Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya within the kingdom Fungi. More Basidiomycota includes these groups: mushrooms, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, chanterelles, earth stars, bunts, mirror yeasts, the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that bear external meiospores; these specialized spores are called basidiospores. However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually can be recognized as members of this division by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature, cell wall components, definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data; the most recent classification adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla and two other class level taxa outside of these, among the Basidiomycota.
As now classified, the subphyla join and cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups commonly used to describe Basidiomycota. According to a 2008 estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla 16 classes, 52 orders, 177 families, 1,589 genera, 31,515 species. Traditionally, the Basidiomycota were divided into two classes, now obsolete: Homobasidiomycetes, including true mushrooms Heterobasidiomycetes, including the jelly and smut fungiPreviously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetes, an invalid class level name coined in 1959 as a counterpart to the Ascomycetes, when neither of these taxa were recognized as divisions; the terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. They are abbreviated to "basidios" and "ascos" as mycological slang; the Agaricomycotina include what had been called the Hymenomycetes, the Gasteromycetes, as well as most of the jelly fungi. The three classes in the Agaricomycotina are the Agaricomycetes, the Dacrymycetes, the Tremellomycetes.
The class Wallemiomycetes is not yet placed in a subdivision, but recent genomic evidence suggests that it is a sister group of Agaricomycotina. The Pucciniomycotina include the rust fungi, the insect parasitic/symbiotic genus Septobasidium, a former group of smut fungi, a mixture of odd, infrequently seen, or recognized fungi parasitic on plants; the eight classes in the Pucciniomycotina are Agaricostilbomycetes, Atractiellomycetes, Classiculomycetes, Cryptomycocolacomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes and Pucciniomycetes. The Ustilaginomycotina are most of the Exobasidiales; the classes of the Ustilaginomycotina are the Exobasidiomycetes, the Entorrhizomycetes, the Ustilaginomycetes. Unlike animals and plants which have recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota tend to have mutually indistinguishable, compatible haploids which are mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae. Haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and the compatible nuclei migrate into each other's mycelia and pair up with the resident nuclei.
Karyogamy is delayed, called a dikaryon. The hyphae are said to be dikaryotic. Conversely, the haploid mycelia are called monokaryons; the dikaryotic mycelium is more vigorous than the individual monokaryotic mycelia, proceeds to take over the substrate in which they are growing. The dikaryons can be decades, or centuries; the monokaryons are neither female. They have either a tetrapolar mating system; this results in the fact that following meiosis, the resulting haploid basidiospores and resultant monokaryons, have nuclei that are compatible with 50% or 25% of their sister basidiospores because the mating genes must differ for them to be compatible. However, there are sometimes more than two possible alleles for a given locus, in such species, depending on the specifics, over 90% of monokaryons could be compatible with each other; the maintenance of the dikaryotic status in dikaryons in many Basidiomycota is facilitated by the formation of clamp connections that physically appear to help coordinate and re-establish pairs of compatible nuclei following synchronous mitotic nuclear divisions.
Variations are multiple. In a typical Basidiomycota lifecycle the long lasting dikaryons periodically produce basidia, the specialized club-shaped end cells, in which a pair of compatible nuclei fuse to form a diploid cell. Meiosis follows shortly with the production of 4 haploid nuclei that migrate into 4 external apical basidiospores. Variations occur, however; the basidiospores are ballistic, hence they are sometimes called ballistospores. In most species, the basidiospores disperse and each
Hydnum repandum known as the sweet tooth, wood hedgehog or hedgehog mushroom, is a basidiomycete fungus of the family Hydnaceae. First described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, it is the type species of the genus Hydnum; the fungus produces fruit bodies that are characterized by their spore-bearing structures—in the form of spines rather than gills—which hang down from the underside of the cap. The cap is dry, colored yellow to light orange to brown, develops an irregular shape when it has grown crowded with adjacent fruit bodies; the mushroom tissue is white with a spicy or bitter taste. All parts of the mushroom stain orange with age or when bruised. A mycorrhizal fungus, Hydnum repandum is broadly distributed in Europe and western North America, where it fruits singly or in close groups in coniferous or deciduous woodland; this is a choice edible species. It has no poisonous lookalikes. Mushrooms are sold in local markets of Europe and Canada. First described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum, Hydnum repandum was sanctioned by Swedish mycologist Elias Fries in 1821.
