The iliac fascia is a fascia in the region of the ilium of the pelvis. It has the following connections: laterally, to the whole length of the inner lip of the iliac crest. Medially, to the linea terminalis of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the periosteum. At the iliopectineal eminence it receives the tendon of insertion of the Psoas minor, when that muscle exists. Lateral to the femoral vessels it is intimately connected to the posterior margin of the inguinal ligament, is continuous with the transversalis fascia. Lateral to the femoral vessels the iliac fascia is prolonged backward and medialward from the inguinal ligament as a band, the iliopectineal fascia, attached to the iliopectineal eminence; this fascia divides the space between the inguinal ligament and the hip bone into two lacunæ or compartments: the medial vascular lacuna transmits the femoral vessels. The lateral muscular lacuna transmits Iliacus and the femoral nerve. Medial to the vessels the iliac fascia is attached to the pectineal line behind the conjoint tendon, where it is again continuous with the transversalis fascia.
Fascia iliaca block This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 466 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. It forms the lateral portion of iliopsoas, providing flexion of the thigh and lower limb at the acetabulofemoral joint; the iliacus arises from the iliac fossa on the interior side of the hip bone, from the region of the anterior inferior iliac spine. It joins the psoas major to form the Iliopsoas as which it proceeds across the iliopubic eminence through the muscular lacuna to its insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur, its fibers are inserted in front of those of the psoas major and extend distally over the lesser trochanter. The iliopsoas is innervated by direct branches from the lumbar plexus. In open-chain exercises, as part of the iliopsoas, the iliacus is important for lifting the femur forward. In closed-chain exercises, the iliopsoas bends the trunk forward and can lift the trunk from a lying posture because the psoas major crosses several vertebral joints and the sacroiliac joint. From its origin in the lesser pelvis the iliacus acts on the hip joint.
Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Thieme. 2006. ISBN 1-58890-419-9. PTCentral Anatomy figure: 40:07-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall." Pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The lesser trochanter of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects. It projects from the lower and back part of the base of the femur neck. From its apex three well-marked borders extend: two of these are above a medial continuous with the lower border of the femur neck a lateral with the intertrochanteric crest the inferior border is continuous with the middle division of the linea asperaThe summit of the trochanter is rough, gives insertion to the tendon of the Psoas major and the Iliacus, it can be involved in an avulsion fracture. Greater trochanter Third trochanter This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 245 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 13:01-11 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
The iliopsoas refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles. The two muscles are separate in the abdomen, but merge in the thigh; as such, they are given the common name iliopsoas. The iliopsoas muscle joins to the femur at the lesser trochanter, acts as the strongest flexor of the hip; the iliopsoas muscle is supplied by parts of the femoral nerve. The iliopsoas muscle is a composite muscle formed from the psoas major muscle, the iliacus muscle; the psoas major originates along the outer surfaces of the vertebral bodies of T12 and L1-L3 and their associated intervertebral discs. The iliacus originates in the iliac fossa of the pelvis; the psoas major unites with the iliacus at the level of the inguinal ligament and crosses the hip joint to insert on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliopsoas is classified as an "anterior hip muscle" or "inner hip muscle"; the psoas minor does contribute to the iliopsoas muscle. The inferior portion below the inguinal ligament forms part of the floor of the femoral triangle.
The psoas major is innervated by direct branches of the anterior rami off the lumbar plexus at the levels of L1-L3, while the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve. The iliopsoas is the prime mover of hip flexion, is the strongest of the hip flexors; the iliopsoas is important for standing and running. The iliacus and psoas major perform different actions; the iliopsoas muscle is covered by the iliac fascia, which begins as a strong tube-shaped psoas fascia, which surround the psoas major muscle as it passes under the medial arcuate ligament. Together with the iliac fascia, it continues down to the inguinal ligament where it forms the iliopectineal arch which separates the muscular and vascular lacunae, it is a typical posture muscle dominated by slow-twitch red type 1 fibers. Since it originates from the lumbar vertebrae and discs and inserts onto the femur, any structure from the lumbar spine to the femur can be affected directly. A short and tight iliopsoas presents as externally rotated legs and feet.
