Blotting paper, sometimes called bibulous paper, is a absorbent type of paper or other material. It is used to absorb an excess of liquid substances from the surface of writing paper or objects. Blotting paper referred to as bibulous paper is used in microscopy to remove excess liquids from the slide before viewing. Blotting paper has been sold as a cosmetic to aid in the removal of skin oils and makeup. Blotting paper is made from different materials of varying thickness, etc. depending on the application. It is made of cotton and manufactured on special paper machines. Blotting paper is reputed to be first referred to in the English language in the 15th century but there is a tradition in Norfolk, England that it was invented by accident at Lyng Mill on the River Wensum, it is reported that a Berkshire paper mill worker failed to add sizing to a batch of paper, being produced. The batch was discarded. Subsequently, someone tried to write on a piece of this discarded "scrap" paper and found that it absorbed any ink applied, making it unusable for writing.
Its marked absorbency having been noted, led to its subsequently being produced and used as blotting paper, replacing sand, the material, used for absorbing superficial wet ink. In a time when most paper was produced from "rags", red/pink rags, from which it was difficult to remove all color and had been discarded, were now directed to the production of blotters, hence the characteristic pink color of blotters. A form of blotter paper known as watercolor paper is produced for its absorbent qualities, allowing much better absorption of water and pigments than standard art or drawing papers. Although categorized as separate from blotting paper, differences in the constituents and thickness of blotting paper and watercolor paper are subtle, making a distinction between the two is unnecessary as the production process is nearly identical. Blotting paper is used in chemical analyses as stationary phase in thin-layer chromatography. Blotting paper is used in pool/spa maintenance to measure pH balance.
Small squares of blotting paper attached to disposable plastic strips are impregnated with pH sensitive compounds extracted from lichens Roccella tinctoria. These strips are used to litmus strips, however filter paper is used for litmus strips to allow for the property of diffusion. Drugs active in microgram range, most notably LSD, are distributed on blotting paper. A liquid solution of the drug is applied to the blotting paper, perforated into individual doses and artfully decorated with what is known as blotter art. Vanity blotter is blotter art that hasn't been exposed to LSD and is sold as a collectible, although much of this art ends up in illegal distribution; the artwork is printed onto blotter paper and sometimes perforated into tiny squares or "tabs" which can be torn or cut apart. Most blotter art designs have grid lines as part of the design to either aid in perforation or to be left as a cutting grid. Blotter as a delivery method allows for easy dosing of potent substances and easy sublingual administration of drugs which has made it popular as a preparation for other potent drugs including 25I-NBOMe and alprazolam.
Plain white LSD blotter without artwork is referred to as WoW and is not perforated but rather gridded with a pen and sometimes laid on obtained watercolor paper. Blotting is necessary when using dip pens and when using fountain pens; this was first done by sprinkling pounce over the wet ink. When used to remove ink from writings, the writing may appear in reverse on the surface of the blotting paper, a phenomenon, used as a plot device in a number of detective stories, such as in the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter. Blotting papers are commonly used in cosmetics to absorb excess sebum oil from the face, they are popularly marketed and have been sold by numerous cosmetic brands worldwide such as Mac and Bobbi Brown, as well as UK high street store: Boots UK. Prices for blotting papers can range from as low as $3.00 per packet to as high as $30 or more. More affordable brands can be found by makers such as Clean and Clear and pharmacies such as Walgreens or CVS carry their own brands for a reduced price.
The papers are dyed, for wider market appeal, dusted with salicylic acid and minerals to prevent the formation of comedones and acne. However, there is a popular debate of whether blotting papers can help reduce acne by absorbing excess oil, or cause it; the quality of the blotting papers and the use of other ingredients such as mineral oils may be a determining factor
Psychedelic art is any art or visual displays inspired by psychedelic experiences and hallucinations known to follow the ingestion of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin. The word "psychedelic" means "mind manifesting". By that definition, all artistic efforts to depict the inner world of the psyche may be considered "psychedelic". In common parlance "psychedelic art" refers above all to the art movement of the late 1960s counterculture. Psychedelic visual arts were a counterpart to psychedelic rock music. Concert posters, album covers, liquid light shows, liquid light art, comic books, underground newspapers and more reflected not only the kaleidoscopically swirling colour patterns of LSD hallucinations, but revolutionary political and spiritual sentiments inspired by insights derived from these psychedelic states of consciousness. Fantastic and surrealistic subject matter Kaleidoscopic, fractal or paisley patterns Bright and/or contrasting colors Extreme depth of detail or stylization of detail.
