The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Salvia divinorum is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea. The leaves contain opioid-like compounds; because the plant has not been well-studied in high-quality clinical research, little is known about its toxicology, adverse effects, or safety over long-term consumption. Its native habitat is cloud forest in the isolated Sierra Mazateca of Oaxaca, where it grows in shady, moist locations; the plant grows to over a meter high, has hollow square stems like others in the mint family Lamiaceae, large leaves, occasional white flowers with violet calyxes. Botanists have not determined whether Salvia divinorum is a cultigen or a hybrid because native plants reproduce vegetatively and produce viable seed. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions, its chief active psychoactive constituent is a structurally unique diterpenoid called salvinorin A, a potent κ-opioid agonist.
Although not assessed, preliminary research indicates Salvia divinorum may have low toxicity. The effects are rapid in short-lasting. Salvia divinorum is legal in some countries and certain US states, while other states have passed laws criminalizing it; the genus name, was first used by Pliny for a plant, Salvia officinalis and is derived from the Latin salvere. The specific epithet, was given because of the plant's traditional use in divination, it is loosely translated as "diviner's sage" or "seer's sage". Albert Hofmann, who collected the first plants with Wasson, objected to the new plant being given the name divinorum: "I was not happy with the name because Salvia divinorum means "Salvia of the ghosts", whereas Salvia divinatorum, the correct name, means "Salvia of the priests", it is now in the botanical literature under the name Salvia divinorum. There are many common names for S. divinorum, including sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or salvia. Salvia divinorum is native to the Sierra Mazateca in Oaxaca, where it is still used by the Mazatec to facilitate shamanic visions in the context of curing or divination.
S. divinorum is one of several species with hallucinogenic properties that are ritually used by Mazatec shamans. In their rituals, the shamans use only fresh S. divinorum leaves. They see the plant as an incarnation of the Virgin Mary, begin the ritual with an invocation to Mary, Saint Peter, the Holy Trinity, other saints. Ritual use traditionally involves being in a quiet place after ingestion of the leaf—the Maztec shamans say that "La Maria speaks with a quiet voice."It is used remedially at lower dosages as a diuretic, to treat ailments including diarrhea, headaches, a semi-magical disease known as panzón de borrego, or a swollen belly. The history of the plant is not well known, there has been no definitive answer to the question of its origin. Speculation includes Salvia divinorum being a wild plant native to the area. Botanists have not been able to determine whether it is a hybrid or a cultigen. Salvia divinorum was first recorded in print by Jean Basset Johnson in 1939 while he was studying Mazatec shamanism.
He documented its usage and reported its effects through personal testimonials. It was not until the 1990s that the psychoactive mechanism was identified by a team led by Daniel Siebert. Gordon Wasson tentatively postulated that the plant could be the mythological pipiltzintzintli, the "Noble Prince" of the Aztec codices. Wasson's speculation has been the subject of further debate amongst ethnobotanists, with some scepticism coming from Leander J. Valdés, counterpoints more supportive of Wasson's theory from Jonathan Ott; the identity of another mysterious Aztec entheogen, namely that of poyomatli, has been suggested as being Salvia divinorum. Here too there are other candidate plants, notably Cacahuaxochitl, again suggesting that there is no consensus. Salvia divinorum has large green ovate leaves, with a yellow undertone; the leaves have no hairs on either surface, little or no petiole. The plant grows to well over 1 metre in height, on hollow square stems which tend to break or trail on the ground, with the plant rooting quite at the nodes and internodes.
