Bram Cohen is an American computer programmer, best known as the author of the peer-to-peer BitTorrent protocol, as well as the first file sharing program to use the protocol known as BitTorrent. He is the co-founder of CodeCon and organizer of the San Francisco Bay Area P2P-hackers meeting, was the co-author of Codeville. Cohen grew up in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City as the son of a teacher and computer scientist, he claims he learned the BASIC programming language at the age of 5 on his family's Timex Sinclair computer. Cohen passed the American Invitational Mathematics Examination to qualify for the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad while he attended Stuyvesant High School in New York City, he attended SUNY Buffalo. He dropped out of college to work for several dot com companies throughout the mid to late 1990s, the last being MojoNation, an ambitious but ill-fated project he worked on with Jim McCoy. MojoNation allowed people to break up confidential files into encrypted chunks and distribute those pieces on computers running the software.
If someone wanted to download a copy of this encrypted file, they would have to download it from many computers. This concept, Cohen thought, was perfect for a file sharing program, since programs like KaZaA take a long time to download a large file because the file is coming from one source. Cohen designed BitTorrent to be able to download files from many different sources, thus speeding up the download time for users with faster download than upload speeds. Thus, the more popular a file is, the faster a user will be able to download it, since many people will be downloading it at the same time, these people will be uploading the data to other users. Cohen claims. In April 2001, Cohen began work on BitTorrent. Cohen unveiled his novel ideas at the first CodeCon conference, which he and his roommate Len Sassaman created as a showcase event for novel technology projects after becoming disillusioned with the state of technology conferences, it remains an event for those seeking information about new directions in software, though BitTorrent continues to lay claim to the title of "most famous presentation".
Cohen wrote the first BitTorrent client implementation in Python, many other programs have since implemented the protocol. In the summer of 2002, Cohen collected free pornography to lure beta testers to use the program. BitTorrent gained its fame for its ability to share large music and movie files online. Cohen himself has claimed he has never violated copyright law using his software. Regardless, he is outspoken in his belief that the current media business was doomed to being outmoded despite the RIAA and MPAA's legal or technical tactics, such as digital rights management. In May 2005, Cohen released a trackerless beta version of BitTorrent. In late 2003, Cohen served a short career at Valve Corporation to work on Steam, their digital distribution system introduced for Half-Life 2. By 2004, he had left Valve and formed BitTorrent, Inc. with his brother Ross Cohen and business partner Ashwin Navin. In 2012 he announced a beta-version of BitTorrent Live for TV broadcasting through the Internet.
Cohen left Inc. in a day to day capacity to co-found Chia. Network in the fall of 2017. By mid-2005, BitTorrent, Inc. was funded by venture capitalist David Chao from Doll Capital Management, in late 2005 Cohen and Navin made a deal with the MPAA to remove links to illegal content on the official BitTorrent website. The deal was with the seven largest studios in America; the agreement means the site will comply with procedures outlined in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. As of 2008, Cohen lives in the San Francisco Bay Area, United States, with his wife Jenna and their three children. Cohen's hobbies include original origami and juggling up to five balls, but his main interest is in recreational mathematics. Cohen maintains a blog where he discusses trust metrics with Raph Levien, as well as money systems, games of skill, other math-related topics, he is an assembly puzzle enthusiast. He has designed several puzzles including some in conjunction with Oskar van Deventer including several gear-based puzzles such as Gear Shift and a multiple Rubik's Cube variant called Bram's Fortress.
Some of Bram's puzzle designs are available for 3-D printing via Shapeways. Cohen has received a number of awards for his work on the BitTorrent protocol; these awards include: 2004 Wired Rave Award 2005 MIT Technology Review TR35 as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35. 2005 Time's 100 Most Influential People 2006 USENIX STUG Award 2010 Internet Evolution 100 Official website Interview with Cohen about BitTorrent and CodeCon Interview with Bram Cohen about legal issues and The Pirate Bay Interview with Bram Cohen on NPR
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is the Internet; some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously. An ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been standardized, but as of 2017 it has not been adopted; the history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards for encoding email messages published as early as 1973.
