Psychoneuroimmunology referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology, is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body. PNI takes an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating psychology, immunology, genetics, molecular biology, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases and rheumatology; the main interests of PNI are the interactions between the nervous and immune systems and the relationships between mental processes and health. PNI studies, among other things, the physiological functioning of the neuroimmune system in health and disease. Interest in the relationship between psychiatric syndromes or symptoms and immune function has been a consistent theme since the beginning of modern medicine. Claude Bernard, a French physiologist of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, formulated the concept of the milieu interieur in the mid-1800s. In 1865, Bernard described the perturbation of this internal state: "...
There are protective functions of organic elements holding living materials in reserve and maintaining without interruption humidity and other conditions indispensable to vital activity. Sickness and death are only a dislocation or perturbation of that mechanism". Walter Cannon, a professor of physiology at Harvard University coined the used term, homeostasis, in his book The Wisdom of the Body, 1932, from the Greek word homoios, meaning similar, stasis, meaning position. In his work with animals, Cannon observed that any change of emotional state in the beast, such as anxiety, distress, or rage, was accompanied by total cessation of movements of the stomach; these studies looked into the relationship between the effects of emotions and perceptions on the autonomic nervous system, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses that initiated the recognition of the freeze, fight or flight response. His findings were published from time to time in professional journals summed up in book form in The Mechanical Factors of Digestion, published in 1911.
Hans Selye, a student of Johns Hopkins University and McGill University, a researcher at Université de Montréal, experimented with animals by putting them under different physical and mental adverse conditions and noted that under these difficult conditions the body adapted to heal and recover. Several years of experimentation that formed the empiric foundation of Selye's concept of the General Adaptation Syndrome; this syndrome consists of an enlargement of the adrenal gland, atrophy of the thymus and other lymphoid tissue, gastric ulcerations. Selye describes three stages of adaptation, including an initial brief alarm reaction, followed by a prolonged period of resistance, a terminal stage of exhaustion and death; this foundational work led to a rich line of research on the biological functioning of glucocorticoids. Mid-20th century studies of psychiatric patients reported immune alterations in psychotic individuals, including lower numbers of lymphocytes and poorer antibody response to pertussis vaccination, compared with nonpsychiatric control subjects.
In 1964, George F. Solomon, from the University of California in Los Angeles, his research team coined the term "psychoimmunology" and published a landmark paper: "Emotions and disease: a speculative theoretical integration." In 1975, Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen, at the University of Rochester, advanced PNI with their demonstration of classic conditioning of immune function, they subsequently coined the term "psychoneuroimmunology". Ader was investigating. To condition the rats, he used a combination of saccharin-laced water and the drug Cytoxan, which unconditionally induces nausea and taste aversion and suppression of immune function. Ader was surprised to discover that after conditioning, just feeding the rats saccharin-laced water was associated with the death of some animals and he proposed that they had been immunosuppressed after receiving the conditioned stimulus. Ader and Cohen directly tested this hypothesis by deliberately immunizing conditioned and unconditioned animals, exposing these and other control groups to the conditioned taste stimulus, measuring the amount of antibody produced.
The reproducible results revealed that conditioned rats exposed to the conditioned stimulus were indeed immuno suppressed. In other words, a signal via the nervous system was affecting immune function; this was one of the first scientific experiments that demonstrated that the nervous system can affect the immune system. In the 1970s, Hugo Besedovsky, Adriana del Rey and Ernst Sorkin, working in Switzerland, reported multi-directional immune-neuro-endocrine interactions, since they show that not only the brain can influence immune processes but the immune response itself can affect the brain and neuroendocrine mechanisms, they found that the immune responses to innocuous antigens triggers an increase in the activity of hypothalamic neurons and hormonal and autonomic nerve responses that are relevant for immunoregulation and are integrated at brain levels. On these bases, they proposed that the immune system acts as a sensoria
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Electrophysiology is the branch of physiology that studies the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage changes or electric current or manipulations on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and, in particular, action potential activity. Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system, such as electroencephalography, may be referred to as electrophysiological recordings, they are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring. Electrophysiology is the branch of physiology that pertains broadly to the flow of ions in biological tissues and, in particular, to the electrical recording techniques that enable the measurement of this flow. Classical electrophysiology techniques involve placing electrodes into various preparations of biological tissue; the principal types of electrodes are: simple solid conductors, such as discs and needles, tracings on printed circuit boards or flexible polymers insulated except for the tip, hollow tubes filled with an electrolyte, such as glass pipettes filled with potassium chloride solution or another electrolyte solution.