The flowers, which bloom only grow in whorls on a 30-centimetre inflorescence, with about six flowers to each whorl. The 3-centimetre flowers are white and covered with hairs, held in a small violet calyx, covered in hairs and glands; when it does bloom in its native habitat, it does so from September to May. Early authors erred in describing the flowers as having blue corollas, based on Epling and Játiva's description; the first plant material they received was dried, so they based the flower color on an erroneous description by Hofmann and Wasson, who didn't realize that their "blue flowers, crowned with a white dome" were in fact violet calyces with unopened white corollas. Salvia divinorum is endemic to the Sierra Mazateca in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, growing in the primary or secondary cloud forest and tropical evergreen forest at elevations from 300 to 1,830 metres, its most common habitat is black soil along stream banks where small trees and bushes provide an environment of low lig
Acid jazz known as club jazz, is a music genre that combines elements of jazz, soul and disco. Acid jazz originated in the London club scene of the mid-1980s in the rare groove movement and spread to the US, Eastern Europe, Brazil. Major acts included the Brand New Heavies, Incognito, Us3, Jamiroquai from the UK and Buckshot LeFonque and Digable Planets from the US; the rise of electronic club music in the mid to late 1990s led to a decline in interest, in the twenty-first century, the movement became indistinct as a genre. Many acts that might have been defined as acid jazz are now seen as jazz-funk, neo soul, or jazz rap; the genre got its name in 1987 from a disc jockey in London. The name is a play on the acid house genre, popular in UK clubs in the 1980s. Acid jazz consisted of two related movements; the first was based on records released by DJs and producers that included rare jazz tracks from the 1960s and 1970s mixing them with percussion tracks and electronic dance beats. The second were groups influenced by these recordings and who emphasised a groove-based approach to music.
Acid jazz uses elements of jazz and hip-hop. Because of its existence as a percussion-heavy live music, it was closer to jazz than any other dance style, but its focus on maintaining a groove allied it with funk, hip-hop, dance music; the style is characterized by danceable long, repetitive compositions. Typical ensembles include horns, a full rhythm section, a vocalist that may sing and rap and a DJ. Acid jazz has its origins in the 1960s, when psychedelic styles were being incorporated into other musical genres, jazz being one of these; some cite "Six Pack" and "Soul Fiesta" by The Apostles as acid jazz records during the 1960s. Acid jazz became popular in the London club scene of the mid-1980s, with DJs of the rare groove movement, who played obscure jazz records, their main interests were in the fringe of jazz fusion, jazz funk, with lesser input from soul jazz of the 1950s and 1960s. Significant were records from the Blue Note catalogue; these DJs included Gilles Peterson, who had residencies at several London clubs in the 1980s, began in his own small pirate radio station and moved to the much larger Kiss-FM.
In 1988 with producer Eddie Piller he formed the label Acid Jazz Records. The first release from the company was the compilation Totally Wired, which contained obscure jazz funk tracks from the 1970s with updated new tracks. In 1990 Peterson left to found his own label Talkin' Loud at Phonogram; the company signed acts such as Young Disciples and Urban Species. Another British record label, Fourth And Broadway Records, was formed in 1990 and began a compilation series with the title "The Rebirth of Cool". Artists included Pharoah Sanders, Stereo MCs, the French rapper MC Solaar, Japanese production team United Future Organization and saxophonist Courtney Pine. In 1991 the genre broke into the mainstream with the success of Brand New Heavies. After one eponymous album with Acid Jazz Records the group moved on to FFRR Records for their hit singles "Never Stop" and "Dreams Come True". Other bands included Us3, whose "Cantaloop" was the biggest hit in the genre. Successful were Jamiroquai, having been an early signing for Acid Jazz Records, signed for Sony Music for their successful album Travelling Without Moving, which spawned the international hit single "Virtual Insanity".
Other live acts included the James Taylor Quartet. The initial mainstream success of acid jazz was followed by a large number of compilations that left the public confused as to the nature of and key performers in the genre. In the early 1990s local acid jazz scenes developed in the US, it reached New York in 1990 when British promoter Maurice Bernstein, his South African partner, Jonathan Rudnick opened Groove Academy as a party at the Giant Step club in the basement of the Metropolis Café in Union Square. From this Groove Academy developed into a record label and media company. Other acid jazz recording artists in New York were Brooklyn Funk Essentials, DJ Smash, Jerome Van Rossum. In San Francisco there was Ubiquity Records and in Los Angeles Solsonics. Notable acid jazz groups that emerged from this scene included A Tribe Called Quest, who borrowed from a variety of jazz sources for their Platinum-selling The Low End Theory, Buckshot LeFonque, a project of Branford Marsalis, Digable Planets, who were awarded a Grammy for their 1993 single "Rebirth of Slick".