An email message sent in the early 1970s looks similar to a basic email sent today. Email had an important role in creating the Internet, the conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current services; the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission; as a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. Electronic mail has been most called email or e-mail since around 1993, but variations of the spelling have been used: email is the most common form used online, is required by IETF Requests for Comments and working groups and by style guides; this spelling appears in most dictionaries. E-mail is the format that sometimes appears in edited, published American English and British English writing as reflected in the Corpus of Contemporary American English data, but is falling out of favor in some style guides.
Mail was the form used in the original protocol standard, RFC 524. The service is referred to as mail, a single piece of electronic mail is called a message. EMail is a traditional form, used in RFCs for the "Author's Address" and is expressly required "for historical reasons". E-mail is sometimes used, capitalizing the initial E as in similar abbreviations like E-piano, E-guitar, A-bomb, H-bomb. An Internet e-mail consists of an content. Computer-based mail and messaging became possible with the advent of time-sharing computers in the early 1960s, informal methods of using shared files to pass messages were soon expanded into the first mail systems. Most developers of early mainframes and minicomputers developed similar, but incompatible, mail applications. Over time, a complex web of gateways and routing systems linked many of them. Many US universities were part of the ARPANET, which aimed at software portability between its systems; that portability helped make the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol influential.
For a time in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it seemed that either a proprietary commercial system or the X.400 email system, part of the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile, would predominate. However, once the final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic over the Internet ended in 1995, a combination of factors made the current Internet suite of SMTP, POP3 and IMAP email protocols the standard; the diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events that takes place when sender Alice transmits a message using a mail user agent addressed to the email address of the recipient. The MUA formats the message in email format and uses the submission protocol, a profile of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, to send the message content to the local mail submission agent, in this case smtp.a.org. The MSA determines the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol, in this case firstname.lastname@example.org, a qualified domain address. The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address the username of the recipient, the part after the @ sign is a domain name.
The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the qualified domain name of the mail server in the Domain Name System. The DNS server for the domain b.org responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a message transfer agent server run by the recipient's ISP. smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP. This server may need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message reaches the final message delivery agent; the MDA delivers it to the mailbox of user bob. Bob's MUA picks up the message using either the Post Office Protocol or the Internet Message Access Protocol. In addition to this example and complications exist in the email system: Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate email system, such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange; these systems have their own internal email format and their clients communicate with the email server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives email via the Internet through the product's Internet mail gateway which does any necessary reformatt
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server.
Usenet is culturally significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam". Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online and the general public received access to the Internet, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name Usenet emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science.
Or, talk.origins and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
This is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned; the groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents; some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which carries software, music and images, accounts for over 99 percent of article data. There are Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed. See news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
Newsgroups are accessed with newsreaders: applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgro
Bruce Schneier is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute, he has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is the author of several books on computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization. Bruce Schneier is the son of a Brooklyn Supreme Court judge, he grew up in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, attending P. S. 139 and Hunter High School. After receiving a physics bachelor's degree from the University of Rochester in 1984, he went to American University in Washington, D. C. and got his master's degree in computer science in 1988. He was awarded an honorary Ph. D from the University of Westminster in London, England in November 2011; the award was made by the Department of Electronics and Computer Science in recognition of Schneier's'hard work and contribution to industry and public life'.
Schneier was a founder and chief technology officer of BT Managed Security Solutions Counterpane Internet Security, Inc. In 1994, Schneier published Applied Cryptography, which details the design and implementation of cryptographic algorithms. In 2010 he published Cryptography Engineering, focused more on how to use cryptography in real systems and less on its internal design, he has written books on security for a broader audience. In 2000, Schneier published Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World. Schneier writes a available monthly Internet newsletter on computer and other security issues, Crypto-Gram, as well as a security weblog, Schneier on Security; the blog focuses on the latest threats, his own thoughts. The weblog started out as a way to publish essays before they appeared in Crypto-Gram, making it possible for others to comment on them while the stories were still current, but over time the newsletter became a monthly email version of the blog, re-edited and re-organized.
