Golden Raspberry Awards
The Golden Raspberry Awards is a parody booby prize award in recognition of the worst in film. Co-founded by UCLA film graduates and film industry veterans John J. B. Wilson and Mo Murphy, the annual Razzie Awards ceremony in Los Angeles precedes the corresponding Academy Awards ceremony by one day; the term raspberry in the name is used in its irreverent sense, as in "blowing a raspberry". The awards themselves are in the form of a "golf ball-sized raspberry" atop a Super 8 mm film reel, all spray painted gold; the first Golden Raspberry Awards ceremony was held on March 31, 1981, at John J. B. Wilson's living-room alcove in Los Angeles, to honor the worst in film of the 1980 film season; the 39th ceremony was held on February 23, 2019. American publicist John J. B. Wilson traditionally held potluck parties at his house in Los Angeles on the night of the Academy Awards. In 1981, after the 53rd Academy Awards had completed for the evening, Wilson invited friends to give random award presentations in his living room.
Wilson decided to formalize the event, after watching a double feature of Can't Stop the Music and Xanadu. He gave them ballots to vote on worst in film. Wilson stood at a podium made of cardboard in a tacky tuxedo, with a foam ball attached to a broomstick as a fake microphone, announced Can't Stop the Music as the first Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture; the impromptu ceremony was a success and the following week a press release about his event released by Wilson was picked up by a few local newspapers, including a mention in the Los Angeles Daily News with the headline: "Take These Envelopes, Please". Three dozen people came to the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards; the 2nd Golden Raspberry Awards had double the attendance as the first, the 3rd awards ceremony in turn, had double this number. By the 4th Golden Raspberry Awards ceremony, CNN and two major wire services covered the event. Wilson realized that by scheduling the Golden Raspberry Awards before the Academy Awards, the ceremony would get more press coverage: "We figured out you couldn't compete with the Oscars on Oscar night, but if you went the night before, when the press from all over the world are here and they are looking for something to do, it could well catch on," he said to BBC News.
The term raspberry is used in its irreverent sense, as in "blowing a raspberry". Wilson commented to the author of Blame It on the Dog: "When I registered the term with the Library of Congress in 1980, they asked me,'Why raspberry? What's the significance of that?' But since razz has pretty much permeated the culture. We couldn't have done it without Hollywood's help." Wilson is referred to as "Ye Olde Head Razzberry". Paying members of the Golden Raspberry Award Foundation vote to determine the recipients. For the 29th Golden Raspberry Awards in 2009, award results were based on votes from 650 journalists, cinema fans and professionals from the film industry. Voters hailed from 45 states in the United States and 19 other countries; the ceremony held one day before the Academy Awards, is modeled after the latter but "deliberately low-end and tacky". Most winners do not attend the ceremony to collect their awards. Notable exceptions include Tom Green, Halle Berry and Sandra Bullock, Michael Ferris, J. D. Shapiro, Paul Verhoeven.
Three people won both the Razzies and Oscars the same weekend: Alan Menken in 1993, Brian Helgeland in 1998, Sandra Bullock in 2010, although all three for different films. Two actors had performances in the same movie scoring Oscar and Razzie nominations, James Coco and Amy Irving. Neil Diamond, winner of the inaugural Worst Actor Razzie for 1980’s The Jazz Singer, was nominated for the Golden Globe in the same role; the Aerosmith song "I Don't Want to Miss a Thing", as part of the original soundtrack to the 1998 film Armageddon, was nominated for both an Academy Award for Best Original Song and a Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Original Song, as was the Trisha Yearwood song "How Do I Live" from the 1997 film Con Air and the Tony Bennett song "Life in a Looking Glass" from the 1986 film That's Life!. In 1981, Stanley Kubrick was nominated both for a Razzie Award as Worst Director at the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards as well as for a Saturn Award for Best Director at the 8th Saturn Awards for the same film: The Shining.