Formed in New York in 1990, Groove Collective produced their self-titled debut in 1993 and have continued to be influential into the twenty-first century. The rapper Guru released a series of collaborative albums with major figures in jazz as the Jazzmatazz series. From Chicago, Liquid Soul achieved a national profile from 1996 when their self-titled debut LP was re-released on the Ark21 label. Acid jazz soon gained an international following, including in Japan, Germany and Eastern Europe. From Japan, United Future Organization gained an international reputation, signing an American record deal in 1994. Other notable artists from Japan included Mondo Grosso, Gota. From Eastern Europe came bands such as Skalpel from Poland; the rise of electronic club music in the mid to late 1990s led to a decline in interest in acid jazz among the record buying public, although the genre continued to have a reduced worldwide following. In the twenty-first century the movement became so intertwined with other forms that it became indistinct as a genre and many acts that might have been defined as a
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, altered state of consciousness. Major psychedelic drugs include mescaline, LSD, DMT. Studies show that psychedelics do not lead to addiction. Studies conducted using psilocybin in a psychotheraputic setting reveal that psychedelic drugs may assist with treating alcohol and nicotine addiction. Differing with other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, psychedelics tend to qualitatively alter ordinary conscious experience. Whereas stimulants cause energized feelings and opioids produce a relaxed euphoric state, the psychedelic experience is compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, yoga, religious ecstasy and near-death experiences. Most psychedelic drugs fall into one of the three families of chemical compounds: tryptamines, phenethylamines, or lysergamides. Although lysergamides are their own group they are a tryptamine.
Many psychedelic drugs are illegal worldwide under the UN conventions excepting use in a religious or research context. Despite these controls, recreational use of psychedelics is common; the term psychedelic is derived from the Greek words ψυχή and δηλείν, hence "soul-manifesting", the implication being that psychedelics can access the soul and develop unused potentials of the human mind. The word was coined in 1956 by British psychiatrist, Humphry Osmond, the spelling loathed by American ethnobotanist, Richard Schultes, but championed by the American psychologist, Timothy Leary. Aldous Huxley had suggested to Humphry Osmond in 1956 his own coinage phanerothyme; the term entheogenic has come into use to denote the use of psychedelic drugs in a religious/spiritual/mystical context. Psychedelics have a long history of traditional use in medicine and religion, for their perceived ability to promote physical and mental healing. In this context, they are known as entheogens. Native American practitioners using mescaline-containing cacti have reported success against alcoholism, Mazatec practitioners use psilocybin mushrooms for divination and healing.
Ayahuasca, which contains the potent psychedelic DMT, is used in Peru and other parts of South America for spiritual and physical healing as well as in religious festivals. Classical or serotonergic psychedelics include LSD, mescaline, DMT; this class of psychedelics includes the classical hallucinogens, including the lysergamides like LSD and LSA, tryptamines like psilocybin and DMT, phenethylamines like mescaline and 2C-B. Many of these psychedelics cause remarkably similar effects, despite their different chemical structure. However, many users report that the three families have subjectively different qualities in the "feel" of the experience, which are difficult to describe. At lower doses, these include sensory alterations, such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, color variations. Users report intense colors that they have not experienced, repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses cause intense and fundamental alterations of sensory perception, such as synesthesia or the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions.
Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have tight "dose curves", meaning the difference between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be slight. There can be substantial differences between the drugs, however. For instance, 5-MeO-DMT produces the visual effects typical of other psychedelics and ibogaine is an NMDA receptor antagonist and κ-opioid receptor agonist in addition to being an agonist for the 5-HT2A receptors, resulting in dissociative effects as well. Research published in journal Cell Reports states that psychedelic drugs promote neural plasticity in rats and flies; the empathogen-entactogens are phenethylamines of the MDxx class such as MDMA, MDEA, MDA. Their effects are characterized by feelings of openness, empathy, heightened self-awareness, by mild audio and visual distortions, their adoption by the rave subculture is due to the enhancement of the overall social and musical experience. MDA is atypical to this experience causing hallucinations and psychedelic effects in equal profundity to the chemicals in the 5-HT2A agonist category, but with less mental involvement, is both a serotonin releaser and 5-HT2A receptor agonist.
