In fiction, a false protagonist is a literary technique used to make the plot more jarring or more memorable by fooling the audience's preconceptions, that constructs a character who the audience assumes is the protagonist but is revealed not to be. A false protagonist is presented at the start of the fictional work as the main character, but is removed from the role by killing them or changed in terms of their role in the story. In film, a character can be made to seem like the main protagonist based on a number of techniques. Star power is a effective method. An abundance of close-ups can be used as a subliminal method; the star of a film will get longer-lasting and more frequent close-ups than any other character, but this is immediately apparent to viewers during the film. Alternatively, the false protagonist can serve as a narrator to the movie, encouraging the audience to assume that the character survives to tell their tale later. Many of the same techniques used in film can apply to television, but the episodic nature adds an additional possibility.
By ending one or more episodes with the false protagonist still in place, the show can reinforce the viewers' belief in the character's protagonist status. Because TV shows have changes of cast between seasons, some series can have unintentional false protagonists: characters who begin the series as the main character but are replaced early in the show's run by another character entirely; when the series is viewed as a whole, this can lead to the appearance of a false protagonist. In video games, a false protagonist may be a playable character, only to be killed or revealed to be the antagonist. One key way in which video games employ the method that differs from uses in non-interactive fiction is by granting the player direct control over the false protagonist. Since most video games allow a player to control only the main characters, the sudden demise of the character, being controlled serves to surprise the player; the Book of Samuel begins with God's call to him as a boy. At this point, the readers are led to believe.
Though by the sixteenth chapter, the book starts to focus on David. George R. R. Martin's novel A Game of Thrones, the first entry in the A Song of Ice and Fire epic fantasy series, features chapters told from the point of view of numerous characters, though the most prominent is Ned Stark, assumed to be the novel's main protagonist until the final chapters where he is unexpectedly executed. Alfred Hitchcock's film Psycho opens with Marion Crane as the main character. However, she is killed partway through the film, making the murder shocking. Hitchcock felt that the opening scenes with Marion as the false protagonist were so important to the film that when it was released in theaters, he compelled theater owners to enforce a "no late admission" policy; the film Arachnophobia opens with Mark L. Taylor's character, nature photographer Jerry Manley, as its focus. However, he is killed a mere ten minutes into the film by a seizure caused by a spider bite, after which the focus shifts to Jeff Daniels's character, Dr. Ross Jennings.
Halloween: Resurrection opens with Jamie Lee Curtis's character, Laurie Strode, the main protagonist in the previous Halloween films, only to be murdered by the antagonist ten minutes into the film. For Godzilla, the film and its trailers set up Bryan Cranston's character, Joseph Brody, as the main protagonist. He's the character focused on in the film's prologue, after which his son Ford Brody, played by Aaron Taylor-Johnson, becomes the focal character. Joe dies from sustained injuries 40 minutes into the film, leaving Ford as the main focus. In Star Fox Adventures: Dinosaur Planet, the game opens with the character Krystal. However, she is ambushed and sealed in a crystal just minutes into the game, at which point the game shifts to protagonist Fox McCloud; the game Kingdom Hearts II begins with the character Roxas as its focal character. However, more than an hour into the game, he finds the pods containing Sora, Donald Duck, Goofy and vanishes after, prompting the shift to focusing on Sora for the remainder of the game.
In Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, the game starts with series protagonist Solid Snake. But after the opening chapter, the game shifts to protagonist Raiden. Players were unaware of this shift at the time, as developers kept it a secret by only showing Solid Snake in the trailers. In Final Fantasy XII, the player starts out controlling the character of Reks. However, he is killed ten to fifteen minutes into the game, at which point the game shifts to the protagonist, his younger brother, Vaan. In Danganronpa V3: Killing Harmony, the Prologue and Chapter 01 of the game is played from the view of Kaede Akamatsu, the Ultimate Pianist. However, after she is voted as the culprit and executed at the End of Chapter 1's Class Trial, the rest of the Game is played from the view of Shuichi Saihara, the Ultimate Detective. In “Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War”, the first half of the game is played as the character Sigurd. However, halfway through the game, Sigurd is killed, his son Seliph inherits the role of protagonist.
Antihero False hero Plot twist Red herring
Antoine François Prévost
Antoine François Prévost d'Exiles known as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. He was born at Hesdin and first appears with the full name of Prévost d'Exiles, in a letter to the booksellers of Amsterdam in 1731, his father, Lievin Prévost, was a lawyer, several members of the family had embraced the ecclesiastical estate. Prévost was educated at the Jesuit school of Hesdin, in 1713 became a novice of the order in Paris, pursuing his studies at the same time at the college in La Flèche. At the end of 1716 he left the Jesuits to join the army, but soon tired of military life, returned to Paris in 1719 with the idea of resuming his novitiate, he is said to have travelled in the Netherlands about this time. Some biographers have assumed that he suffered some of the misfortunes assigned to his hero Des Grieux. Whatever the truth, he joined the learned community of the Benedictines of St Maur, with whom he found refuge, he himself says, after the unlucky termination of a love affair.
