click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pseudorandomness

A pseudorandom process produces predictable outcomes given information, difficult to acquire. In general, a random process generates unpredictable outcomes: for any single event any particular outcome cannot be predicted in advance given available information. For example, consider an unbiased coin which on any given flip is either heads or tails: on a single flip no outcome is certain. Recording 1,000 flips in a logbook provides a sequence of pseudorandom outcomes: in possession of the logbook each outcome is known for certain. To generate random numbers that can never be predicted by any observer requires a causally non-deterministic process where events are not determined by prior states. Due to the physical impossibility of acquiring sufficient information to predict the outcome of such an event, its outcomes are guaranteed to be random to all. Randomness is therefore a condition which holds of a sequence relative to the information available to the predictor, with pseudorandomness indicating that information sufficient to predict the next outcome may be acquired by the predictor under some circumstances.

The most prominent example is the pseudorandom number generators used by digital computers in which knowing a starting "seed" number produces an predictable string of numbers which are unpredictable without it. The generation of random numbers has many uses. Before modern computing, researchers requiring random numbers would either generate them through various means or use existing random number tables; the first attempt to provide researchers with a ready supply of random digits was in 1927, when the Cambridge University Press published a table of 41,600 digits developed by L. H. C. Tippett. In 1947, the RAND Corporation generated numbers by the electronic simulation of a roulette wheel. A pseudorandom variable is a variable, created by a deterministic algorithm a computer program or subroutine, which in most cases takes random bits as input; the pseudorandom string will be longer than the original random string, but less random. This can be useful for randomized algorithms. Pseudorandom number generators are used in such applications as computer modeling, experimental design, etc.

Linux uses various system timings to produce a pool of random numbers. It attempts to replenish the pool, depending on the level of importance, so will issue a random number. In theoretical computer science, a distribution is pseudorandom against a class of adversaries if no adversary from the class can distinguish it from the uniform distribution with significant advantage; this notion of pseudorandomness is studied in computational complexity theory and has applications to cryptography. Formally, let S and T be finite sets and let F = be a class of functions. A distribution D over S is ε-pseudorandom against F if for every f in F, the statistical distance between the distributions f, where X is sampled from D, f, where Y is sampled from the uniform distribution on S, is at most ε. In typical applications, the class F describes a model of computation with bounded resources and one is interested in designing distributions D with certain properties that are pseudorandom against F; the distribution D is specified as the output of a pseudorandom generator.

Though random numbers are needed in cryptography, the use of pseudorandom number generators is insecure. When random values are required in cryptography, the goal is to make a message as hard to crack as possible, by eliminating or obscuring the parameters used to encrypt the message from the message itself or from the context in which it is carried. Pseudorandom sequences are reproducible. So the entire sequence of numbers is only as powerful as the randomly chosen parts—sometimes the algorithm and the seed, but only the seed. There are many examples in cryptographic history of ciphers, otherwise excellent, in which random choices were not random enough and security was lost as a direct consequence; the World War II Japanese PURPLE cipher machine used for diplomatic communications is a good example. It was broken throughout World War II because the "key values" used were insufficiently random, they had patterns, those patterns made any intercepted traffic decryptable. Had the keys been made unpredictably, that traffic would have been much harder to break, even secure in practice.

Since pseudorandom numbers are in fact deterministic, a given seed will always determine the same pseudorandom number. This attribute is used in security, in the form of rolling code to avoid replay attacks, in which a command would be intercepted to be used by a thief at a time. A Monte Carlo method simulation is defined as any method that utilizes sequences of random numbers to perform the simulation. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to many topics including quantum chromodynamics, cancer radiation therapy, traff

Baizuo

Baizuo is a derogatory Chinese neologism and political epithet used to refer to Western left-wing ideologies espoused by white people. The term baizuo is related to the term shèngmǔ, a sarcastic reference to those whose political opinions are perceived as being guided by emotions or a hypocritical show of selflessness and empathy; the term baizuo was coined in a 2010 article published on Renren Network, entitled The Fake Morality of the Western White Left and the Chinese Patriotic Scientists. No further use of the term is known until 2013, with only isolated use during 2013–2015. Substantial use in Chinese Internet culture begins in early 2016, at first at MIT BBS, a bulletin board system used by many Chinese in the U. S. during the 2016 United States presidential election. Baizuo was here used to criticize the policies of the Democratic Party with regard to minorities, perceived as treating Asians unfairly. After the United States presidential election of 2016, the term came to be more used in reference to perceived double standards of Western media, such as potential bias in reporting about the Xinjiang conflict.