In 2002, Natalie Portman was nominated for Worst Supporting Actress and for the Saturn Award for Best Actress for the same role in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones. In 2017, Darren Aronofsky was nominated for both the Golden Lion and the Worst Director Razzie for Mother!. Wall Street is the only film to date to win both a Razzie. Michael Douglas won the Academy Award for Best Actor, however Daryl Hannah's performance was not as well received and earned her a Razzie for Worst Supporting Actress. Current Awards Worst Picture: 1980 to present Worst Director: 1980 to present Worst Actor: 1980 to present Worst Actress: 1980 to present Worst Supporting Actor: 1980 to present Worst Supporting Actress: 1980 to present Worst Screenplay: 1980 to present Worst Prequel, Rip-off or Sequel: 1994 to present, except 1996 and 1999 Worst Screen Combo: 2013 to present The Razzie Redeemer Award: 2014 to presentRetired Worst Original Song: 1980 to 1999, 2002 Worst New Star: 1981 to 1998, except 1989 Worst Musical Score: 1981 to 1985 Worst Visual Effects: 1986 to 1987 Worst Screen Couple: 1994 to 2009, 2011 to 2012 Worst Screen Couple/Worst Screen Ensemble: 2010 Worst Screen Ensemble: 2011 to 2012 Special categories have been introduced for specific years.
Such special awards include: Every decade-closing ceremony includes an award
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Robert Wallace Forster, Jr. is an American actor, known for his roles as John Cassellis in Haskell Wexler's Medium Cool, Lebanese terrorist Abdul Rafai in The Delta Force, Max Cherry in Quentin Tarantino's Jackie Brown, for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Forster's varied filmography further includes titles such as Reflections in a Golden Eye, The Black Hole, Alligator, Me, Myself & Irene, Mulholland Drive, The Descendants, Olympus Has Fallen, its sequel London Has Fallen, he has had prominent roles in television series such as Banyon and Twin Peaks. He won the Saturn Award for Best Guest Starring Role on Television for his performance in Breaking Bad's "Granite State". Forster was born in Rochester, New York, the son of Grace Dorothy and Robert Wallace Forster, Sr. who worked as an elephant trainer for the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus and as an executive for a baking supply company. His mother was Italian American, while his father was of Irish descent.
The couple divorced in 1949. As a tribute to his father, Forster hung one of his father's Barnum & Bailey Circus posters in the office of his character in Jackie Brown, he completed his Bachelor of Arts in history in 1964 at the University of Rochester, where he starred in student dramatic performances such as Bye Bye Birdie and, after intending to study law, instead decided to become an actor. After acclaimed supporting performances in two major Hollywood films, one as Private Williams in John Huston's Reflections in a Golden Eye, another as part-Indian Army scout Nick Tana in Robert Mulligan's The Stalking Moon, Forster starred in the critically acclaimed film Medium Cool. After starring roles in the television series Banyon and Nakia, he played supporting roles in action and horror films including Disney's The Black Hole. Forster had lead roles in cult B-movies in the 1980s like Alligator, The Delta Force, The Banker. In 1997, Forster was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Jackie Brown, which he credits with reviving his career.
He has since had consistent work in the film industry, appearing in Like Mike, Mulholland Drive, Me, Myself & Irene, Lucky Number Slevin, Firewall, to name a few. He appeared in the made-for-television movie The Hunt for the BTK Killer, as the detective intent on capturing serial killer Dennis Rader. Forster played the father of Van on the short-lived Fox series Fastlane. Forster recorded a public service announcement for Deejay Ra's Hip-Hop Literacy campaign, encouraging reading of books by Elmore Leonard. Forster appeared in the hit NBC series Heroes as Arthur Petrelli, the father of Nathan and Peter Petrelli, as well as the Emmy Award-winning AMC crime drama Breaking Bad as Walter White's new identity specialist, he played Tim Allen’s father, Bud Baxter, to Allen’s Mike Baxter on the Fox hit comedy Last Man Standing. Forster is a motivational speaker. Forster is a member of the Triple Nine Society, he was married to June from May 14, 1966 to September 20, 1975, after meeting at their alma mater, the University of Rochester.
The marriage produced daughters Elizabeth, Kathrine "Kate" and Maeghen. He was married to Zivia Forster from 1978 to 1980, he has a son, Robert Jr. from a previous relationship. Voisin, Scott, "Character Kings: Hollywood's Familiar Faces Discuss the Art & Business of Acting". BearManor Media, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59393-342-5. Official website Robert Forster on IMDb Robert Forster at the Internet Broadway Database DVD Talk Interview House Petrelli Interview 12/08, Part 1
William H. Macy
William Hall Macy Jr. is an American actor. His film career has been built on appearances in small, independent films, though he has appeared in summer action films. Macy has described himself as "sort of a Middle American, WASPy, Lutheran kind of guy... Everyman". Macy has won two Emmy Awards and four Screen Actors Guild Awards, as well as an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor for Fargo. Since 2011, he has played Frank Gallagher, a main character in the Showtime adaptation of the British television series Shameless. Macy and actress Felicity Huffman have been married since 1997. Macy was born in Miami and grew up in Georgia and Maryland, his father, William Hall Macy, Sr. was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and an Air Medal for flying a B-17 Flying Fortress bomber in World War II. His mother, was a war widow who met Macy's father after her first husband died in 1943. Macy graduated from Allegany High School in Cumberland, Maryland in 1968, went on to Bethany College in West Virginia where he studied veterinary medicine.