He took his vows at Jumièges in 1721 after a year's novitiate, in 1726 took priest's orders at St Germer de Flaix. He spent seven years in various houses of the order, teaching and studying. In 1728 he was sent to the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, where he contributed to the Gallia Christiana, a work of historiographic documentation undertaken communally by the monks in continuation of the works of Denys de Sainte-Marthe, a member of their order, his restless spirit made. In London he acquired a wide knowledge of English history and literature, as can be seen in his writings. Before leaving the Benedictines Prévost had begun his most famous novel, Mémoires et aventures d'un homme de qualité qui s'est retiré du monde, the first four volumes of which were published in Paris in 1728, two years at Amsterdam. In 1729 he left England for the Netherlands, where he began to publish a novel, the material of which, at least, had been gathered in London Le Philosophe anglais, ou Histoire de Monsieur Cleveland, fils naturel de Cromwell, écrite par lui-même, et traduite de l'anglais.
A spurious fifth volume contained attacks on the Jesuits, an English translation of the whole appeared in 1734. Meanwhile, during his residence at the Hague, he engaged on a translation of De Thou's Historia, relying on the popularity of his first book, published at Amsterdam a Suite in three volumes, forming volumes v, vi, vii of the original Mémoires et aventures d'un homme de qualité; the seventh volume contained the famous Manon Lescaut, separately published in Paris in 1731 as Histoire du Chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut. The book was eagerly read, chiefly in pirated copies. In 1733 he left the Hague for London in company of a lady whose character, according to Prévost's enemies, was doubtful. In London he edited a weekly gazette on the model of Joseph Addison's Spectator, Le Pour et contre, which he continued to produce in collaboration with the playwright Charles-Hugues Le Febvre de Saint-Marc, with short intervals, until 1740. In the autumn of 1734 Prévost was reconciled with the Benedictines, returning to France, was received in the Benedictine monastery of La Croix-Saint-Leufroy in the diocese of Évreux to pass through a new, though brief, novitiate.
In 1735 he was dispensed from residence in a monastery by becoming almoner to the Prince de Conti, in 1754 obtained the priory of St Georges de Gesnes. He continued to produce novels and translations from the English, with the exception of a brief exile spent in Brussels and Frankfurt, he resided for the most part at Chantilly until his death, which took place while he was walking in the neighbouring woods; the cause of his death, the rupture of an aneurysm, is all, known. Stories of crime and disaster were related of Prévost by his enemies, diligently repeated, but appear to be apocryphal. Prévost's other works include: Le Doyen de Killerine, histoire morale composée sur les mémoires d'une illustre famille d'Irlande Tout pour l'amour, a translation of Dryden's tragedy Histoire d'une Grecque moderne Histoire de Marguerite d'Anjou Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de Malte Campagnes philosophiques, ou mémoires... contenant l'histoire de la guerre d'Irlande Histoire de Guillaume le Conquérant Voyages du capitaine Robert Lade en differentes parties de l'Afrique, de l'Asie, et de l'Amerique, a fictional travel journal Histoire générale des voyages, continued by other writers Manuel Lexique, continued by other writers Translations from Samuel Richardson: Pamela ou la Vertu récompensée, Lettres anglaises ou Histoire de Miss Clarisse Harlovie, from Richardson's Clarissa, Nouvelles lettres anglaises, ou Histoire du chevalier Grandisson.
Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de la vertu, from Mrs Sheridan's Memoires of Miss Sidney Bidulph Histoire de la maison de Stuart from Hume's History of England to 1688 Le Monde moral, ou Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire du coeur humain
Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta
Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta, or The Elegy of Lady Fiammetta in English, is a novel by the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio written between 1343 and 1344. Written in the form of a first-person confessional monologue, it describes the protagonist, Fiammetta's, passion for Panfilo, a Florentine merchant, takes place in Naples, it has been characterised as the first psychological novel in Western literature. It consists of nine chapters. Lady Fiammetta recounts her tragic love affair with Panfilo, offering it as a warning to other women. Lady Fiammetta and Panfilo fall in love and have an affair, only to have it end when Panfilo returns to Florence. Although he promises to return to Naples, she realizes that he has another lover in Florence; the narrative revolves around Fiammetta's jealousy and despair caused by the affair, rather than the development of her relationship with Panfilo. She considers suicide, but her nurse stops her, her hopes in the end are bolstered by the news. Two translations of Boccaccio's Elegia have come out in recent years.