The species has been shuffled among several genera: Hypothele by French naturalist Jean-Jacques Paulet in 1812. After a 1977 nomenclatural proposal by American mycologist Ronald H. Petersen was accepted, Hydnum repandum became the official type species of the genus Hydnum. Supporting arguments for making H. repandum the type were made by Dutch taxonomist Marinus Anton Donk and Petersen, while Czech mycologist Zdeněk Pouzar and Canadian mycologist Kenneth Harrison thought that H. imbricatum should be the type. Several forms and varieties of H. repandum have been described. Forms albidum and rufescens, found in Russia, were published by T. L. Nikolajeva in 1961. Form amarum, published from Slovenia by Zlata Stropnik, Bogdan Tratnik and Garbrijel Seljak in 1988, is illegitimate as per article 36.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, as it was not given a sufficiently comprehensive description. French botanist Jean-Baptiste Barla described H. repandum var. rufescens in 1859.
English naturalist Carleton Rea described the white-fruit bodied version as a variety—H. Repandum var. album—in 1922. Molecular studies have shown that the current species concept for H. repandum needed revision as there was a poor overlap between morphological and molecular species concepts. A 2009 Phylogenetic analysis of European specimens, based on internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S DNA sequences, indicated that H. repandum specimens form two distinct clades, whose only consistent morphological distinction is cap size. These genetic differences foreshadowed the presence of undescribed cryptic species, that the taxon may be undergoing intensive speciation. A comprehensive genetic study published in 2016 of members of the genus worldwide found that there are at least four species in the broad concept of H. repandum: two species from southern China, one from Europe and eastern North America, H. repandum itself from Europe, western North America, northern China and Japan. Although it is missing from Central America, genetic material has been recovered from Venezuela from the tree Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, suggesting it somehow migrated there and had changed hosts.
The specific epithet repandum means "bent back", referring to the wavy cap margin. The varietal epithet album means "white as an egg". Hydnum repandum has been given several vernacular names: "sweet tooth", "yellow tooth fungus", "wood urchin", "spreading hedgehog", "hedgehog mushroom", or "pig's trotter"; the variety album is known as "white wood". The orange-, yellow- or tan-colored pileus is up to 17 cm wide, although specimens measuring 25 cm have been documented, it is somewhat irregular in shape, with a wavy margin, rolled inward when young. Caps grow in a distorted shape when fruit bodies are clustered; the cap surface is dry and smooth, although mature specimens may show cracking. Viewed from above, the caps of mature specimens resemble somewhat those of chanterelles; the flesh is thick, firm and bruises yellow to orange-brown. The underside is densely covered with small, slender whitish spines measuring 2–7 mm long; these spines sometimes run down at least one side of the stipe. The stipe 3–10 cm long and 1–3 cm thick, is either white or the same color as the cap, is sometimes off-center.
It is easy to overlook the mushrooms when they are situated amongst gilled mushrooms and boletes, because the cap and stipe are nondescript and the mushrooms must be turned over to reveal their spines. The pure white variety of this species, H. repandum var. album, is smaller than the main variety, with a cap measuring 2–7 cm wide and a stipe, 1–3 cm long. The spore print is pale cream. Basidiospores are smooth, thin-walled and hyaline spherical to broadly egg-shaped, measure 5.5–7.5 by 4.5–5.5 µm. They contain a single, large refractive oil droplet; the basidia are club-shaped, four-spored, measure 30–45 by 6–10 µm. The cap cuticle is a trichodermium of club-shaped cells that are 2.5 -- 4 µm wide. Underneath this tissue is the subhymenia
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
The Agaricomycetes are a class of fungi in the division Basidiomycota. The taxon is identical to that defined for the Homobasidiomycetes by Hibbett & Thorn, with the inclusion of Auriculariales and Sebacinales, it includes not only mushroom-forming fungi, but most species placed in the deprecated taxa Gasteromycetes and Homobasidiomycetes. Within the subdivision Agaricomycotina, which excludes the smut and rust fungi, the Agaricomycetes can be further defined by the exclusion of the classes Tremellomycetes and Dacrymycetes, which are considered to be jelly fungi. However, a few former "jelly fungi", such as Auricularia, are classified in the Agaricomycetes. According to a 2008 estimate, Agaricomycetes include 17 orders, 100 families, 1147 genera, about 21000 species. Modern molecular phylogenetic analyses have been since used to help define several new orders in the Agaricomycetes: Amylocorticiales, Jaapiales and Lepidostromatales. Although morphology of the mushroom or fruit body was the basis of early classification of the Agaricomycetes, this is no longer the case.