So called Horror vacui style. Morphing of objects or themes and sometimes collage Phosphenes, concentric circles, diffraction patterns, other entoptic motifs Repetition of motifs Innovative typography and hand-lettering, including warping and transposition of positive and negative spaces Psychedelic art is informed by the notion that altered states of consciousness produced by psychedelic drugs are a source of artistic inspiration; the psychedelic art movement is similar to the surrealist movement in that it prescribes a mechanism for obtaining inspiration. Whereas the mechanism for surrealism is the observance of dreams, a psychedelic artist turns to drug induced hallucinations. Both movements have strong ties to important developments in science. Whereas the surrealist was fascinated by Freud's theory of the unconscious, the psychedelic artist has been "turned on" by Albert Hofmann's discovery of LSD; the early examples of "psychedelic art" are literary rather than visual, although there are some examples in the Surrealist art movement, such as Remedios Varo and André Masson.
It should be noted that these came from writers involved in the Surrealist movement. Antonin Artaud writes of his peyote experience in Voyage to the Land of the Tarahumara. Henri Michaux wrote Misérable Miracle, to describe his experiments with mescaline and hashish. Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell remain definitive statements on the psychedelic experience. Albert Hofmann and his colleagues at Sandoz Laboratories were convinced after its discovery in 1943 of the power and promise of LSD. For two decades following its discovery LSD was marketed by Sandoz as an important drug for psychological and neurological research. Hofmann saw the drug's potential for poets and artists as well, took great interest in the German writer Ernst Jünger's psychedelic experiments. Early artistic experimentation with LSD was conducted in a clinical context by Los Angeles–based psychiatrist Oscar Janiger. Janiger asked a group of 50 different artists to each do a painting from life of a subject of the artist's choosing.
They were subsequently asked to do the same painting while under the influence of LSD. The two paintings were compared by Janiger and the artist; the artists unanimously reported LSD to be an enhancement to their creativity. It seems that psychedelics would be most warmly embraced by the American counterculture. Beatnik poets Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs became fascinated by psychedelic drugs as early as the 1950s as evidenced by The Yage Letters; the Beatniks recognized the role of psychedelics as sacred inebriants in Native American religious ritual, had an understanding of the philosophy of the surrealist and symbolist poets who called for a "complete disorientation of the senses". They knew, they were hip to psychedelics as psychiatric medicine. LSD was the perfect catalyst to electrify the eclectic mix of ideas assembled by the Beats into a cathartic, mass-distributed panacea for the soul of the succeeding generation. Leading proponents of the 1960s psychedelic art movement were San Francisco poster artists such as: Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, Bonnie MacLean, Stanley Mouse & Alton Kelley, Wes Wilson.
Their psychedelic rock concert posters were inspired by Art Nouveau, Victoriana and Pop Art. The "Fillmore Posters" were among the most notable of the time. Richly saturated colors in glaring contrast, elaborately ornate lettering symmetrical composition, collage elements, rubber-like distortions, bizarre iconography are all hallmarks of the San Francisco psychedelic poster art style; the style flourished from about 1966 to 1972. Their work was influential to vinyl record album cover art, indeed all of the aforementioned artists created album covers. Although San Francisco remained the hub of psychedelic art into the early 1970s, the style developed internationally: British artist Bridget Riley became famous for her op-art paintings of psychedelic patterns creating optical illusions. Mati Klarwein created psychedelic masterpieces for Miles Davis' Jazz-Rock fusion albums, for Carlos Santana Latin Rock. Pink Floyd worked extensively with London-based designers, Hipgnosis to create graphics to support the concepts in their albums.
Willem de Ridder created cover art for Van Morrison. Los Angeles area artists such as John Van Hamersveld, Warren Dayton and Art Bevacqua and New York artists Peter Max and Milton Glaser all produced posters for concerts or social commentary (such as the anti-wa
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development. The term entheogen is chosen to contrast recreational use of the same drugs; the religious, shamanic, or spiritual significance of entheogens is well established in anthropological and modern contexts. In the 1960s the hippie movement escalated its use to psychedelic art, binaural beats, sensory deprivation tanks and rave parties; the neologism entheogen was coined in 1979 by a group of scholars of mythology. The term is derived from two words of Ancient Greek, ἔνθεος and γενέσθαι; the adjective entheos translates to English as "full of the god, possessed", is the root of the English word "enthusiasm." The Greeks used it as a term of praise for other artists. Genesthai means "to come into being." Thus, an entheogen is a drug that causes one to become inspired or to experience feelings of inspiration in a religious or "spiritual" manner. Entheogen was coined as a replacement for the terms psychedelic.
