Prussian Homage (painting)

The Prussian Homage is an oil on canvas painting by Polish painter Jan Matejko painted between 1879 and 1882 in Kraków. The painting depicts the "Prussian Homage," a significant political event from the time of the Renaissance in Poland in which Albrecht Hohenzollern, the Duke of Prussia paid tribute and swore allegiance to King Sigismund I the Old in Kraków's market square on 10 April 1525. Matejko depicted over thirty important figures of the Polish Renaissance period, taking the liberty of including several who were not present at the event; the painting glorifies this event in Poland's past and its culture, the majesty of its kings. At the same time, the painting has darker undertones, reflecting the troubled times that befell Poland in the late eighteenth century, for the Kingdom of Prussia would become one of the partitioning powers that ended the independence of Poland; the painting was seen by some as anti-Prussian. Matejko created his painting to remind others about the history of the no-longer-independent country he loved, about the changing fates of history.

The painting is counted among his masterpieces. Matejko began to paint the Prussian Homage on Christmas Eve 1879 and finished it in 1882, he donated it to the Polish nation during the meeting of the Diet of Galicia in Lwów on 7 October 1882 to start a collection designed to revive the remodelling of Wawel Castle. It was subsequently exhibited in Kraków, Lwów and Warsaw, as well as in Berlin, Paris and most notably in Rome and Vienna; when it returned to Kraków in 1885, it was temporarily exhibited in the Sukiennice Museum because the Royal Wawel Castle was occupied at that time by the Austrian army, as Kraków was part of the Austrian partition of Poland. Because of the pro-Polish and anti-Prussian character of the painting German emperor William I objected to a proposal to reward Matejko. During this period, Prussia was trying to Germanise it. During World War II, the Nazis systematically tried to destroy all Polish cultural artefacts in occupied Poland; this painting, together with Matejko's painting of the Battle of Grunwald, was on their "most wanted" list.

It was hidden and safeguarded throughout the war in the town of Zamość. For most of the twentieth and at the beginning of the twentieth-first centuries, the painting has been hung in the National Museum gallery in the Sukiennice Museum in Kraków, where it is displayed in the Prussian Homage Hall. Renovation work started in the Sukiennice Museum in June 2008; the painting had been restored in 1915 and 1938. During World War II it was damaged while it was at Zamość, in 1945 it was renovated. In 1974, experts again tried to restore it to its original condition before it went on public exhibition in Moscow; the most recent restoration process took place between 2006 and 2008, when the painting was returned to its former glory. In 2011, the painting was sent to Germany for an art exhibition entitled "Side by Side Poland – Germany", promoted as part of the 1000 Years of Art and History project of Royal Warsaw Castle in cooperation with the Martin-Gropius-Bau exhibition hall in Berlin, it was on display there between 23 September 2011 and 9 January 2012.

This painting is considered among Matejko's most famous works and is one of his largest canvases. It portrays an event of significant political triumph for Poland, the Prussian Homage, in which Poland was able to enforce its will over Prussia. Prussia latter gained independence and turned against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, becoming one of the nations that divided Poland among them. Matejko's painting was created during the partition period, when independent Poland had ceased to exist, like many of Matejko's other works, it aimed to remind the Polish people of their most famous historical triumphs. At the same time, the painting foreshadows the tragedies of the future through the gestures and facial expressions of certain characters; this is visible, for example, in the figures of King Sigismund I the Old and Albrecht Hohenzollern, kneeling before him. Sigismund is portrayed as a majestic figure but not threatening, he treats Albrecht lightly—signifying that this event was only a temporary victory and not a total, lasting domination that crushed his opponent.

Albrecht's character is portrayed with many signs of his villainous intent. He kneels on both knees, which a duke should do only in front of not a sovereign; this implies. He grips his standard but touches the Bible only lightly; the standard flies on a military lance. There is a gauntlet on the ground, an implied challenge to Sigismund from Albrecht. Due to its criticism of Albrecht and the event it portrayed, the painting is seen as anti-Prussian. While it appears to glorify Poland, it is critical of the country. Matejko went beyond portraying the glory of a historical event and attempted to convey hints of how the country's history would play out in the future; this event was a hollow victory that failed to secure Poland's future. Matejko shows that the homage was an empty gesture and that it was Prussia that exploited it rather than Poland. Nobody in the painting is smiling except a lady of the court, engaged in idle gossip; the painting has been the subject of numerous art historical studies and has been reinterpreted through the works of artists such as Tadeusz Kantor.

In 1992, the Piw

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Penicillium nalgiovense is an anamorph species of the genus Penicillium with lipolytic and proteolytic activity, first isolated from ellischau cheese. This species produces dichlorodiaportin and diaportinic acid Penicillium nalgiovense is used for the maturation of certain fermented salami varieties and ham. In this process it protects the meat from colonization by other molds and bacteria Laich, F.. "Isolation of Penicillium nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production by disruption of the pcbAB gene and application as starters on cured meat products". Mycological Research. 107: 717. Doi:10.1017/S095375620300769X. Andersen, S. J.. C.. "Penicillin production by Penicillium nalgiovense". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 19: 486. Doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.1994.tb00988.x. Castro, L. S. C. S.. P.. "Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames". Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. 20: 40. Doi:10.1590/S0101-20612000000100009. Jacobsen, T.. "Bioformation of flavour by penicillium candidum, penicillium nalgiovense and Geotrichum candidum on glucose, maize oil and meat extract".

Food Chemistry. 60: 409. Doi:10.1016/S0308-814600361-5. Andersen, S. J.. "Taxonomy of Penicillium nalgiovense isolates from mould-fermented sausages". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 68: 165–71. Doi:10.1007/BF00873102. PMID 8546454. Barbara Lund. Baird-Parker. Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 0834213230. Y. H. Hui. Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. ISBN 0203913558. Fidel Toldrá. Meat Biotechnology. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 0387793828