It can cause pain in the low or mid back, SI joint, groin, knee, or any combination. The iliopsoas gets innervation from the L2-4 nerve roots of the lumbar plexus which send branches to the superficial lumbar muscles; the femoral nerve passes through the muscle and innervates the quadriceps and sartorius muscles. It comprises the intermediate femoral cutaneous and medial femoral cutaneous nerves which are responsible for sensation over the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh, medial shin, arch of the foot nerves; the obturator nerve passes through the muscle, responsible for the sensory innervation of the skin of the medial aspect of the thigh and motor innervation of the adductor muscles of the lower extremity and sometimes the pectineus. Any of these innervated structures can be affected. Psoas abscess Iliopsoas tendonitis Muscles of the hip Muscles/Iliopsoas at exrx.net Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Anatomical terms of motion
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints and specific sections of the body; the terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane. Flexion and extension are examples of angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, are described as internal or external. Other terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomical terms derive from Latin terms with the same meaning. Motions are classified after the anatomical planes they occur in, although movement is more than not a combination of different motions occurring in several planes.
Motions can be split into categories relating to the nature of the joints involved: Gliding motions occur between flat surfaces, such as in the intervertebral discs or between the carpal and metacarpal bones of the hand. Angular motions occur over synovial joints and causes them to either increase or decrease angles between bones. Rotational motions move a structure in a rotational motion along a longitudinal axis, such as turning the head to look to either side. Apart from this motions can be divided into: Linear motions, which move in a line between two points. Rectilinear motion is motion in a straight line between two points, whereas curvilinear motion is motion following a curved path. Angular motions occur when an object is around another object decreasing the angle; the different parts of the object do not move the same distance. Examples include a movement of the knee, where the lower leg changes angle compared to the femur, or movements of the ankle; the study of movement is known as kinesiology.
A categoric list of movements of the human body and the muscles involved can be found at list of movements of the human body. The prefix hyper- is sometimes added to describe movement beyond the normal limits, such as in hypermobility, hyperflexion or hyperextension; the range of motion describes the total range of motion. For example, if a part of the body such as a joint is overstretched or "bent backwards" because of exaggerated extension motion it can be described as hyperextended. Hyperextension increases the stress on the ligaments of a joint, is not always because of a voluntary movement, it may be other causes of trauma. It may be used in surgery, such as in temporarily dislocating joints for surgical procedures; these are general terms. Most terms have a clear opposite, so are treated in pairs. Flexion and extension describe movements; these terms come from the Latin words with the same meaning. Flexion describes a bending movement that decreases the angle between a segment and its proximal segment.
For example, bending the elbow, or clenching a hand into a fist, are examples of flexion. When sitting down, the knees are flexed; when a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, flexion refers to movement in the anterior direction. When the chin is against the chest, the head is flexed, the trunk is flexed when a person leans forward. Flexion of the shoulder or hip refers to movement of the leg forward. Extension is the opposite of flexion, describing a straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts. For example, when standing up, the knees are extended; when a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, extension refers to movement in the posterior direction. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the leg backward. Abduction is the motion of a structure away from the midline while adduction refer to motion towards the center of the body; the centre of the body is defined as the midsagittal plane. These terms come from Latin words with similar meanings, ab- being the Latin prefix indicating "away," ad- indicating "toward," and ducere meaning "to draw or pull".
Abduction refers to a motion that pulls a part away from the midline of the body. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to spreading the digits apart, away from the centerline of the hand or foot. Abduction of the wrist is called radial deviation. For example, raising the arms up, such as when tightrope-walking, is an example of abduction at the shoulder; when the legs are splayed at the hip, such as when doing a star jump or doing a split, the legs are abducted at the hip. Adduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to bringing the digits together, towards the centerline of the hand or foot. Adduction of the wrist is called ulnar deviation. Dropping the arms to the sides, bringing the knees together, are examples of adduction. Ulnar deviation is the hand moving towards the ulnar styloid. Radial deviation is the hand moving towards the radial styloid; the terms elevation and depression refer to movement below the horizontal.
They derive from the Latin terms with similar meaningsElevation refers to movement in a superior direction. For example
The supine position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, face down. When used in surgical procedures, it allows access to the peritoneal and pericardial regions. Using anatomical terms of location, the dorsal side is down, the ventral side is up, when supine. In scientific literature "semi-supine" refers to positions where the upper body is tilted and not horizontal; the decline in death due to sudden infant death syndrome is said to be attributable to having babies sleep in the supine position. It is believed that in the prone position babies are more at risk to re-breathe their own carbon dioxide; because of the immature state of their central chemoreceptors, infants do not respond to the subsequent respiratory acidosis that develops. Obstructive sleep apnea is a form of sleep apnea that occurs more and is most severe when individuals are sleeping in the supine position. Studies and evidence show that OSA related to sleeping in the supine position is related to the airway positioning, reduced lung volume, the inability of airway muscles to dilate enough to compensate as the airway collapses.
With individuals who have OSA, many health care providers encourage their patients to avoid the supine position while asleep and sleep laterally or sleep with the head of their bed up in a 30 or 45 degree angle. Anatomical position Lying position Prone position Sleep paralysis