The term has grown as an insult in the English speaking web as well. Gutmensch Liberal elite Political opportunism Red–green–brown alliance Regressive left Social fascism Modern liberalism in the United States

Plan V (film)

Plan V is a Mexican film directed by Fez Noriega. The film is stars Natasha Dupeyrón, María Gabriela de Faría, José Pablo Minor, premiered on 17 August 2018. Principal photography began on 19 December 2016, concluded on 21 January 2017. Paula prepares to give an anniversary surprise to her boyfriend Chema, a famous telenovela actor, but the surprise is hers, when she finds him cheating on her with his agent Marcelo. Paula, in the company of her friends Fernanda and Jennifer, comes to the conclusion that what she needs to get rid of disappointment is a virgin man who will value her; the three friends come up with Plan V, that introduces them in the fascinating and, until unknown world of the university, in which they will find a series of endearing characters, among them Luis, a handsome and intelligent virgin that will change their lives. Natasha Dupeyrón as Paula María Gabriela de Faría as Fernanda José Pablo Minor as Luis Stéphanie Gérard as Jennifer Arath de la Torre as Profesor Limón Kevin Holt as Malcom Tamara Vallarta as Laurentina José Carlos Femat as Chema Plan V on IMDb

La Rioja Province, Argentina

La Rioja is one of the provinces of Argentina and is located in the west of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Córdoba, San Luis and San Juan; the dinosaur Riojasaurus is named after the province. Petroglyphs created by early indigenous peoples at the Talampaya National Park is dated around 10,000 years BC. Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples developed here; the Diaguita and the Olongasta peoples inhabited the territory of present-day La Rioja Province at the time of encounter with the Spanish colonists in the 16th century. Juan Ramírez de Velazco founded Todos Los Santos de la Nueva Rioja in 1591 under the government of Tucumán of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1630 the Calchaquí people revolted against the Spanish, but the governor Albornoz suppressed them. In 1783, after the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the control of the province of 10,000 inhabitants passed to the Córdoba independency; the province acquired independence from Córdoba in 1820.

Following attempts by Bernardino Rivadavia, the first elected President of Argentina, to impose a centralist constitution, the caudillo Juan Facundo Quiroga emerged as a popular leader. He represented their preference for more autonomy, for which they continued to press following Quiroga's 1835 assassination. After a period of internal instability in Argentina, the province joined the Argentine Confederation in 1853. La Rioja attracted fewer immigrants from Europe than did other Argentine provinces from 1890 to the 1930s; some Syrian and Lebanese immigrants did settle in the province, among whom the most well-known is the Menem family. Coming from what had been the Ottoman Empire, Saul Menem and his wife were of Armenian and Alawi ancestry, he sent his eldest son, Carlos Menem, to Spain for college. After the younger Menem was elected governor of La Rioja Province in March 1973, he implemented a number of reforms advocated by activists for the poor, rural majority those recommended by Bishop Enrique Angelelli.

Removed and imprisoned following the military ouster of President Isabel Perón in March 1976, Menem was kept in illegal confinement until the end of 1980. He was tortured during this time; the dictatorship repressed people in the province and was responsible for the brutal murder in August 1976 of Bishop Angelelli. After democracy was restored in 1983, Menem was overwhelmingly re-elected to office, he pursued conservative policies, leveraging La Rioja's dry, agreeable climate, its modest wage scale, skilled work-force, to attract La Rioja's first significant light industries bottling and food-processing. Having presided over a growing La Rioja economy as the nation's languished during the 1980s, Menem secured the Peronist Justicialist Party nomination for president in May 1988. Elected president of Argentina in 1988, Menem served until 1999. During those years, he steered billions in federal public works spending into La Rioja. Although the province remains less developed than the average in the nation, its economy today compares favorably with those of its neighbors.