A'wretched student' by his own admission, he transferred to Goddard College in rural Vermont, where he studied under playwright David Mamet. He studied theatre at HB Studio in New York City. After graduating from Goddard in 1972, Macy originated roles in a number of plays by collaborator David Mamet, such as American Buffalo and The Water Engine. While in Chicago in his twenties, he did a TV commercial, he was required to join AFTRA in order to do the commercial, received his SAG card within a year, which for an elated Macy represented an important moment in his career. Macy spent time in Los Angeles before moving to New York City in 1980, where he had roles in over 50 Off Broadway and Broadway plays. One of his early on-screen roles was as a turtle named Socrates in the direct-to-video film The Boy Who Loved Trolls, under the name W. H. Macy, he had a minor role as a hospital orderly on the sitcom Kate & Allie in the fourth-season episode "General Hospital", played an assistant district attorney in "Everybody's Favorite Bagman", the first produced episode of Law & Order.
He has appeared in numerous films that Mamet wrote and/or directed, such as House of Games, Things Change, Oleanna, Wag the Dog and Main and Spartan. Macy's leading role in Fargo helped boost his career and recognizability, though at the expense of nearly confining him to a narrow typecast of a worried man down on his luck. Other Macy roles of the 1990s and 2000s included Benny & Joon, Above Suspicion, Mr. Holland's Opus, Ghosts of Mississippi, Air Force One, Boogie Nights, A Civil Action, Gus Van Sant's remake of Psycho, Texas, Mystery Men, Jurassic Park III, Panic, Welcome to Collinwood, The Cooler and Sahara, his work on ER and Sports Night has been recognized with Emmy nominations. In a November 2003 interview with USA Today, Macy stated that he wanted to star in a big-budget action movie "for the money, for the security of a franchise like that, and I love big action-adventure movies. They're way cool." He serves as director-in-residence at the Atlantic Theater Company in New York, where he teaches a technique called Practical Aesthetics.
A book describing the technique, A Practical Handbook for the Actor, is dedicated to Mamet. In 2007, Macy starred in Wild Hogs, a film about middle-aged men reliving their youthful days by taking to the open road on their Harley-Davidson motorcycles from Cincinnati to the Pacific Coast. Despite being critically panned, with a 14% "rotten" rating from Rotten Tomatoes, it was a financial success, grossing over $168 million; the film reunited him with his A Civil Action costar, John Travolta. In 2009, Macy completed filming on The Maiden Heist, a comedy that co-starred Morgan Freeman and Christopher Walken. On June 23, 2008, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce announced Macy and his wife, Felicity Huffman, would each receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in the upcoming year. On January 13, 2009, Macy replaced Jeremy Piven in David Mamet's Speed-the-Plow on Broadway. Piven and unexpectedly dropped out of the play in December 2008 after he experienced health problems. Dirty Girl, which starred Macy along with Juno Temple, Milla Jovovich, Mary Steenburgen and Tim McGraw, premiered September 12, 2010 at the Toronto International Film Festival.
In summer 2010, Macy joined the Showtime pilot Shameless as Frank Gallagher. The project went to series, its first season premiered on January 9, 2011. Macy has received high critical acclaim for his performance getting an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series in 2014. In the 2012 film The Sessions, Macy played a priest who helps a man with a severe disability find personal fulfillment through a sex surrogate, he made his directorial debut with the independent drama Rudderless, which stars Billy Crudup, Felicity Huffman, Selena Gomez and Laurence Fishburne. In 2017, he directed The Layover, a road trip sex comedy starring Alexandra Daddario and Kate Upton, in which Macy appeared. In 2015, he had a small role as Grandpa in the drama film Room, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture; the film reunited him with his Plea
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 AD. Mummies of humans and animals have been found on every continent, both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, as cultural artifacts. Over one million animal mummies have been found in Egypt. Many of the Egyptian animal mummies are sacred ibis, radiocarbon dating suggests the Egyptian Ibis mummies that have been analyzed were from time frame that falls between 450 and 250 BC. In addition to the well-known mummies of ancient Egypt, deliberate mummification was a feature of several ancient cultures in areas of America and Asia with dry climates.
