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Psychokinesis, or telekinesis, is an alleged psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system without physical interaction. Psychokinesis experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that psychokinesis is a real phenomenon, the topic is regarded as pseudoscience; the word "psychokinesis" was coined in 1914 by American author Henry Holt in his book On the Cosmic Relations. The term is a linguistic blend or portmanteau of the Greek language words ψυχή – meaning mind, spirit, or breath – and κίνησις – meaning motion, movement; the American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine coined the term extra-sensory perception to describe receiving information paranormally from an external source. Following this, he used the term psychokinesis in 1934 to describe mentally influencing external objects or events without the use of physical energy, his initial example of psychokinesis was experiments that were conducted to determine whether a person could influence the outcome of falling dice.

The word telekinesis, a portmanteau of the Greek τῆλε – meaning distance – and κίνησις – meaning motion – was first used in 1890 by Russian psychical researcher Alexander N. Aksakof. In parapsychology, fictional universes and New Age beliefs and telekinesis are different: psychokinesis refers to the mental influence of physical systems and objects without the use of any physical energy, while telekinesis refers to the movement and/or levitation of physical objects by purely mental force without any physical intervention. There is a broad scientific consensus that PK research, parapsychology more have not produced a reliable, repeatable demonstration. A panel commissioned in 1988 by the United States National Research Council to study paranormal claims concluded that "despite a 130-year record of scientific research on such matters, our committee could find no scientific justification for the existence of phenomena such as extrasensory perception, mental telepathy or'mind over matter' exercises...

Evaluation of a large body of the best available evidence does not support the contention that these phenomena exist."In 1984, the United States National Academy of Sciences, at the request of the US Army Research Institute, formed a scientific panel to assess the best evidence for psychokinesis. Part of its purpose was to investigate military applications of PK, for example to remotely jam or disrupt enemy weaponry; the panel heard from a variety of military staff who believed in PK and made visits to the PEAR laboratory and two other laboratories that had claimed positive results from micro-PK experiments. The panel criticized macro-PK experiments for being open to deception by conjurors, said that all micro-PK experiments "depart from good scientific practice in a variety of ways", their conclusion, published in a 1987 report, was that there was no scientific evidence for the existence of psychokinesis. Carl Sagan included telekinesis in a long list of "offerings of pseudoscience and superstition" which "it would be foolish to accept without solid scientific data".

Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman advocated a similar position. Felix Planer, a professor of electrical engineering, has written that if psychokinesis were real it would be easy to demonstrate by getting subjects to depress a scale on a sensitive balance, raise the temperature of a waterbath which could be measured with an accuracy of a hundredth of a degree centigrade, or affect an element in an electrical circuit such as a resistor, which could be monitored to better than a millionth of an ampere. Planer writes that such experiments are sensitive and easy to monitor but are not utilized by parapsychologists as they "do not hold out the remotest hope of demonstrating a minute trace of PK" because the alleged phenomenon is non-existent. Planer has written that parapsychologists have to fall back on studies that involve only statistics that are unrepeatable, owing their results to poor experimental methods, recording mistakes and faulty statistical mathematics. According to Planer, "All research in medicine and other sciences would become illusionary, if the existence of PK had to be taken seriously.

Planer has no scientific basis. PK hypotheses have been considered in a number of contexts outside parapsychological experiments. C. E. M. Hansel has written that a general objection against the claim for the existence of psychokinesis is that, if it were a real process, its effects would be expected to manifest in situations in everyday life. Science writers Martin Gardner and Terence Hines and the philosopher Theodore Schick have written that if psychokinesis were possible, one would expect casino incomes to be affected, but the earnings are as the laws of chance predict. Psychologist Nicholas Humphrey argues that many experiments in psychology, biology or physics assume that the intentions of the subjects or experimenter do not physically distort the apparatus. Humphrey counts them as implicit replications of PK experiments; the ideas of psychokinesis and telekinesis violate several well-established laws of physics, including the inverse square law, the second law of thermodynamics, the conservation of momentum.

Because of this, scientists have demanded a high standard of evidence for PK, in line with Marcel

Marcello Dudovich

Marcello Dudovich was an Italian painter and poster designer. Together with Leonetto Cappiello, Adolfo Hohenstein, Giovanni Maria Mataloni and Leopoldo Metlicovitz he is considered one of the progenitors of Italian poster design. Marcello Dudovich was born in 1878 to Serbian parents whose ancestors settled in Trieste part of the Habsburg Empire, from the town of Kotor in Montenegro, he attended the prestigious Royal School in Trieste. Upon completing his studies, he began working with his father as a lithographer and illustrator for advertising art and posters, he relocated from Trieste to Milan in 1897 after attending a professional art school. He was recruited as a lithographer by Ricordi, a music publisher, thanks to his father's friendship with the illustrator and cartoonist Leopoldo Metlicovitz, was given charge over advertisement design. In 1899 he transferred to Bologna, working here for the publisher Edmondo Chappuis, designing billboards, book covers and illustrations for publications such as Italia Ride in 1900 e Fantasio in 1902.