Located in the Argentine Northwest area, its landscape is arid to semi-arid, the dry climate receives annually 200 mm of precipitations, has short winters and hot summers. From the Andes at the west, with peaks of up to 6,795 meters, the relief's height descents towards the sierras of the neighbouring dry Pampas zone. Most ranges in La Rioja are oriented in a north-south fashion; the province's two largest cities, La Rioja and Chilecito are separated by Sierra de Velasco and west of Chilecito and Famatina rises the Sierra de Famatina with heights of up to 6.250 m.a.sl.. The Talampaya National Park is a dry red-soil canyon of the ancient extinguished Talampaya river, which contains many walls and rock formations that make it an interesting tourist destination. La Rioja's economy, estimated at US$1.822 billion in 2006, is the second-smallest among Argentina's provinces. Its per capita output of US$6,283, though about 30% below the national average, makes it the most well-developed in northern Argentina.

Its economy is very well-diversified. Agriculture adds less than 5% to its output. La Rioja's agriculture lies on the banks of the few permanent rivers and oases that allow irrigation, with only 190 square kilometres of cultivated land. Vineyards and olive plantations are the most common, followed by cotton; the province's main crop is the grape, its associated wine production around the Chilecito area, with a production of 8 million litres per year. Cattle and goats are secondary activities for skin and leather. Clay represents the main mining activity, uranium is extracted near El Colorado. Manufacturing in La Rioja has expanded since Gov. Menem began attracting investment into the province, after 1983. Limited to light industry like bottling and food processing, it adds about 20% to La Rioja's output. Tourism is an expanding activity. Besides the Talampaya National Park, tourists visiting La Rioja go to the Chilecito town, Cerro de La Cruz, Termas de Santa Teresita hot springs and the village of Villa Sanagasta.

La Rioja's development plan is being designed by Proyectos Innovadores to encourage further economic growth in the province. The province experienced a wave of immigration from Eastern Europe, East or South Asian and Middle Eastern countries; the provincial government is divided into the usual three br

Association of University Teachers

The Association of University Teachers was the trade union and professional association that represented academic and academic-related staff at pre-1992 universities in the United Kingdom. The final general secretary of AUT was Sally Hunt. AUT had branches in a number of post-1992 universities and in university colleges, although the main union representing academic staff in these institutes was the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education. On 2 December 2005 the results of a membership ballot on a merger of NATFHE was announced; the merger was supported by 95.7 % of NATFHE members who voted. The two unions amalgamated on 1 June 2006, after a transitional year, full operational unity was achieved in June 2007; the new union is called the College Union. In 1909, Douglas Laurie, a young zoology lecturer at Liverpool University called a meeting "To consider a proposal to form an Association for bringing together the members of the Junior Staff more into touch with one another and with the life of the University" At this time an increasing number of non-professorial staff were being employed.

These Junior Staff or Assistant Lecturers were poorly paid, did the same duties as professors and had few promotion prospects. In addition they had no representation on the bodies governing the Universities. Although the society formed at Liverpool was formally a "dining and discussion society" from an early stage it was a new pressure group. At first its aims were local and in 1910 it won a campaign over representation on the faculties but on learning that similar groups had been formed or were in the process of formation they invited representatives of the junior staff from Bristol, Birmingham and Manchester for a dinner. In 1913 the junior staff at the Victoria University of Manchester presented a request for improvements in pay and grading to their University Council; this included a suggestion that the starting pay should be increased. The Council replied that while it agreed that there should be an increase, at the current time there was insufficient money to pay for this. By 1917 inflation had eroded the value of salaries and Douglas Laurie called a meeting on 15 December 1917 to draw up a memorandum to present to the Board of Education.