Hallucinogen was popularized by Aldous Huxley's experiences with mescaline, which were published as The Doors of Perception in 1954. Psychedelic, in contrast, is a Greek neologism for "mind manifest", was coined by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond. Ruck et al. argued that the term hallucinogen was inappropriate owing to its etymological relationship to words relating to delirium and insanity. The term psychedelic was seen as problematic, owing to the similarity in sound to words pertaining to psychosis and due to the fact that it had become irreversibly associated with various connotations of 1960s pop culture. In modern usage entheogen may be used synonymously with these terms, or it may be chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs; the meanings of the term entheogen were formally defined by Ruck et al.: In a strict sense, only those vision-producing drugs that can be shown to have figured in shamanic or religious rites would be designated entheogens, but in a looser sense, the term could be applied to other drugs, both natural and artificial, that induce alterations of consciousness similar to those documented for ritual ingestion of traditional entheogens.
Entheogens have been used by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Some countries have legislation. However, in the mid-20th century, after the discovery of LSD, the intervention of psychedelic therapy, the term entheogen, invented in 1979 became an umbrella term used to include artificial drugs, alternative medical treatment, spiritual practices, whether or not in a formal religious or traditional structure. R. Gordon Wasson and Giorgio Samorini have proposed several examples of the cultural use of entheogens that are found in the archaeological record. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. There now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from the aforementioned plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these respective organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine and muscimol.
Semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs have been developed. Alexander Shulgin developed hundreds of entheogens in PiHKAL and TiHKAL. Most of the drugs in PiHKAL are synthetic. Entheogens used by movements includes biotas like peyote, extracts like Ayahuasca, the semi-synthetic drug LSD, synthetic drugs like DPT and 2C-B. Both Santo Daime and União do Vegetal now have churches throughout the world. Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, 2C-i to assist psychotherapy. MAPS has pursued a number of other research studies examining the effects of psychedelics administered to human subjects; these studies include, but are not limited to, studies of Ayahuasca, DMT, ketamine, LSA, LSD, MDE, MDMA, peyote, Salvia divinorum and conducted multi-drug studies as well as cross cultural and meta-analysis research. Alcohol has sometimes been invested with religious significance. Celtic polytheismIn ancient Celtic religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was the god of agriculture and alcoholic drinks of the Gauls.
Ancient Mesopotamian religionNinkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer. Dionysian MysteriesIn the ancient Greco-Roman religion, Dionysos was the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy, of merry making and theatre; the original rite of Dionysus is associated with a wine cult and he may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BCE by Mycenean Greeks. The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return t
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine is a chemical substance that occurs in many plants and animals and, both a derivative and a structural analog of tryptamine. It can be consumed as a psychedelic drug and has been prepared by various cultures for ritual purposes as an entheogen. Rick Strassman labeled it "the spirit molecule". DMT is illegal in most countries. DMT has a rapid onset, intense effects and a short duration of action. For those reasons, DMT was known as the "businessman's trip" during the 1960s in the United States, as a user could access the full depth of a psychedelic experience in less time than with other substances such as LSD or magic mushrooms. DMT can be inhaled, vaporized or ingested, its effects depend on the dose; when inhaled or injected, the effects last a short period of time: about 5 to 15 minutes. Effects can last 3 hours or more when orally ingested along with an MAOI, such as the ayahuasca brew of many native Amazonian tribes. DMT can produce vivid "projections" of mystical experiences involving euphoria and dynamic hallucinations of geometric forms.
DMT is a functional analog and structural analog of other psychedelic tryptamines such as 4-AcO-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-HO-DMT, psilocin. The structure of DMT occurs within some important biomolecules like serotonin and melatonin, making them structural analogs of DMT. DMT is produced in many species of plants in conjunction with its close chemical relatives 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and bufotenin. DMT-containing plants are used in South American shamanic practices, it is one of the main active constituents of the drink ayahuasca. It occurs as the primary psychoactive alkaloid in several plants including Mimosa tenuiflora, Diplopterys cabrerana, Psychotria viridis. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in snuff made from Virola bark resin in which 5-MeO-DMT is the main active alkaloid. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in bark and beans of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina used to make Yopo and Vilca snuff in which bufotenin is the main active alkaloid. Psilocin and its precursor psilocybin, an active chemical in many psychedelic mushrooms, are structurally similar to DMT.