As an example, the distinction between the Gasteromycetes and Agaricomycetes is no longer recognized as a natural one—various puffball species have evolved independently from agaricomycete fungi. However, most mushroom guide books still group the puffballs or gasteroid forms separate from other mushrooms because the older Friesian classification is still convenient for categorizing fruit body forms. Modern classifications divide the gasteroid order Lycoperdales between Agaricales and Phallales. All members of the class produce basidiocarps and these range in size from tiny cups a few millimeters across to a giant polypore greater than several meters across and weighing up to 500 kilograms; the group includes what are arguably the largest and oldest individual organisms on earth: the mycelium of one individual Armillaria gallica has been estimated to extend over 150,000 square metres with a mass of 10,000 kg and an age of 1,500 years. Nearly all species are terrestrial, occurring in a wide range of environments where most function as decayers of wood.
However, some species are pathogenic or parasitic, yet others are symbiotic, these including the important ectomycorrhizal symbionts of forest trees. General discussions on the forms and life cycles of these fungi are developed in the article on mushrooms, in the treatments of the various orders, in individual species accounts. A study of 5,284 genomes has suggested the following dates of evolution: Agaricomycetidae ~185 million years ago , Cantharellales 184 million years ago , Agaricales 173 million years ago 160 million years ago-182 million years ago Hymenochaetales 167 million years ago and Boletales 142 million years ago The fruit bodies of Agaricomycetes are rare in the fossil record, the class does not yet pre-date the Early Cretaceous; the oldest Agaricomycetes fossil, dating from the lower Cretaceous is Quatsinoporites. It is a fragment of a poroid fruit body with features that suggest it could be a member of the family Hymenochaetaceae. Based on molecular clock analysis, the Agaricomycetes are estimated to be about 290 million years old.
Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: There are many genera in the Agaricomycetes that have not been classified in any order or family. These include: Data related to Agaricomycetes at Wikispecies Tree of Life Agaricomycetes by David S. Hibbett Overview of the Basidiomycota from Aarhus University, Denmark Evolution & Morphology in the Homobasidiomycetes
Incertae sedis or problematica are terms used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Alternatively, such groups are referred to as "enigmatic taxa". In the system of open nomenclature, uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is indicated by incertae familiae, incerti subordinis, incerti ordinis and similar terms; the fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any family, but was placed incertae sedis within the order Ericales when described in 2001. The fossil Gluteus minimus, described in 1975, could not be assigned to any known animal phylum; the genus is therefore incertae sedis within the kingdom Animalia. While it was unclear to which order the New World vultures should be assigned, they were placed in Aves incertae sedis, it was agreed to place them in a separate order, Cathartiformes. Bocage's longbill, Amaurocichla bocagei, a species of passerine bird, belongs to the superfamily Passeroidea. Since it is unclear to which family it belongs, it is classified as Passeroidea incertae sedis.
HeLa cells, descended from human cervical cancer cells, may diverge genetically from normal human cells sufficiently to be categorized as a new species with incertae sedis taxonomy. When formally naming a taxon, uncertainty about its taxonomic classification can be problematic; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, stipulates that "species and subdivisions of genera must be assigned to genera, infraspecific taxa must be assigned to species, because their names are combinations", but ranks higher than the genus may be assigned incertae sedis. This excerpt from a 2007 scientific paper about crustaceans of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the Japan Trench describes typical circumstances through which this category is applied in discussing:...the removal of many genera from new and existing families into a state of incertae sedis. Their reduced status was attributed to poor or inadequate descriptions but it was accepted that some of the vagueness in the analysis was due to insufficient character states.
It is evident that a proportion of the characters used in the analysis, or their given states for particular taxa, were inappropriate or invalid. Additional complexity, factors that have misled earlier authorities, are intrusion by extensive homoplasies, apparent character state reversals and convergent evolution. If a formal phylogenetic analysis is conducted that does not include a certain taxon, the authors might choose to label the taxon incertae sedis instead of guessing its placement; this is common when molecular phylogenies are generated, since tissue for many rare organisms is hard to obtain. It is a common scenario when fossil taxa are included, since many fossils are defined based on partial information. For example, if the phylogeny was constructed using soft tissue and vertebrae as principal characters and the taxon in question is only known from a single tooth, it would be necessary to label it incertae sedis. If conflicting results exist or if there is not a consensus among researchers as to how a taxon relates to other organisms, it may be listed as incertae sedis until the conflict is resolved.