The principal preparations include: living organisms, excised tissue, dissociated cells from excised tissue, artificially grown cells or tissues, or hybrids of the above. If an electrode is small enough in diameter the electrophysiologist may choose to insert the tip into a single cell; such a configuration allows direct observation and recording of the intracellular electrical activity of a single cell. However, this invasive setup reduces the life of the cell and causes a leak of substances across the cell membrane. Intracellular activity may be observed using a specially formed glass pipette containing an electrolyte. In this technique, the microscopic pipette tip is pressed against the cell membrane, to which it adheres by an interaction between glass and lipids of the cell membrane; the electrolyte within the pipette may be brought into fluid continuity with the cytoplasm by delivering a pulse of negative pressure to the pipette in order to rupture the small patch of membrane encircled by the pipette rim.
Alternatively, ionic continuity may be established by "perforating" the patch by allowing exogenous pore-forming agent within the electrolyte to insert themselves into the membrane patch. The patch may be left intact; the electrophysiologist may choose not to insert the tip into a single cell. Instead, the electrode tip may be left in continuity with the extracellular space. If the tip is small enough, such a configuration may allow indirect observation and recording of action potentials from a single cell, termed single-unit recording. Depending on the preparation and precise placement, an extracellular configuration may pick up the activity of several nearby cells termed multi-unit recording; as electrode size increases, the resolving power decreases. Larger electrodes are sensitive only to the net activity of many cells, termed local field potentials. Still larger electrodes, such as uninsulated needles and surface electrodes used by clinical and surgical neurophysiologists, are sensitive only to certain types of synchronous activity within populations of cells numbering in the millions.
Other classical electrophysiological techniques include amperometry. Electrophysiological recording in general is sometimes called electrography, with the record thus produced being an electrogram. However, the word electrography has other senses, the specific types of electrophysiological recording are called by specific names, constructed on the pattern of electro- + + -graphy. Relatedly, the word electrogram carries the specific meaning of intracardiac electrogram, like an electrocardiogram but with some invasive leads rather than only noninvasive leads. Electrophysiological recording for clinical diagnostic purposes is included within the category of electrodiagnostic testing; the various "ExG" modes are as follows: Optical electrophysiological techniques were created by scientists and engineers to overcome one of the main limitations of classical techniques. Classical techniques allow observation of electrical activity at a single point within a volume of tissue. Classical techniques singularize a distributed phenomenon.
Interest in the spatial distribution of bioelectric activity prompted development of molecules capable of emitting light in response to their electrical or chemical environment. Examples are fluorescing proteins. After introducing one or more such compounds into tissue via perfusion, injection or gene expression, the 1 or 2-dimensional distribution of electrical activity may be observed and recorded. Intracellular recording current across the membrane of a cell. To make an intracellular recording, the tip of a fine microelectrode must be inserted inside the cell, so that the membrane potential can be measured; the resting membrane potential of a healthy cell will be -60 to -80 mV, during an action potential the membrane potential might reach +40 mV. In 1963, Alan Lloyd Ho
Mass psychogenic illness
Mass psychogenic illness called mass sociogenic illness, mass psychogenic disorder, epidemic hysteria, or mass hysteria, is "the rapid spread of illness signs and symptoms affecting members of a cohesive group, originating from a nervous system disturbance involving excitation, loss, or alteration of function, whereby physical complaints that are exhibited unconsciously have no corresponding organic aetiology". Mass psychogenic illness involves the spread of illness symptoms through a population where there is no viral or bacterial agent responsible for contagion. MPI is distinct from other types of collective delusions. According to Balaratnasingam and Janca, "Mass hysteria is to date a poorly understood condition. Little certainty exists regarding its etiology". Qualities of MPI outbreaks include: symptoms that have no plausible organic basis. British psychiatrist Simon Wesseley distinguishes between two forms of MPI: Mass anxiety hysteria "consists of episodes of acute anxiety, occurring in schoolchildren.