Here he met his future wife. In 1900 he won the "Gold Medal" at the Paris World Fair. In 1905 Dudovich returned to Milan to rejoin Ricordi. Here, in the next few years, he designed some of his well-known posters, including "Mele di Napoli" and "Borsalino". In the 1920s he made several posters for the Milan department store, La Rinascente, in 1922 he was appointed artistic director of "Igap". In 1930 he designed a prominent poster for Pirelli. After the Second World War he moved away from the world of commercial art, concentrating instead on his painting. Marcello Dudovich died in Milan from a cerebral hemorrhage on 31 March 1962. Dudovich is celebrated as one of Italy's greatest poster artists, he was inspired by Edward Penfield, by his friend and teacher Adolfo Hohenstein and by Alphonse Mucha. But his reputation comes from his having developed his own distinctive and richly colored style. Marcello Dudovich

Archer Taylor

Archer Taylor was one of America's "foremost specialists in American and European folklore", with a special interest in cultural history, proverbs and bibliography. Taylor was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on August 1, 1890, he enrolled at Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania, graduating with the B. A. and M. A. in German. He taught German at Pennsylvania State College, he went on to Harvard University, receiving his Ph. D. degree in German in 1915 with a dissertation on the fairy tale motifs in the Wolfdietrich epics. At Harvard, he studied under such famous scholars as Kuno Francke, George Lyman Kittredge, John Albrecht Walz, Hans Carl Gunther von Jagemann, William Henry Schofield, Charles Hall Grandgent, F. N. Robinson. From them he developed interest in such fields as German literature, Germanic philology, Scandinavian studies, Romance languages, Celtic and, folklore in general. Taylor spent two summers studying abroad: at the University of Freiburg in 1913 and at the University of Helsingfors in 1925.

In 1915 Taylor began teaching German at Washington University in St. Louis being promoted to professor, he moved to the University of Chicago in 1925. By 1927 Taylor had become the Chairman of the Department of Germanic Literatures, he married his childhood sweetheart Alice Jones on September 9, 1915 and they had three children. He lost her June 1930, while they lived in Chicago, he married Dr. Hasseltine Byrd, who became his second wife on June 17, 1932, they had two children. Like her husband, Dr. Hasseltine Byrd Taylor taught for many years at the University of California Berkeley. In 1939, they moved to California where he served as Professor of German Literature and Folklore at the University of California at Berkeley, as Chairman of the Department from 1940 to 1945. While in California, they built a home in the Napa Valley. While in California, he worked as a journal editor, for California Folklore Quarterly and the Journal of American Folklore. In 1965, Archer worked with his Finnish friend Matti Kuusi to establish the journal Proverbium.

Taylor retired in 1958 but continued to be intellectually active and productive, spending periods as visiting professor at the "University of Texas, Indiana University and Ohio State University" and continuing to publish books. He died on September 30, 1973, his publications were numerous, included work in medieval literature, folklore, etc. totalling over four hundred books, monographs and notes in America and Europe. His most famous work was The Proverb, which contains his most famous quote, "the definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking... An incommunicable quality tells us this sentence is proverbial and, not". Though Taylor's contribution to the studies of proverbs is better known, his contribution to the studies of riddles is significant. "Archer Taylor... among modern folklorists has contributed most to riddle scholarship." Taylor received honorary doctorate of law degree from the University of California and was appointed a senator of the University of Giessen in Germany.

He was a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1927 and again in 1960, was elected president of the Modern Language Association in 1951, was president of the American Folklore Society in 1936-38. In 1960 Taylor was honored by a Festschrift, Humaniora: Essays in Literature, Bibliography: Honoring Archer Taylor on His Seventieth Birthday, edited by his friends Wayland D. Hand and Gustave O. Arlt. At the annual meetings of the Western States Folklore Society, which he helped found, there is an invited lecture in the Archer Taylor Lecture Series; the Black Ox: A Study in the History of a Folk-Tale, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1927. "Edward" and "Sven i Rosengard": A Study in The Dissemination of a Ballad, University of Chicago Press, 1931. The Proverb, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1931. An Index to "The Proverb", Helsinki: Suomalainen tiedakatemia, Academia scientiarum fennica, 1934. A Bibliography of Meistergesang, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1936. Joint author: Frances H. Ellis; the Literary History of Meistergesang, New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1937.