The Spirit Cave mummies of Fallon, Nevada in North America were dated at more than 9,400 years old. Before this discovery, the oldest known deliberate mummy was a child, one of the Chinchorro mummies found in the Camarones Valley, which dates around 5050 BC; the oldest known mummified human corpse is a severed head dated as 6,000 years old, found in 1936 AD at the site named Inca Cueva No. 4 in South America. The English word mummy is derived from medieval Latin mumia, a borrowing of the medieval Arabic word mūmiya and from a Persian word mūm, which meant an embalmed corpse, as well as the bituminous embalming substance, meant "bitumen"; the Medieval English term "mummy" was defined as "medical preparation of the substance of mummies", rather than the entire corpse, with Richard Hakluyt in 1599 AD complaining that "these dead bodies are the Mummy which the Phisistians and Apothecaries doe against our willes make us to swallow". These substances were defined as mummia; the OED defines a mummy as "the body of a human being or animal embalmed as a preparation for burial", citing sources from 1615 AD onward.
However, Chamber's Cyclopædia and the Victorian zoologist Francis Trevelyan Buckland define a mummy as follows: "A human or animal body desiccated by exposure to sun or air. Applied to the frozen carcase of an animal imbedded in prehistoric snow". Wasps of the genus Aleiodes are known as "mummy wasps" because they wrap their caterpillar prey as "mummies". While interest in the study of mummies dates as far back as Ptolemaic Greece, most structured scientific study began at the beginning of the 20th century. Prior to this, many rediscovered mummies were sold as curiosities or for use in pseudoscientific novelties such as mummia; the first modern scientific examinations of mummies began in 1901, conducted by professors at the English-language Government School of Medicine in Cairo, Egypt. The first X-ray of a mummy came in 1903, when professors Grafton Elliot Smith and Howard Carter used the only X-ray machine in Cairo at the time to examine the mummified body of Thutmose IV. British chemist Alfred Lucas applied chemical analyses to Egyptian mummies during this same period, which returned many results about the types of substances used in embalming.
Lucas made significant contributions to the analysis of Tutankhamun in 1922. Pathological study of mummies saw varying levels of popularity throughout the 20th century. In 1992, the First World Congress on Mummy Studies was held in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. More than 300 scientists attended the Congress to share nearly 100 years of collected data on mummies; the information presented at the meeting triggered a new surge of interest in the subject, with one of the major results being integration of biomedical and bioarchaeological information on mummies with existing databases. This was not possible prior to the Congress due to the unique and specialized techniques required to gather such data. In more recent years, CT scanning has become an invaluable tool in the study of mummification by allowing researchers to digitally "unwrap" mummies without risking damage to the body; the level of detail in such scans is so intricate that small linens used in tiny areas such as the nostrils can be digitally reconstructed in 3-D.
Such modelling has been utilized to perform digital autopsies on mummies to determine cause of death and lifestyle, such as in the case of Tutankhamun. Mummies are divided into one of two distinct categories: anthropogenic or spontaneous. Anthropogenic mummies were deliberately created by the living for any number of reasons, the most common being for religious purposes. Spontaneous mummies, such as Ötzi, were created unintentionally due to natural conditions such as dry heat or cold, or anaerobic conditions such as those found in bogs. While most individual mummies belong to one category or the other, there are examples of both types being connected to a single culture, such as those from the ancient Egyptian culture and the Andean cultures of South America; the earliest ancient Egyptian mummies were created due to the environment in which they were buried. In the era prior to 3500 BC, Egyptians buried the dead in pit graves, without regard to social status. Pit graves were shallow; this characteristic allowed for the hot, dry sand of the desert to dehydrate the bodies, leading to natural mummification.
