The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animals back by a girth. The most common type is the equestrian saddle designed for a horse, modern saddles come in a wide variety of styles, each designed for a specific equestrianism discipline, and require careful fit to both the rider and the horse. Proper saddle care can extend the life of a saddle. The word saddle originates from the Proto-Germanic language *sathulaz, with cognates in various other Indo-European languages, there is evidence, though disputed, that humans first began riding the horse not long after domestication, possibly as early as 4000 BC. The earliest known saddle-like equipment were fringed cloths or pads used by Assyrian cavalry around 700 BC and these were held on with a girth or surcingle that included breast straps and cruppers. From the earliest depictions, saddles became status symbols and these were located in Pazyryk burials finds. These saddles, found in the Ukok Plateau, Siberia were dated to 500-400 BC, the Scythians developed an early saddle that included padding and decorative embellishments.
Though they had neither a solid tree nor stirrups, these early treeless saddles and pads provided protection and comfort to the rider, with a slight increase in security. The Sarmatians used a padded treeless early saddle, possibly as early as the century, BC. Early solid-treed saddles were made of felt that covered a wooden frame, Asian designs appeared during the Han dynasty approximately 200 BC. One of the earliest solid-treed saddles in the west was the four horn design, the invention of the solid saddle tree allowed development of the true stirrup as it is known today. Without a solid tree, the weight in the stirrups creates abnormal pressure points. Thermography studies on treeless and flexible tree saddle designs have found there is considerable friction across the center line of a horses back. The stirrup was one of the milestones in saddle development, the first stirrup-like object was invented in India in the 2nd century BC, and consisted of a simple leather strap in which the riders toe was placed.
It offered very little support, the stirrup appeared to be in widespread use across China by 477 AD. which spread to Europe. This invention gave great support for the rider, and was essential in warfare, Saddles were improved upon during the Middle Ages, as knights needed saddles that were stronger and offered more support. The resulting saddle had a higher cantle and pommel and was built on a tree that supported more weight from a rider with armor. This saddle, a predecessor to the modern Western saddle, was padded with wool or horsehair
Australia and the American Civil War
Despite being across the world from the conflict, the Australian colonies were affected by the American Civil War both economically and by immigration. The Australian cotton crop became more important to England, which had lost its American sources, immigrants from Europe seeking a better life found Australia preferable to war-torn North America. The Russian navy had just paid Australia a visit in preparation for launching attacks, fear of a possible military confrontation led to a massive buildup of coastal defences and to the acquisition of an ironclad warship. Australia became directly involved when the Confederate navy visited in order to one of their warships. This led to protests from the Union representative at Melbourne, while the citizenry of nearby Williamstown entertained the Confederates, accounts disagree as to whether Australians generally favored the Union or the Confederacy, as sorrowful demonstrations were held in Sydney when news arrived of Abraham Lincolns assassination.
Together,140 Australians and New Zealanders were veterans of the American Civil War,100 of whom were native-born, some of these were originally Americans who came to Australia during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s. Officers during the war included one who gave Tasmania its first telegraph service, the war caused the Lancashire Cotton Famine. As a result, Queensland saw a rise in its industry, while the National Colonial Emigration Society in Britain was founded. This came about as a result of so many individuals from northern England being affected by the inability of the Southern United States to ship cotton during the war, once the war ended, little cotton from Southern Australia was imported to England. However, in the aftermath of the war some Australians were interested in acquiring the Fiji Islands, another impact was the competition with Canada that Australia and New Zealand had with Irish immigration. The increasing Irish immigration was seen as a boon by these antipodean countries.
One of the reasons for the increase was due to many Irish deciding against emigrating to the nations of North America. During the Civil War, the Union and Russia were allies against what they saw as their potential enemy, Britain. The Russian blue-water navy was stationed in San Francisco and from 1863 in New York—with sealed orders to attack British naval targets in case war broke out between the United States and Britain and this was threatened if Britain gave diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy. The flagship of the Russian Pacific squadron, Bogatyr under Rear Admiral Andrey Alexandrovich Popov, according to information passed on to Australian authorities in June 1864, Rear Admiral A. A. Popov had in the first half of the year 1863 received orders, the plan included shelling and destruction of the Melbourne and Hobart coastal batteries. This information about Popovs plans was forwarded by a fellow Pole, similar attack orders are known to have been given to the Atlantic squadron under Rear Admiral Lessovsky, that was sent to New York at the same time.