In botany, a name is not validly published if it is not accepted by the author in the same publication. Article 36.1 In zoology, a name proposed conditionally may be available under certain conditions. Articles 11 and 15 For uncertainties at lower levels, the system of open nomenclature suggests that question marks be used to denote a questionable assignment. For example, if a new species was given the specific epithet album by Anton and attributed with uncertainty to Agenus, it could be denoted "Agenus? Album Anton". So if Anton described Agenus album, Bruno called the assignment into doubt, this could be denoted "Agenus? Album ", with the parentheses around Anton because the original assignment was modified by Bruno. Glossary of scientific naming Nomen dubium, a name of unknown or doubtful application Species inquirenda, a species that in the opinion of the taxonomist requires further investigation Wastebasket taxon Sui generis Unclassified language The dictionary definition of incertae sedis at Wiktionary Media related to Incertae sedis at Wikimedia Commons
In mycology, a stipe is the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. Like all tissues of the mushroom other than the hymenium, the stipe is composed of sterile hyphal tissue. In many instances, the fertile hymenium extends down the stipe some distance. Fungi that have stipes are said to be stipitate; the evolutionary benefit of a stipe is considered to be in mediating spore dispersal. An elevated mushroom will more release its spores into wind currents or onto passing animals. Many mushrooms do not have stipes, including cup fungi, earthstars, some polypores, jelly fungi and smuts, it is the case that features of the stipe are required to make a positive identification of a mushroom. Such distinguishing characters include: the texture of the stipe whether it has remains of a partial veil or universal veil whether the stipes of many mushrooms fuse at their base its general size and shape whether the stipe extends underground in a root-like structure When collecting mushrooms for identification it is critical to maintain all these characters intact by digging the mushroom out of the soil, rather than cutting it off mid-stipe
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. Mycology branches into the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, the two disciplines remain related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi. Mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago. Pioneer mycologists included Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary, Lewis David von Schweinitz. Many fungi produce toxins and other secondary metabolites. For example, the cosmopolitan genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans were extensively studied by Abraham Joffe.
Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts, e.g. in the form of mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, lichens. Many fungi are able to break down complex organic biomolecules such as lignin, the more durable component of wood, pollutants such as xenobiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By decomposing these molecules, fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes are economically and important, as some cause diseases of animals as well as plants. Apart from pathogenic fungi, many fungal species are important in controlling the plant diseases caused by different pathogens. For example, species of the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma considered as one of the most important biological control agents as an alternative to chemical based products for effective crop diseases management. Field meetings to find interesting species of fungi are known as'forays', after the first such meeting organized by the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1868 and entitled "A foray among the funguses".
Some fungi can cause disease in humans and other animals - The study of pathogenic fungi that infect animals is referred to as medical mycology. It is presumed. Mushrooms were first written about in the works of Euripides; the Greek philosopher Theophrastos of Eresos was the first to try to systematically classify plants. It was Pliny the Elder, who wrote about truffles in his encyclopedia Naturalis historia; the word mycology comes from the Greek: μύκης, meaning "fungus" and the suffix -λογία, meaning "study". The Middle Ages saw little advancement in the body of knowledge about fungi. Rather, the invention of the printing press allowed some authors to disseminate superstitions and misconceptions about the fungi, perpetuated by the classical authors; the start of the modern age of mycology begins with Pier Antonio Micheli's 1737 publication of Nova plantarum genera. Published in Florence, this seminal work laid the foundations for the systematic classification of grasses and fungi; the term mycology and the complementary mycologist were first used in 1836 by M.
J. Berkeley. For centuries, certain mushrooms have been documented as a folk medicine in China and Russia. Although the use of mushrooms in folk medicine is centered on the Asian continent, people in other parts of the world like the Middle East and Belarus have been documented using mushrooms for medicinal purposes. Certain mushrooms polypores like lingzhi mushroom were thought to be able to benefit a wide variety of health ailments. Medicinal mushroom research in the United States is active, with studies taking place at City of Hope National Medical Center, as well as the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. Current research focuses on mushrooms that may have hypoglycemic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-pathogenic activity, immune system-enhancing activity. Recent research has found that the oyster mushroom contains the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin, mushrooms produce large amounts of vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet light, that certain fungi may be a future source of taxol.
To date, lovastatin, griseofulvin and psilocybin are the most famous drugs that have been isolated from the fifth kingdom of life. Ethnomycology Fungal biochemical test List of mycologists List of mycology journals Mushroom hunting Mycotoxicology Pathogenic fungi Protistology Geoffrey Clough Ainsworth. Introduction to the History of Mycology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21013-3. Professional organizations BMS: British Mycological Society MSA: Mycological Society of America Amateur organizations MSSF: Mycological Society of San Francisco North American Mycological Association Puget Sound Mycological Society Oregon Mycological Society IMA Illinois Mycological Association Miscellaneous links Online lectures in mycology University of South Carolina The WWW Virtual Library: Mycology MykoWeb links page Mycological Glossary at the Illinois Mycological Association FUNGI Magazine for professionals and amateurs - largest circulating U. S. publication concerning all things mycological] Fungal Cell Biology Group at University of Edinburgh, UK.
Mycological Marvels Cornell University, Mann Library