The natural preservation of the dead had a profound effect on ancient Egyptian religion. Deliberate mummification became an integral part of the rituals for the dead beginning as early as the 2nd dynasty
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
Psycho (1960 film)
Psycho is a 1960 American psychological horror film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock, written by Joseph Stefano. It stars Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh, John Gavin, Vera Miles, Martin Balsam, was based on the 1959 novel of the same name by Robert Bloch; the film centers on an encounter between a secretary, Marion Crane, who ends up at a secluded motel after stealing money from her employer, the motel's owner-manager, Norman Bates, its aftermath. Psycho was seen as a departure from Hitchcock's previous film North by Northwest, having been filmed on a low budget, in black-and-white, by a television crew; the film received mixed reviews, but outstanding box-office returns prompted critical reevaluation. Psycho was nominated for four Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actress for Leigh and Best Director for Hitchcock. Psycho is now considered one of Hitchcock's best films and praised as a major work of cinematic art by international film critics and scholars. Ranked among the greatest films of all time, it set a new level of acceptability for violence, deviant behavior and sexuality in American films, is considered to be the earliest example of the slasher film genre.
After Hitchcock's death in 1980, Universal Studios began producing follow-ups: three sequels, a remake, a made-for-television spin-off, a prequel television series set in the 2010s. In 1992, the Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally or aesthetically significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. During a lunchtime tryst in a Phoenix, Arizona hotel, real-estate secretary Marion Crane and her boyfriend, Sam Loomis, discuss how they cannot afford to get married because of Sam's debts. After lunch, Marion returns to work. Marion's boss asks her to deposit the money in the bank, allows her to leave work early after she complains of a headache. Once home, she decides to steal the money and drive to Fairvale, where Sam lives. En route to Fairvale, Marion falls asleep. Suspicious about her skittish behavior, he follows her. Hoping to lose him, Marion stops at a Bakersfield, California automobile dealership and trades in her Ford Mainline, with its Arizona license plates, for a Ford Custom 300 with California tags.
The officer eyes her suspiciously as she abruptly drives away. During a heavy rainstorm, Marion stops for the night at the Bates Motel; the proprietor, Norman Bates, invites her to share a light dinner. She accepts his invitation but overhears an argument between Norman and his mother about bringing a woman into their Gothic home, which sits perched above the motel. Instead they eat in the motel parlor, where he tells her about his life with his mother, mentally ill and forbids him to have an independent life. Moved by Norman's story, Marion decides to drive back to Phoenix in the morning to return the stolen money, which she hides in a folded newspaper on the nightstand; as she showers, a shadowy figure stabs her to death with a chef's knife. After seeing blood, Norman runs to Marion's room, where he discovers her body, he cleans up the crime scene, putting Marion's corpse and her possessions—including the stolen money—into the trunk of her car and sinking it in the swamps near the motel. A week Marion's sister Lila arrives in Fairvale and confronts Sam about Marion's whereabouts.
Private investigator Milton Arbogast approaches them and confirms that Marion is wanted for stealing the $40,000. He sleuths local hotels and motels, Norman's evasive and inconsistent answers arouse his suspicion. After hearing that Marion met Norman's mother, he asks to speak with her, but Norman refuses to allow it. Arbogast updates promises to phone again soon, he goes to the Bates' home in search of Norman's mother. When Lila and Sam do not hear from Arbogast, Sam visits the motel, he sees a figure in the house who he assumes is Mrs. Bates. Lila and Sam go to the local deputy sheriff, who informs them that Mrs. Bates died in a murder-suicide ten years ago; the sheriff concludes that Arbogast lied to Lila so he could pursue Marion and the money. Convinced that some ill has befallen Arbogast and Sam make their way to the motel. Norman hides her in the fruit cellar against her will. At the motel, Sam distracts Norman by engaging in conversation while Lila cases the property and sneaks inside the house.
After Sam grills him, Norman becomes agitated, knocks Sam out, rushes to the house. Lila hides in the cellar. Lila discovers she is a mummified corpse. Lila screams as Norman runs into the cellar, holding a knife and wearing his mother's clothes and a wig. Before Norman can attack Lila, having regained consciousness, subdues him. At the courthouse, a psychiatrist explains that Norman murdered Mrs. Bates and her lover ten years ago out of jealousy. Unable to bear the guilt, he began to treat it as if she were still alive, he recreated his mother in his own mind as an alternate personality, dressing in her clothes and talking to himself in her voice. This "Mother" personality is jealous and possessive: whenever Norman feels attracted to a woman, "Mother" kills her; as "Mother", Norman killed two young girls before stabbing Arbogast to death. The psychiatrist says. While Norman sits in a holding cell, "Mother"