The CSS Shenandoah arrived in Australian waters on January 17,1865, off the coast of South Australia at 39°3214S and 122°1652 E, her crew spotted an American-made sailing ship named the Nimrod and boarded it
Sherman's March to the Sea
The campaign began with Shermans troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. His forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, Shermans bold move of operating deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major achievements of the war. Shermans March to the Sea followed his successful Atlanta Campaign of May to September 1864, Sherman therefore planned an operation that has been compared to the modern principles of scorched earth warfare, or total war. The second objective of the campaign was more traditional, grants armies in Virginia continued in a stalemate against Robert E. Lees army, besieged in Petersburg, Virginia. Foragers, known as bummers, would provide food seized from local farms for the Army while they destroyed the railroads and the manufacturing and agricultural infrastructure of Georgia. In planning for the march, Sherman used livestock and crop production data from the 1860 census to lead his troops through areas where he believed they would be able to forage most effectively.
The twisted and broken railroad rails that the troops heated over fires and wrapped around tree trunks, as the army would be out of touch with the North throughout the campaign, Sherman gave explicit orders, Shermans Special Field Orders, No. 120, regarding the conduct of the campaign, the following is an excerpt from the generals orders, The march was made easier by able assistants such as Orlando Poe, Chief of the bridge building and demolition team. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman selected Poe as his chief engineer in 1864, Poe oversaw the burning of Atlanta, for which action he was honored by Sherman. He continued to supervise destruction of Confederate infrastructure. [ Sherman, commanding the Military Division of the Mississippi, John E. Smith, and John M. Corse. XVII Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Frank Blair, Jr. with the divisions of Maj. Gen. Joseph A. Mower, mortimer D. Leggett and Giles A. Smith. The left wing was the Army of Georgia, commanded by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, with the divisions of Brig.
William P. Carlin, James D. Morgan, and Absalom Baird, XX Corps, commanded by Brig. Gen. Alpheus S. Williams, with the divisions of Brig. Nathaniel J. Jackson, John W. Geary, and William T. Ward, a cavalry division under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick operated in support of the two wings. The Confederate opposition from Lt. Gen. William J. Hardees Department of South Carolina, hood had taken the bulk of forces in Georgia on his campaign to Tennessee in hopes of diverting Sherman to pursue him. There were about 13,000 men remaining at Lovejoys Station, Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smiths Georgia militia had about 3,050 soldiers, most of whom were boys and elderly men. The Cavalry Corps of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, reinforced by a brigade under Brig. Gen. William H. Jackson, had approximately 10,000 troopers. During the campaign, the Confederate War Department brought in men from Florida and the Carolinas
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Battle of Resaca
The Battle of Resaca was part of the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. The battle was waged in both Gordon and Whitfield counties, May 13–15,1864 and it ended inconclusively with the Confederate Army retreating. The engagement was fought between the Military Division of the Mississippi on the side of the Union and the Army of Tennessee for the Confederates, in early May 1864, the Confederate government granted Johnstons request for reinforcements to his camps around Dalton, Georgia. During the remainder of May 7 and the day of May 8 Canteys brigade had time to entrench, on May 9, the Army of the Tennessee under the command of James B. McPherson moved out of Snake Creek Gap and immediately ran into a Confederate cavalry brigade ordered to scout the area the day before under the command of Colonel Warren Grigsby. After a fierce battle, Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sweeny formed a line and drove the Confederates back to Resaca. He devoted the Army of the Tennessee for this, while the Army of the Cumberland, george H.
Thomas and John M. Schofield, would feign attacks in the Confederatess front. In the evening, McPherson sent his cavalry, the 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry. Meanwhile, skirmishers in Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Gen. Daniel H. Reynolds, Johnston had withdrawn his forces from Rocky Face Ridge to the hills around Resaca. On May 13, the Union troops tested the Confederate lines to pinpoint their whereabouts, the next day full-scale fighting occurred, and the Union troops were generally repulsed except on the Confederate right flank where Sherman did not fully exploit his advantage. Unable to halt this Union turning movement, Johnston was forced to retire, after the Union repaired the bridges and transported more men over, they continued in the pursuit of the Confederates, leading to the Battle of Adairsville on May 17. There were 6,100 combined casualties,3,500 for the Union and 2,600 for the Confederacy, the battlefield is preserved as the Resaca Battlefield State Historic Site. Ambrose Bierces short story Killed at Resaca focuses on a cohort of men who fight and die bravely at Resaca, Resaca Confederate Cemetery Guernsey, Alfred H.
Alden, Henry M. Harpers Pictoral History of the Civil War. National Park Service battle description Summary about pre-battle period Basic summary of battle Secrist, the Battle of Resaca, Atlanta Campaign,1864. Macon, GA, Mercer University Press,1998, nothing but Victory, The Army of the Tennessee, 1861–1865. New York, Alfred A. Knopf,2005, friends of Resaca The Battle of Resaca, histories and preservation news The Civil War in Georgia as told by its Historic Markers - Battle of Resaca Battle of Resaca
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Carl Christian Schurz was a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, U. S. Minister to Spain, Union Army General in the American Civil War, U. S. Senator and he was an accomplished journalist, newspaper editor and orator, who in 1869 became the first German-born American elected to the United States Senate. Carl Christian Schurz was born on March 2,1829 in Liblar, in Rhenish Prussia, the son of Marianne, a speaker and journalist, and Christian Schurz. He studied at the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne, and learned piano under private instructors, financial problems in his family obligated him to leave school a year early, without graduating. Later he graduated from the gymnasium by passing a special examination, at Bonn, he developed a friendship with one of his professors, Gottfried Kinkel. In response to the events of the revolutions of 1848, Schurz and Kinkel founded the Bonner Zeitung. At first Kinkel was the editor and Schurz a regular contributor and these roles were reversed when Kinkel left for Berlin to become a member of the Prussian Constitutional Convention.
