019 due to the political crisis in Bolivia, he is a deputy for the 34th constituency of the Movement for Socialism in the Potosí Department. Borda was born on June 12, 1970 in the city of Potosí, he began his primary studies in 1976, leaving high school in his hometown in 1987. He was part of the Constituent Assembly, executive of the University Confederation of Bolivia and the Local University Federation, he was head of the MAS bench in Deputies. In January 2019 he was elected president of the Chamber of Deputies for the period 2019-2020 replacing Gabriela Montaño. On April 9, he assumed the presidency of Bolivia on an interim basis for 24 hours when Evo Morales was visiting Asia. On November 9, 2019, a group of people in the city of Potosí set fire to his home. On November 10, 2019 he announced his resignation to the Presidency of the Chamber of Deputies after his brother was taken hostage "I am sorry that my brother was taken hostage, please stop violence stop violence," he said, urging that the life of his brother be respected, who would have been taken hostage in the city of Potosí.

He was replaced by Susana Rivero who on November 12 was a refugee at the Mexican embassy in La Paz but had not submitted her resignation

Wíčazo Ša Review

The Wíčazo Ša Review is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of Native American studies. The journal was established in 1985 by editors-in-chief Elizabeth Cook-Lynn, Roger Buffalohead, William Willard. Wíčazo Ša Review is published by the University of Minnesota Press, which acquired it in 1999, it was published at Eastern Washington University, under the guidance of its Native American Studies center. Issues include essays, interviews, poems, short stories, course outlines, curriculum designs, scholarly research and literary criticism reflective of Native American studies and related fields; the current editor is James Riding In. Official website