The Wielbark culture or East Pomeranian-Mazovian is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 1st century AD to the 4th century AD. It replaced the Oksywie culture, in the area of modern-day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river, Wielbark culture contained Venedi, Rugians and Gepids located mainly in Pomerania and West Prussia spreading down the east side into Podlasie and the southern Ukraine. The Wielbark culture was named after a village where a place with over 3,000 tombs, attributed to the Goths. Many of the stones were moved, and many graves were damaged by the early German discoverers. The Wielbark culture started out covering the area as the Oksywie culture, around the present day towns of Gdańsk. Later it reached into the lakelands and stretched southwards, into the region around Poznań, in 2000, in Czarnówko near Lębork, Pomerania, a cemetery of Oksywie and Wielbark cultures was found. These reached their height before the emigration of the population to the south west began, a bronze kettle depicts males wearing the Suebian knot hairstyle.
The people of the Wielbark culture used both inhumation and cremation techniques for burying their dead, whether one or the other was used varies from site to site and is believed to have depended on family traditions. A characteristic of this culture, which it had in common with southern Scandinavia, was the raising of stone covered mounds, stone circles, solitary stelae and variations of cobble cladding. No weapons or tools are found in Wielbark culture graves, unlike the Przeworsk culture for which it was typical to give the dead such gifts. Instead, the artifacts found are mostly ornaments and costumes, although a few graves have shown spurs, another feature of the Wielbark culture was the use of bronze to make ornaments and accessories. Silver was used seldom and gold rarely, Iron appears to have been used extremely rarely. The Wielbark culture has traditionally been attributed to the migration of the Goths from Scandza to Gothiscandza as related in Jordanes account of their origin. Archaeologists, are wary of ascribing ethnicities to archaeological cultures, as the origins of, for this reason they normally assign names to cultures based on the modern names of sites where artifacts are found.
The current tendency is to resist making an easy equation between Wielbark Culture and migration of the Goths, as any single migration of peoples is unlikely to be its sole source. The cemeteries may give some indication in evidence as to which settlements could have been established directly by Goths, appearing in the 1st century, this type is found between the Vistula and the Kashubian and Krajenskian lakelands reaching into the Koszalin region. szukacz. pl
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Prehistoric trade routes between Northern and Southern Europe were defined by the amber trade, from at least the sixteenth century BC amber was moved from Northern Europe to the Mediterranean area. The breast ornament of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen contains large Baltic amber beads Heinrich Schliemann found Baltic amber beads at Mycenae, the quantity of amber in the Royal Tomb of Qatna, Syria, is unparalleled for known second millennium BC sites in the Levant and the Ancient Near East. Amber was sent from the North Sea to the temple of Apollo at Delphi as an offering, from the Black Sea, trade could continue to Asia along the Silk Road, another ancient trade route. In Roman times, a main route ran south from the Baltic coast through the land of the Boii to the head of the Adriatic Sea, the Old Prussian towns of Kaup and Truso on the Baltic were the starting points of the route to the south.
In Scandinavia the amber road probably gave rise to the thriving Nordic Bronze Age culture, sometimes the Kaliningrad Oblast is called the Янтарный край, which means the amber area. Several roads connected the North Sea and Baltic Sea, especially the city of Hamburg to the Brenner Pass, proceeding southwards to Brindisi and Ambracia. The Swiss region indicates a number of roads, concentrating around the capital city Bern and probably originating from the borders of the Rhône River. A small section, including Baarn, Barneveld and Amerongen, a small section led southwards from Antwerp and Bruges to the towns Braine-l’Alleud and Braine-le-Comte, both originally named Brennia-Brenna. The route continued by following the Meuse River towards Bern in Switzerland, three routes may be identified leading from an amber finding region or delta at the mouth of the River Openia towards Bresse and Bern, crossing the Alps to Switzerland and Italy. Routes connecting amber finding locations at Ambares, leading to Béarn, Routes connecting the amber finding locations in northern Spain and in the Pyrenees were a trading route to the Mediterranean Sea.
There is a tourist route stretching along the Baltic coast from Kaliningrad to Latvia called Amber Road, in Poland a north–south motorway A1 is officially named Amber Highway. OWTRAD-scientific description of the road in Poland Old World Traditional Trade Routes Project Joannes Richter - Die Bernsteinroute bei Backnang
Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian Peoples Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, during WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years, in 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR. The parliament of the declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the president since 1994.
Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. Though not directly espousing communism like the five remaining communist countries of China, Laos and North Korea, in 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70% of Belaruss population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas, more than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages and Russian, the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only European country to retain capital punishment in both law and practice, the name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus, i. e. White Rus. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus, an alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population.
A third theory suggests that the old Rus lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as white, other sources claim that, before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered White Rus. The name Rus is often conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, in some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is generally called White Russia to this day. The Latin term Alba Russia was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo. The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used White Rus to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The culture is probably the result of a multiethnic cultural mix of the Gothic, Geto-Dacian and Slavic populations of the area. The Chernyakhov culture encompassed regions of modern Ukraine, and it is named after the localities Sântana de Mureș, Mureș County, Transylvania in Romania and Cherniakhiv, Kaharlyk Raion, Kiev Oblast in Ukraine. The dual name reflects past preferential use by different schools of history to designate the culture, the spelling Chernyakhov is the transliteration from the Russian language. Other spellings include Sîntana de Mureș, Czerniachów, the culture developed in the 2nd century AD. Of varied origins, the quickly became remarkably homogeneous throughout the areas it occupied. Scholars debate whether this means that the disparate peoples mingled inextricably, houses were arranged in parallel, and are of two predominant types. The most numerous are sunken huts, called Grubenhäuser in German and they are generally small in size, measuring 5-16 square metres in area.
The other predominant type is surface dwellings called Wohnstallhäuser, which are of variable size. Some settlements have both types of dwellings, although Romanian finds have only sunken-floored houses, although the variation in types may be attributable to the different ethnic groups in the zone, the differences are a reflection of socio-economic factors. The Wohnstallhäuser are typical of Germanic settlements in central Europe, and had not been found in cultures of south-eastern Europe. Conversely, the huts have been found in earlier Dacian cultures in the Carpathians and the farmers of the forest-steppe. Whatever their origins, these styles were adopted by all peoples of the culture. Both inhumation and cremation were practiced, the dead were buried with grave goods – pottery, iron implements, bone combs, personal ornaments, although in periods grave goods decrease. Of the inhumation burials, the dead were buried in a north-south axis. Funerary gifts often include fibulae, belt buckles, bone combs, glass drinking vessels, womens burials in particular shared very close similarities with Wielbark forms - buried with two fibulae, one on each shoulder.
Like in the Wielbark culture, Chernyakhov burials usually lack weapons as funerary gifts and this could be the result of the influences of Christianity, but could just as easily be explained in terms of an evolution of non-Christian beliefs about the afterlife. Pottery was predominantly of local production, being both wheel and hand-made, wheel made pottery predominated, and was made of finer clay. It was reminiscent of earlier Sarmatian types, refined by Roman, hand made pottery showed a greater variety in form, and was sometimes decorated with incised linear motifs
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century AD. In 91 AD, the Huns were said to be living near the Caspian Sea, by 370, the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes time, considerable effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. However, there is no consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu and that of the Huns. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attilas rule, including very many speakers of Gothic and their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. They formed an empire under Attila the Hun, who died in 453. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century, the Huns were a confederation of warrior bands, ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power, in the Eurasian Steppe in the 4th to 6th centuries AD.
Most aspects of their ethnogenesis are uncertain, walter Pohl explicitly states, All we can say safely is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors. Jerome associated them with the Scythians in a letter, written four years after the Huns invaded the eastern provinces in 395. The equation of the Huns with the Scythians, together with a fear of the coming of the Antichrist in the late 4th century. This demonization of the Huns is reflected in Jordaness Getica, written in the 6th century, otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based primarily on the study of written sources, and to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Thereafter the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns ancestors became controversial among some, the similarity of their ethnonyms is one of the most important links between the two peoples. A Sogdian merchant described the invasion of northern China by the Xwn people in a letter, Étienne de la Vaissière asserts both documents prove that Huna or Xwn were the exact transcriptions of the Chinese Xiongnu name.
Christopher P. Atwood rejects that identification because of the very poor match between the three words. For instance, Xiongnu begins with a velar fricative, Huna with a voiceless glottal fricative, Xiongnu is a two-syllable word. However, according to Zhengzhang Shangfang, Xiongnu was pronounced in Late Old Chinese, the Chinese Book of Wei contain references to the remains of the descendants of the Xiongnu who lived in the region of the Altai Mountains in the early 5th century AD
An artifact or artefact is. something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest. In archaeology, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as, an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may have a cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity, examples include stone tools, pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such as buttons and clothing. Bones that show signs of modification are examples. Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts, natural objects that humans have moved but not changed are called manuports. Examples include seashells moved inland, or rounded pebbles placed away from the action that made them. For instance, a bone removed from a carcass is a biofact. Similarly there can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or naturally occurring and it can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts – naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools.
It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general attributed to man-made tools. Artifact Collection at the Royal Military College of Canada Museum in Kingston, Ontario
Timber framing and post-and-beam construction are methods of building with heavy timbers rather than dimensional lumber such as 2x4s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and it is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech saws to cut lumber from the starting material stock. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in parts of the world. These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers. Three basic types of frames in English-speaking countries are the box frame, cruck frame. The distinction presented here is the load is carried by the exterior walls. Purlins are in a timber frame. A cruck is a pair of crooked or curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe, more than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of frames are used, more information follows in English style below.
True cruck or full cruck, straight or curved, base cruck, tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck, blades land on masonry wall, and extend to the ridge, middle cruck, blades land on masonry wall, and are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck, blades land on a tie beam, very similar to knee rafters, jointed cruck, blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also, hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts. These interior posts typically carry more load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church. However, a nave is often called an aisle, and three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, and typically have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus, the frame is often left exposed on the exterior of the building
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and an historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in AD14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, details about his personal life are scarce. What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, and an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 56 or 57 to an equestrian family, one scholars suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic.
The claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is generally disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Belgica and Germania, Pliny the Elder mentions that Cornelius had a son who aged rapidly, which implies an early death. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families. The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis and his marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus dedication to Fabius Iustus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, no evidence exists, that Plinys friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Plinys letters hint that the two men had a common background.
Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces, probably Gallia Narbonensis. His ancestry, his skill in oratory, and his depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, and had been subjugated by Rome. As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics, like Pliny, in 77 or 78, he married Julia Agricola, daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their life, save that Tacitus loved hunting. He started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus
Zarubintsy sites were particularly dense between the Rivers Desna and Ros as well as along the Pripyat river. It was identified around 1899 by the Czech-Ukrainian archaeologist V. V. Chvojka and is now attested by about 500 sites, the culture was named after finds cremated remains in the village of Zarubintsy, on the Dnieper. The Zarubintsy culture was influenced by the La Tène culture and the nomads of the steppes, the Scythian and Sarmatian influence is evident, especially in pottery and domestic and personal objects. From the 3rd century and onwards, the culture was connected by the Goths, the bearers of the culture engaged in agriculture, documented by numerous finds of sickles. Pobol suggested that the experienced a transition from swidden to plough-type cultivation. Remains included sheep, cattle and swine, there is evidence they traded wild animal skins with Black Sea towns. Some sites were defended by ditches and banks, structures thought to have built to defend against nomadic tribes from the steppe.
Dwellings were either of surface or semi-subterranean types, with supporting the walls, a hearth in the middle. The disintegration of the Zarubintsy culture has been linked with the emigration of its population in several directions, influences upon local cultures in the east Carpathian/ Podolia region, as well as, to a lesser extent, north into the forest zone are evident. The movement of Zarubintsy groups has been linked to an arid climate, whereby the population left the hillforts on high promontories. This mostly southern movement brought them closer to westward moving Sarmatian groups, by the 3rd century AD, central late Zarubintsy sites re-arranged into the so-called Kiev culture, whilst the westernmost areas were integrated into the Wielbark culture. Chernyakhov culture J. P. Mallory, Zarubintsy Culture, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, the Early Germans The Slavs in Antiquity The Early Slavs. Eastern Europe from the Initial Settlement to the Kievan Rus, the role of migration in the history of the Eurasian steppe, sedentary civilization vs. barbarian and nomad
Mogilno is a town in central Poland, situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship. Mogilno belongs to one of the oldest settlements along the border of the Greater Poland, in 1065, a Benedictine abbey was founded there by Bolesław the Generous. North of the abbey a town developed, which in 1398 was granted a city charter. After the first Partition of Poland in 1772 the city became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia, since 1898 until his death in 1910 a parish priest in Mogilnos other church St. Jacob was Piotr Wawrzyniak. On 18 September 1939, during the Invasion of Poland, German forces incited by members of Mogilno German minority killed 40 Poles, the victims were picked out by local Germans for execution. The oldest victim was 75, the youngest 17, the former Benedictine abbey, church dates back to 11th century, rebuilt in 13th and 1st half of 16th centuries in late-Gothic style, and later in 2nd half of 18th century in late-Baroque. Facade is from end of 18th century, the church still retained many Romanesque parts, as pillars, parts of walls in the nave, and particularly well preserved are apse and two crypts.
The three-winged abbey with garth dates from the 14th century, and was rebuilt in the 18th, portal CMG24. pl - Mogilno, Dąbrowa, Strzelno i Jeziora Wielkie