Prior tension is absent and the rapid spread is by visual contact." Mass motor hysteria "consists of abnormalities in motor behaviour. It occurs in any age group and prior tension is present. Initial cases can be identified and the spread is gradual.... He outbreak may be prolonged."While his definition is sometimes adhered to, others such as Ali-Gombe et al. of the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria contest Wesseley's definition and describe outbreaks with qualities of both mass motor hysteria and mass anxiety hysteria. The DSM-IV-TR does not have specific diagnosis for this condition but the text describing conversion disorder states that "In'epidemic hysteria', shared symptoms develop in a circumscribed group of people following'exposure' to a common precipitant." Timothy F. Jones of the Tennessee Department of Health compiles the following symptoms based on their commonality in outbreaks occurring in 1980–1990: Adolescents and children are affected in cases of MPI; the hypothesis that those prone to extroversion or neuroticism, or those with low IQ scores, are more to be affected in an outbreak of hysterical epidemic has not been supported by research.
Bartholomew and Wesseley state that it "seems clear that there is no particular predisposition to mass sociogenic illness and it is a behavioural reaction that anyone can show in the right circumstances."Intense media coverage seems to exacerbate outbreaks. The illness may recur after the initial outbreak. John Waller advises that once it is determined that the illness is psychogenic, it should not be given credence by authorities. For example, in the Singapore factory case study, calling in a medicine man to perform an exorcism seemed to perpetuate the outbreak. Besides the difficulties common to all research involving the social sciences, including a lack of opportunity for controlled experiments, mass sociogenic illness presents special difficulties to researchers in this field. Balaratnasingam and Janca report that the methods for "diagnosis of mass hysteria remains contentious. According to Jones, the effects resulting from MPI "can be difficult to differentiate from bioterrorism spreading infection or acute toxic exposure."These troubles result from the residual diagnosis of MPI.
Singer, of the Uniformed Schools of Medicine, puts the problems with such a diagnosis thus: "ou find a group of people getting sick, you investigate, you measure everything you can measure... and when you still can't find any physical reason, you say'well, there's nothing else here, so let's call it a case of MPI.'" There is a lack of logic in an argument that proceeds: "There isn't anything, so it must be MPI." It precludes the notion. Running an extensive number of tests extends the probability of false positives; the earliest studied cases linked with epidemic hysteria are the dancing manias of the Middle Ages, including St. John's dance and tarantism; these were supposed to be associated with the bite of the tarantula. Those afflicted with dancing mania would dance in large groups, sometimes for weeks at a time; the dancing was sometimes accompanied by stripping, the making of obscene gestures, or laughing or crying to the point of death. Dancing mania was widespread over Europe. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, instances of motor hysteria were common in nunneries.
The young ladies that made up these convents were forced there by family. Once accepted, they took vows of poverty, their lives were regimented and marked by strict disciplinary action. The nuns would exhibit a variety of behaviors attributed to demonic possession, they would use crude language and exhibit suggestive behaviors. One convent's nuns would meow like cats. Priests were called in to exorcise demons. MPI outbreaks occurred in factories following the industrial revolution in England, Germany and Russia as well as the United States and Singapore. W. H. Phoon, Ministry of Labour in Singapore gives a case study of six outbreaks of MPI in Singapore factories between 1973 and 1978, they were characterized by hysterical seizures of screaming and general violence, wherein tranquilizers were ineffective trance states, where a worker would claim to be speaking under the influence of a spirit or jinn and
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the