Certain dissociative drugs acting via NMDA antagonism are known to produce what some might consider psychedelic effects. The main differences between dissociative psychedelics and serotonergic hallucinogens are that the dissociatives cause more intense derealization and depersonalization. For example, ketamine produces sensations of being disconnected from one's body and that the surrounding environment is unreal, as well as perceptual alterations seen with other psychedelics. Salvia divinorum is a dissociative, sometimes classified as an atypical psychedelic; the active molecule in the plant, salvinorin A, is a kappa opioid receptor agonist, working on a part of the brain that de
Psychedelic music is a wide range of popular music styles and genres influenced by 1960s psychedelia, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations and altered states of consciousness. Psychedelic music may aim to enhance the experience of using these drugs. Psychedelic music emerged during the 1960s among folk and rock bands in the United States and the United Kingdom, creating the subgenres of psychedelic folk, psychedelic rock, acid rock, psychedelic pop before declining in the early 1970s. Numerous spiritual successors followed in the ensuing decades, including progressive rock and heavy metal. Since the 1970s, revivals have included psychedelic funk, neo-psychedelia, psychedelic hip hop, as well as psychedelic electronic music genres such as acid house, trance music, new rave. "Psychedelic" as an adjective is misused, with many so-called acts playing in a variety of styles. Acknowledging this, author Michael Hicks explains: To understand what makes music stylistically "psychedelic," one should consider three fundamental effects of LSD: dechronicization, depersonalization, dynamization.
Dechronicization permits the drug user to move outside of conventional perceptions of time. Depersonalization allows the user to lose the self and gain an "awareness of undifferentiated unity." Dynamization, as Leary wrote, makes everything from floors to lamps seem to bends, as "familiar forms dissolve into moving, dancing structures"... Music, "psychedelic" mimics these three effects. A number of features are quintessential to psychedelic music. Exotic instrumentation, with a particular fondness for the sitar and tabla are common. Songs have more disjunctive song structures and time signature changes, modal melodies, drones than contemporary pop music. Surreal, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics are used. There is a strong emphasis on extended instrumental segments or jams. There is a strong keyboard presence, in the 1960s using electronic organs, harpsichords, or the Mellotron, an early tape-driven'sampler' keyboard. Elaborate studio effects are used, such as backwards tapes, panning the music from one side to another of the stereo track, using the "swooshing" sound of electronic phasing, long delay loops, extreme reverb.
In the 1960s there was a use of electronic instruments such as the theremin. Forms of electronic psychedelia employed repetitive computer-generated beats. From the second half of the 1950s, Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg wrote about and took drugs, including cannabis and Benzedrine, raising awareness and helping to popularise their use. In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other psychedelics was advocated by new proponents of consciousness expansion such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler, according to Laurence Veysey, they profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth; the psychedelic lifestyle had developed in California in San Francisco, by the mid-1960s, with the first major underground LSD factory established by Owsley Stanley. From 1964 the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events involving the taking of LSD, accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony.
The Pranksters helped popularise LSD use, through their road trips across America in a psychedelically-decorated converted school bus, which involved distributing the drug and meeting with major figures of the beat movement, through publications about their activities such as Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. San Francisco had an emerging music scene of folk clubs, coffee houses and independent radio stations that catered to the population of students at nearby Berkeley and the free thinkers that had gravitated to the city. There was a culture of drug use among jazz and blues musicians, in the early 1960s use of drugs including cannabis, mescaline and LSD began to grow among folk and rock musicians. One of the first musical uses of the term "psychedelic" in the folk scene was by the New York-based folk group The Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly's'Hesitation Blues' in 1964. Folk/avant-garde guitarist John Fahey recorded several songs in the early 1960s experimented with unusual recording techniques, including backwards tapes, novel instrumental accompaniment including flute and sitar.
His nineteen-minute "The Great San Bernardino Birthday Party" "anticipated elements of psychedelia with its nervy improvisations and odd guitar tunings". Folk guitarist Sandy Bull's early work "incorporated elements of folk and Indian and Arabic-influenced dronish modes", his 1963 album Fantasias for Guitar and Banjo explores various styles and "could be described as one of the first psychedelic records". Soon musicians began to refer to the drug and attempted to recreate or reflect the experience of taking LSD in their music, just as it was reflected in psychedelic art and film; this trend ran in parallel in both America and Britain and as part of the interconnected folk and rock scenes. As pop music began incorporating psychedelic sounds, the genre emerged as a mainstream and commercial force. Psychedelic rock reached its peak in the last years of the decade. From 1967 to 1968, it was the prevailing sound of rock music, either in the whimsical British variant, or the harder American West Coas
Madchester was a music and cultural scene that developed in the Manchester area of North West England in the late 1980s, in which artists merged alternative rock with acid house and dance culture as well as other sources, including psychedelia and 1960s pop. The label was popularised by the British music press in the early 1990s, its most famous groups include the Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, the Charlatans and 808 State; the rave-influenced scene is seen as influenced by drugs ecstasy. At that time, the Haçienda nightclub, co-owned by members of New Order, was a major catalyst for the distinctive musical ethos in the city, called the Second Summer of Love; the music scene in Manchester before the Madchester era had been dominated by The Smiths, New Order, The Fall. These bands were to become a significant influence on the Madchester scene; the opening of the Haçienda nightclub, an initiative of Factory Records, in May 1982 was influential in the development of popular culture in Manchester.