The psychotropic effects of DMT were first studied scientifically by the Hungarian chemist and psychologist Dr. Stephen Szára, who performed research with volunteers in the mid-1950s. Szára, who worked for the US National Institutes of Health, had turned his attention to DMT after his order for LSD from the Swiss company Sandoz Laboratories was rejected on the grounds that the powerful psychotropic could be dangerous in the hands of a communist country. DMT is not active orally unless it is combined with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor such as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A, for example, harmaline. Without an MAOI, the body metabolizes orally administered DMT, it therefore has no hallucinogenic effect unless the dose exceeds monoamine oxidase's metabolic capacity. Other means of ingestion such as vaporizing, injecting, or insufflating the drug can produce powerful hallucinations for a short time, as the DMT reaches the brain before it can be metabolized by the body's natural monoamine oxidase.
Taking a MAOI prior to vaporizing or injecting DMT potentiates the effects. Several scientific experimental studies have tried to measure subjective experiences of altered states of consciousness induced by drugs under controlled and safe conditions. In the 1990s, Rick Strassman and his colleagues conducted a five-year-long DMT study at the University of New Mexico; the results provided insight about the quality of subjective psychedelic experiences. In this study participants received the DMT dosage intravenously via injection and the findings suggested that different psychedelic experiences can occur, depending on the level of dosage. Lower doses produced emotional responses, but not hallucinogenic experiences. In contrast, responses produced by higher doses researchers labeled as "hallucinogenic" that elicited "intensely colored moving display of visual images, abstract or both". Comparing to other sensory modalities the most affected was visual domain. Participants reported visual hallucinations, less auditory hallucinations and specific physical sensation progressing to a sense of bodily dissociation, as well as experiences of euphoria, calm and anxiety.
Strassman stressed the importance of the context where the drug has been taken. He claimed that DMT has no beneficial effects of itself, rather the context when and where people take it plays an important role, it appears. It can induce a state or feeling to a person that he or she is able to "communicate with other intelligent-life forms". High doses of DMT produce a hallucinatory state that involves sense of "another intelligence" that people sometimes describe as "super-intelligent", but "emotionally detached". In 1995 Adolf Dittrich and Daniel Lamparter did a study where they found that DMT-induced altered state of consciousness is influenced by habitual, rather than situative factors. In the study researchers used three dimensions of the APZ questionnaire to describe ASC. First, oceanic boundlessness refers to dissolution of ego boundaries associated with positive emotions. Second, anxious ego-dissolution includes disorder of thoughts, loss of autonomy and self-control
A dream is a succession of images, ideas and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not understood, although they have been a topic of scientific and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message; the scientific study of dreams is called oneirology. Dreams occur in the rapid-eye movement stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be memorable; the length of a dream can vary. People are more to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase; the average person has three to five dreams per night, some may have up to seven. Dreams tend to last longer. During a full eight-hour night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM.
Dreams related to waking-life experiences are associated with REM theta activity, which suggests that emotional memory processing takes place in REM sleep. Opinions about the meaning of dreams have shifted through time and culture. Many endorse the Freudian theory of dreams – that dreams reveal insight into hidden desires and emotions. Other prominent theories include those suggesting that dreams assist in memory formation, problem solving, or are a product of random brain activation. Sigmund Freud, who developed the psychological discipline of psychoanalysis, wrote extensively about dream theories and their interpretations in the early 1900s, he explained dreams as manifestations of one's deepest desires and anxieties relating to repressed childhood memories or obsessions. Furthermore, he believed that every dream topic, regardless of its content, represented the release of sexual tension. In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud developed a psychological technique to interpret dreams and devised a series of guidelines to understand the symbols and motifs that appear in our dreams.
In modern times, dreams have been seen as a connection to the unconscious mind. They range from ordinary to overly surreal and bizarre. Dreams can have varying natures, such as being frightening, magical, adventurous, or sexual; the events in dreams are outside the control of the dreamer, with the exception of lucid dreaming, where the dreamer is self-aware. Dreams can at times make a creative thought give a sense of inspiration; the Dreaming is a common term within the animist creation narrative of indigenous Australians for a personal, or group and for what may be understood as the "timeless time" of formative creation and perpetual creating. The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia have left evidence of dream interpretation dating back to at least 3100 BC. Throughout Mesopotamian history, dreams were always held to be important for divination and Mesopotamian kings paid close attention to them. Gudea, the king of the Sumerian city-state of Lagash, rebuilt the temple of Ningirsu as the result of a dream in which he was told to do so.