As an after thought he invited representatives of Assistant Lecturers from all Universities. The meeting was attended by delegates from 15 institutions; the issues raised by the memorandum drafted at the meeting included: pay. A motion was passed to a new association with the name "The Association of University Lecturers"; the name caused some dissent but a split was prevented. However the Scottish Lecturers went their own way and formed a separate Association in 1922 which merged with AUT in 1949 but retained some of its autonomy; the issue of pensions brought the idea of professional unity to the fore. The pension scheme for lecturers was to be left out of the new Teachers pension fund formed by the Teachers' Act 1918; as pension funds affect staff at levels of their career this created pressure the Association to be one which included professors as well. At a conference in Bristol 27–28 June 1919 professorial delegates were present; the name of the new Association was left. The draft rules circulated at the conference read "The name of the society shall be...".

This was to be repeated nearly a century when delegates to the 2005 AUT council were presented with a draft rulebook for the merger with NATFHE which stated: "The name of the union shall be ". Speaking from the chair Laurie pointed out that "the idea which brought the Association into being was of a trade union character, but expressed the hope that, when material conditions had been satisfactorily improved, educational matters would form the essential points on which discussion would take place". In the end it was agreed that the new association's objectives would be"the advancement of University Education and Research and the promotion of common action among University teachers in connection therewith" with membership open to professors; the name Association of University Teachers was voted for nem con and Douglas Laurie was elected as the first President. It is interesting to speculate how the Association would have developed if professors had been excluded from membership and it was set up on a basis of representing the junior staff.

The Association's structure was a federation of Local Associations which elected delegates to a Central Council. The Council delegates elected an Executive Committee; the Council itself met twice a year. In March 2004, AUT members took industrial action over the proposed new pay structures offered by the Universities and Colleges Employers Association; the original proposals from UCEA would have meant large reductions in income due to smaller annual increments. The action involved a one-day national strike and one-day strikes in each of the four countries of the UK, followed by an assessment boycott that threatened to derail examinations that summer; the industrial action lasted 25 days before UCEA agreed to many of the union's demands. The agreement included the so-called Memorandum of Understanding which provided certain safeguards on

Ian Malone

Lance Corporal Ian Malone from Dublin, was a member of the British Army's Irish Guards. He was the first person born in Ireland to be killed in the Iraq War. Malone's funeral in Dublin was the first funeral with a uniformed British military presence in the Republic of Ireland. Twenty-eight-year-old Ian Malone came from a working class background in the Dublin suburb of Ballyfermot; the eldest of a family of five, Malone was educated by the De La Salle Christian Brothers Catholic school. He served in the Irish reserve defence force, it is claimed that he was rejected due to his age. When he joined the Irish Guards in 1997, a regiment of the British Army created in 1900 by Queen Victoria, he was 23 years old and the age limits for the Irish Army at that time was over 17 years and under 21 years of age. Malone was served on Operation Agricola in Kosovo, he completed a piper's course in April 1999, was a member of the pipe band. He served with the Battle Group in Poland, Canada and Germany. In November 2002 Lance Corporal Malone was one of a number of British soldiers interviewed on a Radio Telefís Éireann documentary series, True Lives.

Regarding his membership of the British Army, he said: At the end of the day I am just abroad doing a job. People go on about Irishmen dying for all that. That's a fair one, they did. But they died to give men like me the freedom to choose. Malone was deployed on Operation Telic in an armoured infantry section with Number 1 Company, Irish Guards, as part of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Battle Group within 7 Armoured Brigade. Lance Corporal Malone was shot in the head by a sniper on 6 April in Iraq during the Irish Guards' advance on the country's second largest city, Basra; the removal of Lance Corporal Malone's body to a Catholic church in Ballyfermot was attended by hundreds of people, including Charlie O'Connor, a local TD, whose father had served in the Irish Guards. His funeral on 24 April 2003 drew large crowds, including senior politicians from the opposition such as Gay Mitchell, TD. An honour guard of the Irish Guards in their full dress uniform was provided, though the coffin was not draped in the Union flag.

One piper from the Irish Guard and one piper from the Irish Defence Forces, 2inf bn Cq C o'Dywer PM, played at the funeral, Oft in the stilly night. Mass, his funeral was the first time since 1922, that uniformed British Army soldiers had been seen in Dublin