When the Frankfurt rump parliament called for people to take up arms in defense of the new German constitution, Kinkel, during the 1849 military campaign in Palatinate and Baden, he joined the revolutionary army, fighting in several battles against the Prussian Army. Schurz was adjunct officer of the commander of the artillery, Fritz Anneke, the Annekes would move to the U. S. where each became Republican Party supporters. Annekes brother, Emil Anneke, was a founder of the Republican party in Michigan, when the revolutionary army was defeated at the fortress of Rastatt in 1849, Schurz was inside. Knowing that the Prussians intended to kill their prisoners, Schurz managed to escape, in 1850, he returned secretly to Prussia, rescued Kinkel from prison at Spandau and helped him to escape to Edinburgh, Scotland. Schurz went to Paris, but the police forced him to leave France on the eve of the coup détat of 1851, remaining there until August 1852, he made his living by teaching the German language.
While in London, Schurz married fellow revolutionary Johannes Ronges sister-in-law, Margarethe Meyer, in July 1852 and then, like many other Forty-Eighters, in Wisconsin, Schurz soon became immersed in the anti-slavery movement and in politics, joining the Republican Party. In 1857, he was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for lieutenant-governor, in 1858, he was admitted to the Wisconsin bar and began to practice law in Milwaukee. In the state campaign of 1859, he made a speech attacking the Fugitive Slave Law, arguing for states rights. In Faneuil Hall, Boston, on April 18,1859, he delivered an oration on True Americanism, Wisconsin Germans unsuccessfully urged his nomination for governor in 1859. During the American Civil War, Schurz served with distinction as a general in the Union Army, persuading Lincoln to grant him a commission in the Union army, Schurz was commissioned brigadier general of Union volunteers in April 1862. In June, he took command of a division, first under John C, frémont, and in Franz Sigels corps, with which he took part in the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862
The McClellan saddle was a riding saddle designed by George B. Based on his observations, McClellan proposed a design that was adopted by the Army in 1859, the McClellan saddle was a success and continued in use in various forms until the US Armys last horse cavalry and horse artillery was dismounted in World War II. Today, the McClellan saddle is used by mounted units in the US Army. The saddle was used by other nations, including Rhodesia and Mexico. The saddle came in various sizes that predominantly ranged from approximately 11 to 12 ½ inches. McClellans focus was the organization of troops and cavalry. After the one-year tour, during which time McClellan observed several battles of the Crimean War, McClellan brought back almost 100 books and these he read before writing his report, which concluded with his proposed manual for American cavalry adapted from existing Russian cavalry regulations. He proposed a cavalry saddle that he claimed was a modification of a Hungarian model used in the Prussian service.
The saddle was almost certainly a modification of the Spanish tree saddle in common use in Mexico during this period, the McClellan saddle was adopted by the US War Department in 1859 and remained standard issue, in various models, for the remaining history of the horse cavalry. The original M1859 version was the form used during the Civil War, the saddle always remained recognizable as McClellans design, which included cavalry and artillery models. In addition, a model for packers was introduced as the M1913, during the American Civil War, many Confederate cavalrymen provided their own horses and civilian saddles. In time, the Confederacy issued the Jenifer saddle, but when Southerners horses grew thin because of inadequate food supply, the Jenifer saddle became painful to the bony withers of the horses. In 1863, the Confederate army issued the lighter and better-contoured McClellan saddle to its cavalry, because leather was scarce in the South during the Civil War, many of the McClellan saddles had skirts of painted canvas.
The Confederate Army used some British saddles as well, the design underwent modifications over time, although in many ways it remained remarkably unchanged. The saddle was simple and less expensive than existing saddles, light enough not to burden the horse and it supported a rawhide-covered open seat, a thick leather skirt, wooden stirrups, and a girth strap of woolen yarn. The McClellan saddle was placed on top of a saddlecloth, shabrack, as noted above, the McClellan saddle served, and has continued to serve, for an extraordinarily long time in the U. S. Army. The saddle has been in uninterrupted use since 1859, the saddle did see some modification over time. Perhaps the most significant alterations occurred in the 20th Century, when the rigging was changed twice, the first time, an adjustable rigging was adopted, leading to the M1904 McClellan