A Bibliography of Riddles, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia - Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1939. Problems in German Literary History of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, New York, Modern Language Association of America, 1939; the Literary Riddle before 1600, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1948. English Riddles from Oral Tradition and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1951. Proverbial Comparisons and Similes from California, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954. A Collection of Irish Riddles, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955. Joint editor: Vernam Hull; the Shanghai Gesture, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia - Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1956. Selected Writings on Proverbs, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia - Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1975. Renaissance Reference Books: A Checklist of Some Bibliographies Published before 1700, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1941. Printing and Progress: Two Lectures, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1941.

Joint author: Gustave O. Arlt. Renaissance Guides to Books: An Inventory and Some Conclusions and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1945; the Bibliographical History of Anonyma and Pseudonyma, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951. Joint author: F. J. Mosher. A History of Bibliographies of Bibliographies

John A. Daniel

John A. Daniel was magician and a collector and dealer of magician memorabilia, Baranger Motion machines, vintage electric trains, antique carousels and other collectibles. What started as a hobby at age nine, combined with his skills developed in his Dad’s business progressed to working in a factory that manufactured some illusions and tricks for Harry Houdini as well as many other magicians; as a young magician John met Bess Houdini, stage assistant and wife of Harry Houdini. John a toured with school assembly shows and the southwestern states with a midnight spook show, "Dr. Doom's Dungeon of Death," and "Daniel's Magic Circus." His hobby was antique magic collecting. In 1952 he opened "Daniel's Magic Den" in Pasadena and put out several items under the "Trickmasters" label. From 1953 to 1955, he was over-seas for 18 months, he did do a few shows, while doing one in Berlin, he met Irene Stolz. He brought her back to the United States in 1957 as his magician's assistant and they were married.

He joined forces with Carl Owen in 1958 and purchased Owen Magic in 1960. Daniel was known for his development work “thin model” of sawing a woman in half. After divorcing Irene, he married Catherine Cynthia Birch. Baranger Motion machines or "Baranger Motions" were store-window mechanical animated advertising displays, rented to jewelers, produced from 1925 to 1959 by the Baranger Company of South Pasadena, California USA. In 1978, the Baranger Studios building and stock of animated displays were bought by Burton A. Burton. John was put in charge of selling duplicates. John became a collector of them. 1986 Daniel sold his collection of 90 motions to Teruhisa Kitahara. John Daniel subsequently bought the remaining stock of motions from Burton A. Burton. In 1993, Daniel published a 60 minute VHS video showing 122 motions and in 2001, Daniel published a book showing images of all the motions plus a history of the business. John was a builder and dealer vintage electric trains, antique carousels and other collectibles.

John was the president of the T. T. O. S.. Daniel collected magic props and tricks including a large collection of Dante the Magician. “Best Stage Performer Award, The Academy of Magical Arts, Lifetime Achievement Fellowship, The Academy of Magical Arts John Daniel AMA Lifetime Achievement Award video- Genii 1954 May Vol. 18, Number 9 Cover Story Genii John Daniel's Shazzam, Vol. 34, Number 8 April 1970 pp 357–36 John & Cathy Daniel Molecular Disorganizer Routine1970 Genii Magician Magazine -John & Cathy Daniel Molecular Disorganizer Routine Genii Keeping the Hearth Warm, August 1989 Form in Geni Magazine on death Magic My Two Dads, Dante Larsen, June 1992 Magician of the Month, MUM, NOVEMBER, 1960 John Daniel Academy Magical Arts Lifetime Achievement Award April 10, 2011 on YouTube Women in Boxes is a feature-length documentary film featuring many of the magic world's most famous assistants and planned for theatrical release. It was made by Blaire Baron-Larsen ), Harry Pallenberg, Phil Noyes and Dante Larsen Baranger: Window displays in motion: dramatizing the jewel John A. Daniel, Zon International Pub.

Co,ISBN 0-939549-26-3, 2001 Tribute to John Daniel, David Otth, The Southwestern Limited, May-June 2012, T. T. O. S. Magic Man John Daniel:Master of Illusion, Justin Pinchot, The Quarterly, July 2009

Law of Switzerland

Swiss law is a set of rules which constitutes the law in Switzerland. There is a hierarchy of political levels which reflects the legal and constitutional character of Switzerland; the Federal law consist of the following parts: International law, Internal law,According to the current Federal Constitution and the principle of subsidiarity and the Title 3 Confederation and Communes, the Cantons of Switzerland "are sovereign except to the extent that their sovereignty is limited by the Federal Constitution. They exercise all rights that are not vested in the Confederation" and "the principle of subsidiarity must be observed in the allocation and performance of state tasks"; the Internal law consists of the following parts: State - People - Authorities Private law - Administration of civil justice - Enforcement Criminal law - Administration of criminal justice - Execution of sentences Education - Science - Culture National defence Finance Public works - Energy - Transport Health - Employment - Social security Economy - Technical cooperation Some major aspects are: the Swiss Federal Constitution, acts of parliament or by-laws, delegated legislation, regulations, or ordinances, adjudication by competent tribunals.