For the first few years of its life, the club played predominantly club oriented pop music and hosted gigs from artists including New Order, Cabaret Voltaire, Culture Club, Thompson Twins and the Smiths. It had DJs such as Hewan Clarke and Greg Wilson and switched focus from being a live venue to being a dance club by 1986. In 1987 the Hacienda started playing house music with DJs Mike Pickering, Graeme Park and "Little" Martin Prendergast hosting the Nude night on Fridays; the Festival of the Tenth Summer in July 1986, organised by Factory Records, helped to consolidate Manchester's standing as a centre for alternative pop-culture. The festival included film screenings, a music seminar, art shows and gigs by the city's most prominent bands, including an all-day gig at Manchester G-Mex featuring A Certain Ratio, the Smiths, New Order and the Fall. According to Dave Haslam, the festival demonstrated that "the city had become synonymous with... larger-than-life characters playing cutting edge music...
Individuals were inspired and the city was energised. The Haçienda went from making a consistent loss to selling out by early 1987. During 1987, it hosted performances by American house artists including Adonis. Other clubs in the Manchester area started to catch on to house music including Devilles, Isadora's, House and Man Alive in the city centre, Bugsy's in Ashton-under-Lyne and the Osbourne Club in Miles Platting. Another key factor in the build-up to Madchester was the sudden availability of the drug ecstasy in the city, beginning in 1987 and growing the following year. According to Dave Haslam: "Ecstasy use changed clubs forever; the British music scene was such that The Guardian stated that'The'80s looked destined to end in musical ignominy.' The Madchester movement burgeoned, its sound was new and refreshing and its popularity soon grew. Music by artists such as the Stone Roses and Happy Mondays began to chart in 1989 with New Order releasing the acid house influenced Technique, which topped the UK album charts.
Although the Madchester scene cannot be said to have started before 1988, many of its most significant bands and artists were around on the local scene long before then. The Stone Roses were formed in 1983 by singer Ian Brown and guitarist John Squire, who had grown up on the same street in Timperley, a district of Altrincham, to the south-west of Manchester, they had been in bands together since 1980, but the Stone Roses were the first to release a record, "So Young", in 1985. The line-up was completed by Alan "Reni" Wren on drums and, from 1987, Gary "Mani" Mounfield on bass; the Happy Mondays were formed in Salford in 1980. The members between and the break-up of the band in 1992 were Shaun Ryder, his brother Paul, Mark "Bez" Berry, Paul Davis, Mark Day and Gary Whelan, they were signed to Factory Records after Haçienda DJ Mike Pickering saw them at a Battle of the Bands contest in which they came last. They released two singles – "45", produced by Pickering in 1985, "Freaky Dancin'", produced by New Order's Bernard Sumner in 1986 – before putting out an album produced by John Cale and bearing the title Squirrel and G-Man Twenty Four Hour Party People Plastic Face Carnt Smile in 1987.
The Inspiral Carpets were formed in Oldham in 1983. The line-up was Stephen Holt, Graham Lambert, Martyn Walsh and Craig Gill, they released a flexi-disc a year and in 1988 the Planecrash EP brought them to the attention of John Peel. James were formed in 1982 by Paul Gilbertson and Jim Glennie, recruiting Drama student Tim Booth on vocals and Gavan Whelan on drums, they released their first EP, Jimone on Factory Records in 1983, attracted critical enthusiasm, as well as the patronage of Morrissey. Sales of their two albums for Blanco y Negro Records, Stutter in 1986 and Strip-mine in 1988, were disappointing and, at the time Madchester hit, the band was using t-shirt sales to fund its own releases through Rough Trade Records. Madchester helped bring them commercial success and the single "Sit Down" became one of the most popular anthems of the era. 808 State were formed in 1987 by the owner of the Eastern Bloc Records shop on Oldham Street, Martin Price
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti