Palmistry, or chiromancy, is the claim of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm, known as palm reading or chirology. The practice is found all over the world, with numerous cultural variations and those who practice chiromancy are generally called palmists, palm readers, hand readers, hand analysts, or chirologists. There are many ― often conflicting ― interpretations of various lines and these contradictions between different interpretations, as well as the lack of empirical support for palmistrys predictions, contribute to palmistrys perception as a pseudoscience among academics. Palmistry is a common to many different places on the Eurasian landmass, it has been practised in the cultures of India, China, Sumeria, ancient Israel. The acupuncturist Yoshiaki Omura describes its roots in Hindu astrology, Chinese Yijing, from India, the art of palmistry spread to China, Egypt, Persia and to other countries in Europe. From India, palmistry progressed to Greece where Anaxagoras practiced it, during the Middle Ages the art of palmistry was actively suppressed by the Catholic Church as pagan superstition.
In Renaissance magic, palmistry was classified as one of the seven forbidden arts, along with necromancy, aeromancy, hydromancy, Palmistry experienced a revival in the modern era starting with Captain Casimir Stanislas DArpentignys publication La Chirognomie in 1839. Edgar de Valcourt-Vermont founded the American Chirological Society in 1897, a pivotal figure in the modern palmistry movement was the Irish William John Warner, known by his sobriquet, Cheiro. So popular was Cheiro as a society palmist that even those who were not believers in the occult had their hands read by him, the skeptical Mark Twain wrote in Cheiros visitors book that he had …exposed my character to me with humiliating accuracy. Edward Heron-Allen, an English polymath, published works including the 1883 book, Palmistry – A Manual of Cheirosophy. There were attempts at formulating some sort of basis for the art. Chiromancy consists of the practice of evaluating a persons character or future life by reading the palm of that persons hand, various lines and mounts purportedly suggest interpretations by their relative sizes and intersections.
In some traditions, readers examine characteristics of the fingers, fingernails and palmar skin patterns, skin texture and color, shape of the palm, a reader usually begins by reading the persons dominant hand. The basic framework for classical palmistry is rooted in Greek mythology, each area of the palm and fingers is related to a god or goddess, and the features of that area indicate the nature of the corresponding aspect of the subject. For example, the finger is associated with the Greek god Apollo, characteristics of the ring finger are tied to the subjects dealings with art, aesthetics, wealth. In most schools of palmistry, hand shapes are divided four or eleven major types, sometimes corresponding to the classical elements or temperaments. Hand shape is believed to indicate character traits corresponding to the type indicated, although variations abound, the most common classifications used by modern palmists, Earth hands are generally identified by broad, square palms and fingers, thick or coarse skin, and ruddy color.
The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers, air hands exhibit square or rectangular palms with long fingers and sometimes protruding knuckles, low-set thumbs, and often dry skin
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, values, reason and language. The term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation, classic philosophical questions include, Is it possible to know anything and to prove it. However, philosophers might pose more practical and concrete questions such as, is it better to be just or unjust. Historically, philosophy encompassed any body of knowledge, from the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, natural philosophy encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newtons 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics, in the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology.
Other investigations closely related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy, for example, is beauty objective or subjective. Are there many scientific methods or just one, is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy. Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors and writers. Traditionally, the term referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science, education. This division is not obsolete but has changed, Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory, metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today, colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval.
Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, in one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as how are we to live, a broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Socrates was an influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom
Physiognomy is the assessment of character or personality from a persons outer appearance, especially the face. Credence of such study has varied from time to time, the practice was well accepted by the ancient Greek philosophers, but fell into disrepute in the Middle Ages when practised by vagabonds and mountebanks. It was revived and popularised by Johann Kaspar Lavater before falling from favour again in the late 19th century, Physiognomy as understood in the past meets the contemporary definition of a pseudoscience. No clear evidence indicates physiognomy works, though recent studies have suggested that facial appearances do contain a kernel of truth about a persons personality, Physiognomy is sometimes referred to as anthroposcopy, though the expression was more common in the 19th century when the word originated. Notions of the relationship between an individuals appearance and inner character are historically ancient, and occasionally appear in early Greek poetry. Siddhars from ancient India are known to have defined samudrika lakshanam that identifies personal characteristics with body features, chinese physiognomy or face reading reaches back at least to the Northern Song period.
The first indications of a developed physiognomic theory appear in fifth century BC Athens, with the works of Zopyrus, by the fourth century BC, the philosopher Aristotle made frequent reference to theory and literature concerning the relationship of appearance to character. The first systematic treatise to survive to the present day is a slim volume, Physiognomonica. The volume is divided into two parts, conjectured to have been two separate works. The first section discusses arguments drawn from nature or other races, the second section focuses on animal behavior, dividing the animal kingdom into male and female types. From these are deduced correspondences between human form and character, socrates put the issue to rest by saying that originally he was given to all these vices, but had particularly strong self-discipline. Physiognomys validity was once widely accepted, michael Scot, a court scholar for Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, wrote Liber physiognomiae in the early 13th century concerning the subject.
English universities taught it until Henry VIII of England outlawed beggars and vagabonds playing subtile, around this time, scholastic leaders settled on the more erudite Greek form physiognomy and began to discourage the whole concept of fisnamy. Leonardo da Vinci dismissed physiognomy in the early 16th century as false, Leonardo believed that lines caused by facial expressions could indicate personality traits. For example, he wrote that those who have deep and noticeable lines between the eyebrows are irascible, the principal promoter of physiognomy in modern times was the Swiss pastor Johann Kaspar Lavater who was briefly a friend of Goethe. Lavaters essays on physiognomy were first published in German in 1772 and these influential essays were translated into French and English. R. M. we often observe that Men do most act those Creatures, whose constitution and complexion do most predominate in their mixtures. This is a corner-stone in Physiognomy… there are therefore Provincial Faces, National Lips and Noses, which not only the Natures of those Countries
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, died when Aristotle was a child, at seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Platos Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books and he believed all peoples concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotles views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works, Aristotles views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, some of Aristotles zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as The First Teacher and his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotles philosophy continue to be the object of academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his style as a river of gold – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived. Aristotle, whose means the best purpose, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus was the physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was orphaned at a young age, although there is little information on Aristotles childhood, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Platos Academy and he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC.
Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor, there, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermiass adoptive daughter or niece and she bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC, Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave not only to Alexander
The term cristendom existed in Old English, but it had the sense now taken by Christianity. The current sense of the word of lands where Christianity is the dominant religion emerges in Late Middle English, English Christianity equalling German Christentum, French christianisme. The reason is the fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both in theological and in political respect. Christendom as a term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages, and arguably during the European wars of religion. The Christian world is known collectively as the Corpus Christianum. The Christian polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a body, Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah, the word Christendom is used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity. In its most broad term, it refers to the worlds Christian majority countries, unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom is more complex.
For example, the Americas and Europe are considered part of Christendom and it is less geographically cohesive than the Muslim world, which stretches almost continuously from North Africa to South Asia. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word that is much like the terms Western world, when Thomas F. Connolly said, There isnt enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want. In the beginning of Christendom, early Christianity was a spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect. The post-apostolic period concerns the time roughly after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations, the earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity and Catholic, dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. Early Christendom would close at the end of persecution of Christians after the ascension of Constantine the Great and the Edict of Milan in AD313. Christendom has referred to the medieval and renaissance notion of the Christian world as a sociopolitical polity, in this period, members of the Christian clergy wield political authority.
This model of relations was accepted by various Church leaders. The Church gradually became an institution of the Empire. Emperor Theodosius I made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380, the Byzantine Empire was the last bastion of Christendom. Christendom would take a turn with the rise of the Franks, on Christmas Day 800 AD, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne resulting in the creation of another Christian king beside the Christian emperor in the Byzantine state
Arabs are an ethnic group inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, tradition holds that Arabs descend from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of Arab, there are other Arab groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia. Before the expansion of the Caliphate, Arab referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic people from the northern to the central Arabian Peninsula and Syrian Desert. Presently, Arab refers to a number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to spread of Arabs throughout the region during the early Arab conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries. The Arabs forged the Rashidun and the Abbasid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and this was one of the largest land empires in history.
The Great Arab Revolt has had as big an impact on the modern Middle East as the World War I, the war signaled the end of the Ottoman Empire. They are modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat, following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the sovereignty of its member states. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora, the ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political. The Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society, the total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. This makes them the second largest ethnic group after the Han Chinese. Arabs are a group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions, some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism.
Today, Arabs are mainly adherents of Islam, with sizable Christian minorities, Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Ibadi, Alawite and Ismaili denominations. Arab Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Maronite, Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, or Chaldean churches. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of Gi-in-di-buu the ar-ba-a-a or Gindibu belonging to the Arab
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nationss definition of Northern Africa is, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, the countries of Algeria, Morocco and Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, which is the Arabic word for sunset. Egypt lies to the northeast and encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia. North Africa includes a number of Spanish possessions, the Canary Islands and Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region. From 3500 BC, following the abrupt desertification of the Sahara due to changes in the Earths orbit. The Islamic influence in the area is significant, and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration.
The Atlas Mountains extend across much of Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia, are part of the mountain system that runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, the sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of which is more than four billion years old. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, a wide variety of valuable crops including cereals and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs and citrus fruits, the Nile Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve yields on the desert margins. The inhabitants of Saharan Africa are generally divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa, the Maghreb, the Nile valley. The edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt has mainly been inhabited by Nubians, Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber, as well as Nubians from the south.