The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh contains numerous accounts of the prophetic power of dreams. First, Gilgamesh himself has two dreams foretelling the arrival of Enkidu. Enkidu dreams about the heroes' encounter with the giant Humbaba. Dreams were sometimes seen as a means of seeing into other worlds and it was thought that the soul, or some part of it, moved out of the body of the sleeping person and visited the places and persons the dreamer saw in his or her sleep. In Tablet VII of the epic, Enkidu recounts to Gilgamesh a dream in which he saw the gods Anu and Shamash condemn him to death, he has a dream in which he visits the Underworld. The Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II built a temple to Mamu the god of dreams, at Imgur-Enlil, near Kalhu; the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal had a dream during a desperate military situation in which his divine patron, the goddess Ishtar, appeared to him and promised that she would lead him to victory. The Babylonians and Assyrians divided dreams into "good," which were sent by the gods, "bad," sent by demons.
A surviving collection of dream omens entitled Iškar Zaqīqu records various dream scenarios as well as prognostications of what will happen to the person who experiences each dream based on previous cases. Some list different possible outcomes, based on occasions in which people experienced similar dreams with different results. Dream scenarios mentioned include a variety of daily work events, journeys to different locations, family matters, sex acts, encounters with human individuals and deities. In ancient Egypt, as far back as 2000 BC, the Egyptians wrote down their dreams on papyrus. People with vivid and significant dreams were considered special. Ancient Egyptians believed, they thought that the best way to receive divine revelation was through dreaming and thus they would induce dreams. Egyptians would go to sanctuaries and sleep on special "dream beds" in hope of receiving advice, comfort, or healing from the gods. In Chinese history, people wrote of two vital aspects of the soul of which one is freed from the body during slumber to journey in a dream realm, while the other remained in the body, although this belie
Echinopsis peruviana, the Peruvian torch cactus, is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about 2,000–3,000 m above sea level. It contains the psychoactive alkaloid mescaline as well as other alkaloids, although reported levels vary and do not approach the concentrations found in Echinopsis pachanoi; the plant is bluish-green in color, with frosted stems, 6-9 broadly rounded ribs. It can grow up to 3–6 m tall, with stems up to 8–18 cm in diameter. Groups of 6-8 honey-colored to brown rigid spines, up to 4 cm in length, with most about 1 cm, are located at the nodes, which are evenly spaced along the ribs, up to 2.5 cm apart. Echinopsis peruviana ssp. puquiensis Ostolaza Some varieties, with scientifically invalid names, of Echinopsis peruviana are: var. ancash, San Marcos, northwest Peru. Var. ayacuchensis, southwestern Peru. Var. cuzcoensis, Cuzco, southeastern Peru. Var. Huntington, USA. Var. huancabamba, northwest Peru. Var. huancavelica, west central Peru.
Var. huancayo, west central Peru. Var. huaraz, northwestern Peru. Var. matucana Lima, central west Peru. Var. puquiensis, Apurímac Region, southwestern Peru. Var. Rio Lurin, Rio Rimac, west central Peru. Var. tarmensis, Junín, west central Peru. Var. trujilloensis, Trujillo, La Libertad, northwestern Peru. Echinopsis peruviana is one of a number of Echinopsis species native to the Andes that have been reported to contain the psychoactive alkaloid mescaline. Others include E. lageniformis, E. scopulicola, E. santaensis and E. puquiensis. All those columnar species thought to be psychoactive have been called "San Pedro" in Spanish. Reported concentrations of mescaline vary with causes suggested to include: taxonomic uncertainty leading to difficulties in identification; some studies have reported no mescaline content in wild-harvested Peruvian specimens of E. peruviana, in plants grown in Europe. In those studies that have compared different species and cultivars, when mescaline has been found, it has been at much lower concentrations than in the highest yielding forms of other species.
James D. Mauseth, Roberto Kiesling and Succulent Journal 70: 32-39 Michael S. Smith, The Narcotic and Hallucinogenic Cacti of the New World William Rafti, "KK242 Notes and photos" ASIN: B001EHF2BU ISBN 0-9720525-5-0 Library of Congress Number: 2008902776 Media related to Echinopsis peruviana at Wikimedia Commons Echinopsis peruviana