Schneier is quoted in the press on computer and other security issues, pointing out flaws in security and cryptographic implementations ranging from biometrics to airline security after the September 11 attacks. Schneier revealed on his blog that in the December 2004 issue of the SIGCSE Bulletin, three Pakistani academics, Khawaja Amer Hayat, Umar Waqar Anis, S. Tauseef-ur-Rehman, from the International Islamic University in Islamabad, plagiarized an article written by Schneier and got it published; the same academics subsequently plagiarized another article by Ville Hallivuori on "Real-time Transport Protocol security" as well. Schneier complained to the editors of the periodical; the editor of the SIGCSE Bulletin removed the paper from their website and demanded official letters of admission and apology. Schneier noted on his blog that International Islamic University personnel had requested him "to close comments in this blog entry". Schneier warns about misplaced trust in blockchain and the lack of use cases, calling Blockchain a solution in search of a problem.
"What blockchain does is shift some of the trust in people and institutions to trust in technology. You need to trust the protocols, the software, the computers and the network, and you need to trust them because they’re single points of failure." He goes on to say that cryptocurrencies are useless and are only used by speculators looking for quick riches. To Schneier, peer review and expert analysis are important for the security of cryptographic systems. Mathematical cryptography is not the weakest link in a security chain; the term Schneier's law was coined by Cory Doctorow in a 2004 speech. The law is phrased as: Any person can invent a security system so clever that he or she can't imagine a way of breaking it, he attributes this to Bruce Schneier, who wrote in 1998: "Anyone, from the most clueless amateur to the best cryptographer, can create an algorithm that he himself can't break. It's not hard. What is hard is creating an algorithm that no one else can break after years of analysis."Similar sentiments had been expressed by others before.
In The Codebreakers, David Kahn states: "Few false ideas have more gripped the minds of so many intelligent men than the one that, if they just tried, they could invent a cipher that no one could break", in "A Few Words On Secret Writing", in July 1841, Edgar Allan Poe had stated: "Few persons can be made to believe that it is not quite an easy thing to invent a method of secret writing which shall baffle investigation. Yet it may be roundly asserted that human ingenuity cannot concoct a cipher which human ingenuity cannot resolve." Schneier is critical of digital rights management and has said that it allows a vendor to increase lock-in. Proper implementation of control-based security for the user via trusted computing is difficult, security is not the same thing as control. Schneier is a proponent of full disclosure. If researchers don't go public, things don’t get fixed. Companies don't see it as a security problem. Schnei
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Mixminion is the standard implementation of the Type III anonymous remailer protocol. Mixminion can receive anonymous e-mail. Mixminion uses a mix network architecture to provide strong anonymity, prevent eavesdroppers and other attackers from linking senders and recipients. Volunteers run servers that receive messages, decrypt them, re-order them, re-transmit them toward their eventual destination; every e-mail passes through several mixes so that no single mix can link message senders with recipients. To send an anonymous message, mixminion breaks it into uniform-sized chunks, pads the packets to a uniform size, chooses a path through the mix network for each packet; the software encrypts every packet with the public keys for each server in one by one. When it is time to transmit a packet, mixminion sends it to the first mix in the path; the first mix decrypts the packet, learns which mix will receive the packet, relays it. The packet arrives at a final mix, which sends it to the chosen recipient.
Because no mix sees any more of the path besides the adjacent mixes, they cannot link senders to recipients. Mixminion supports Single-Use Reply Blocks to allow anonymous recipients. A SURB encodes a half-path to a recipient, so that each mix in the sequence can unwrap a single layer of the path, encrypt the message for the recipient; when the message reaches the recipient, the recipient can decode the message and learn which SURB was used to send it. The most current version of Mixminion Message Sender is 1.2.7 and was released on 11 February 2009. On 2 September 2011, a news announcement was made that stated the source was uploaded to GitHub Anonymity Anonymous P2P Anonymous remailer Cypherpunk anonymous remailer Mixmaster anonymous remailer Onion routing Tor Pseudonymous remailer Penet remailer Data privacy Traffic analysis Official website Windows GUI Frontend for Mixminion Apple OSX, Macport File for Mixminion Noreply number of mixminion nodes