The federal government publishes legal instruments in three principal official publications: the Classified Compilation is the official compilation of all federal laws, ordinances and intercantonal treaties that are in force, the Official Compilation of Federal Legislation is the federal gazette, the Federal Gazette publishes various official texts of the federal government. All three publications are issued in the three official languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. All three language editions are valid, they are published by the Federal Chancellery of Switzerland in the form of weekly supplements to loose leaf binders. Since 1999, they are made available on the Internet in PDF format; the Swiss Civil Code was adopted on 10 December 1907 and has been in force since 1912. It was influenced by the German civil code, influenced by the French civil code, but the majority of comparative law scholars argue that the Swiss code derives from a distinct paradigm of civil law; the Swiss Criminal Code of 21 December 1937 goes back to an 1893 draft by Carl Stooss.

It has been in effect since 1942. Among the notable changes to earlier Swiss criminal law was the abolition of capital punishment in Switzerland and the legalization of homosexual acts between adults; the code has been revised numerous times since 1942. The most recent revision, in effect since 2007, introduced the possibility to convert short prison sentences into fines, calculated based on a daily rate which has to be established based on the "personal and economic situation of the convict at the time of the verdict", with an upper limit set at CHF 3000 per day of the sentence. All prison sentences shorter than one year have since been converted into fines, conditional sentences to conditional fines; this has caused controversy because the result is that lighter offences not punishable by imprisonment always result in unconditional fines, while more severe offences now result in conditional fines that do not need to be paid at all. The Federal Council in October 2010 announced its intention to revert to the earlier system, all large parties expressed at least partial support.

Swiss Code of Obligations Referendum Swiss nationality law Swiss Institute of Comparative Law Law enforcement in Switzerland Classified Compilation of Federal Legislation Marc Thommen, Introduction to Swiss Law, Berlin/Bern 2018

The Cave of the Golden Calf

The Cave of the Golden Calf was a night club in London. In existence for only two years before the First World War, it epitomised decadence, still inspires cultural events, its name is a reference to the Golden Calf of an icon of impermissible worship. It opened in an underground location in the basements from 3 to 9 Heddon Street, near Regent Street, in 1912 and became a haunt for the wealthy and aristocratic classes, as well as bohemian artists in search of a European-style cabaret, its creator Frida Strindberg set it up as artistic venture. It provided a solid model for future nightclubs. Philip Hoare in his book, Oscar Wilde's Last Stand, provided the following description: Up in Regent Street young men wearing tight suits and nail varnish were sipping creme de menthe in the Cafe Royal, while down a dark cul-de-sac lurked a new and devilish sort of place where Futurists cavorted: a'night club' profanely named'The Cave of the Golden Calf'. Vague rumours had reached her that nowadays, the backstreets harboured all manner of such places, attended by members of the social elite.

Such intimations confirmed all the suspicions of her class. At the root of these evils lay the name of Oscar Wilde, still unspoken in polite households, he may have been dead for more than a decade. The club is compared with the parties of The Coterie, a group of young aristocrats and intellectuals associated with the Cambridge Souls: Their hedonism was not confined to private parties. In 1912, Madame Strindberg leased a draper's basement in Heddon Street, a cul-de-sac behind Regent Street, created the Cave of the Golden Calf. This'low-ceilinged nightclub, appropriately sunk under the pavement', was decorated by Spencer Gore in Russian Ballet-inspired murals, with contributions by Jacob Epstein and Wyndham Lewis. Here the cult of Wilde could continue to worship; the club's self-advertised aim was to be'a place given up to gaiety', its art-subversive interiors'brazenly expressive of the libertarian pleasure principle...' Ezra Pound complimented Strindberg on her acumen. Other luminaries who frequented the establishment included Katherine Mansfield, Ford Madox Ford, Augustus John and Wyndham Lewis.

The Cave went bankrupt in 1914, but its name lived on, inspired a show at the Edinburgh Fringe and the 2010 Commemoration Ball at New College, Oxford. The building became a post office and can be seen in the background of the cover of David Bowie's album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars; the site is now occupied by a bar, The Living Room W1