They have contributed to the Arabized Berber populations, the official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa is Arabic. The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic, the Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are more conservative than those of the coastal cities. Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with cultures, Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, Europeans
Islamic Golden Age
This period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Sack of Baghdad in 1258 AD. A few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries, the metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. There is no definition of term, and depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement. During the early 20th century, the term was used only occasionally, the Muslim government heavily patronized scholars. The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council. The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today, the House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.
During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered. They excelled in fields, in particular philosophy, science. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians, among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty. Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek, the House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. It was led by Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq, with the support of Byzantine medicine, many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Plato, Aristotle and Archimedes. Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background, the use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula, present-day Spain in the 10th century.
It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries. It was from countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen. Ibn Rushd and Ibn Sina played a role in saving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian. Ibn Sina and other such as al-Kindi and al-Farabi combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Latin and Ladino, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy, during this period, non-Muslims were allowed to flourish relative to treatment of religious minorities in the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, who lived in Andalusia, is an example, in epistemology, Ibn Tufail wrote the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and in response Ibn al-Nafis wrote the novel Theologus Autodidactus
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events. Throughout most of its history astrology was considered a tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation with astronomy, meteorology. It was present in political circles, and is mentioned in works of literature, from Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer to William Shakespeare, Lope de Vega. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in it has largely declined, Astrology is now recognized to be pseudoscience. The word astrology comes from the early Latin word astrologia, which derives from the Greek ἀστρολογία—from ἄστρον astron, astrologia passed into meaning star-divination with astronomia used for the scientific term. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, with roots in systems used to predict seasonal shifts.
A form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia, Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou dynasty. Hellenistic astrology after 332 BCE mixed Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria, Alexander the Greats conquest of Asia allowed astrology to spread to Ancient Greece and Rome. In Rome, astrology was associated with Chaldean wisdom, after the conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars, and Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were imported to Europe, major astronomers including Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo practised as court astrologers. Astrological references appear in literature in the works of such as Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer. Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition and it was accepted in political and academic contexts, and was connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy and medicine.
At the end of the 17th century, new concepts in astronomy. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in astrology has largely declined, Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for meaning in the sky. This was a first step towards recording the Moons influence upon tides and rivers, by the 3rd millennium BCE, civilisations had sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles, and may have oriented temples in alignment with heliacal risings of the stars. Scattered evidence suggests that the oldest known references are copies of texts made in the ancient world. The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa thought to be compiled in Babylon around 1700 BCE, a scroll documenting an early use of electional astrology is doubtfully ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gudea of Lagash
It was first published in 1684 and written by an unknown author who falsely claimed to be Aristotle. As a consequence the author is now described as a Pseudo-Aristotle and it is claimed that the book was banned in Britain until the 1960s, although there was no provision in the UK for banning books as such. However reputable publishers and booksellers might have been cautious about vending Aristotles Masterpiece, after Nicholas Culpepers Directory for Midwives had been published in 1651, other writers and booksellers sought to emulate its great success. Aristotles Masterpiece was among the two works in the genre which were published in the following decades. This was in sharp contrast to the three titles which had published on the subject in the previous century. Through the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the work was published in three different versions in 9,20 and 78 editions respectively and it was probably the most widely reprinted book on a medical subject in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century.
The first version borrowed most of its content from two works, the Secret Miracles of Nature by Levinus Lemnius and the anonymous Complete Midwives Practice Enlarged. The latter had been a work by itself, coming second only to Culpepers Directory for Midwives in number of seventeenth century editions. A second version was released by publisher Benjamin Harris in 1697, the first half contained most of the first version and the second half was borrowed from John Sadlers A Sick Womens Private Looking-Glas, which was published in 1636. The third version was published around 1710 was more different from the previous versions and these included the Directory for Midwives, John Pecheys 1698 version of the Compleate Midwives Practice Enlarged and other popular books on sex and reproduction available at the time. The third version was printed and sold to a general audience in the early twentieth century. It remained unchanged from the eighteenth century editions because scientifically superior information on sexuality had not yet become available, because the book was still based on the ancient theory of humorism it provided some misinformation, in particular on the home remedies it prescribed.
Nevertheless, it was in more accurate and less harmful than some popular works on sexuality dating from the late nineteenth century. The title of the work was chosen because Aristotle was seen as a sex expert in early modern England. Another popular pseudo-Aristotelian text which covered sex and reproduction, Aristotles Problems, had been responsible for this reputation, the real Aristotle had written works about the reproduction of animals and was considered an authority on scientific matters in general. The third version is divided in two parts, the first part covers anatomy, sexual intercourse and marriage. The second part was intended for married women and explains pregnancy, the first part starts with a description of the male and female sex organs in the first chapter. The second chapter advocates sexual intercourse in monogamous relationships and warns against polygamy and it finishes with an explanation of when the reproductive age begins and ends