The two translations differ in their principles of their Italian texts. The Elegy of Madonna Fiammetta Sent by Her to Women in Love, by Roberta L. Payne and Alexandra Hennessey Olsenhope, is aimed at a popular audience; the Mariangela Causa-Steindler and Thomas Mauch translation, The Elegy of Lady Fiammetta, is more scholarly. Juan de Flores wrote a sentimental novel, Grimalte y Gradissa, which presents itself as a kind of sequel to the Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta. Causa-Steindler and Thomas Mauch; the Elegy of Lady Fiammetta. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226062761. Hennessey and Roberta L. Payne; the Elegy of Madonna Fiammetta Sent by Her to Women in Love. Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 9780820418377. Https://www.gutenberg.org/files/10006/10006-h/10006-h.htm: English translation of La Fiammetta by Giovanni Boccaccio, translated by James C. Brogan, 1907
Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood that they elicit: suspenseful excitement.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension. These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.
Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha
Knut Hamsun was a Norwegian writer, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920. Hamsun's work spans more than 70 years and shows variation with regard to the subject and environment, he published more than 20 novels, a collection of poetry, some short stories and plays, a travelogue, some essays. The young Hamsun objected to naturalism, he argued that the main object of modernist literature should be the intricacies of the human mind, that writers should describe the "whisper of blood, the pleading of bone marrow". Hamsun is considered the "leader of the Neo-Romantic revolt at the turn of the 20th century", with works such as Hunger, Mysteries and Victoria, his works—in particular his "Nordland novels"—were influenced by the Norwegian new realism, portraying everyday life in rural Norway and employing local dialect and humour. Hamsun is considered to be "one of the most influential and innovative literary stylists of the past hundred years", he pioneered psychological literature with techniques of stream of consciousness and interior monologue, influenced authors such as Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka, Maxim Gorky, Stefan Zweig, Henry Miller, Hermann Hesse, Ernest Hemingway.
Isaac Bashevis Singer called Hamsun "the father of the modern school of literature in his every aspect—his subjectiveness, his fragmentariness, his use of flashbacks, his lyricism. The whole modern school of fiction in the twentieth century stems from Hamsun". On August 4, 2009, the Knut Hamsun Centre was opened in Hamarøy. Since 1916, several of Hamsun's works have been adapted into motion pictures. Knut Hamsun was born as Knud Pedersen in Lom in the Gudbrandsdal valley of Norway, he was the fourth son of Peder Pedersen. When he was three, the family moved to Hamarøy in Nordland, they were poor and an uncle had invited them to farm his land for him. At nine Knut was separated from his family and lived with his uncle Hans Olsen, who needed help with the post office he ran. Olsen used to beat and starve his nephew, Hamsun stated that his chronic nervous difficulties were due to the way his uncle treated him. In 1874 he escaped back to Lom. At 17 he became a ropemaker's apprentice, he asked businessman Erasmus Zahl to give him significant monetary support, Zahl agreed.
Hamsun used Zahl as a model for the character Mack appearing in his novels Pan and Benoni and Rosa. He spent several years in America and working at various jobs, published his impressions under the title Fra det moderne Amerikas Aandsliv. Working all those odd jobs paid off, he published his first book: Den Gaadefulde: En Kjærlighedshistorie fra Nordland, it struggles he endured from his jobs. In his second novel Bjørger, he attempted to imitate Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson's writing style of the Icelandic saga narrative; the melodramatic story follows a poet, Bjørger, his love for Laura. This book was published under the pseudonym Knud Pedersen Hamsund; this book served as the basis for Victoria: En Kærligheds Historie. Hamsun first received wide acclaim with his 1890 novel Hunger; the semiautobiographical work described a young writer's descent into near madness as a result of hunger and poverty in the Norwegian capital of Kristiania. To many, the novel presages the writings of Franz Kafka and other twentieth-century novelists with its internal monologue and bizarre logic.
A theme to which Hamsun returned is that of the perpetual wanderer, an itinerant stranger who shows up and insinuates himself into the life of small rural communities. This wanderer theme is central to the novels Mysteries, Under the Autumn Star, The Last Joy, Vagabonds and others. Hamsun’s prose contains rapturous depictions of the natural world, with intimate reflections on the Norwegian woodlands and coastline. For this reason, he has been linked with the spiritual movement known as pantheism. Hamsun saw nature united in a strong, sometimes mystical bond; this connection between the characters and their natural environment is exemplified in the novels Pan, A Wanderer Plays on Muted Strings, the epic Growth of the Soil, "his monumental work" credited with securing him the Nobel Prize in literature in 1920. During World War II, Hamsun put his support behind the German war effort, he met with high-ranking Nazi officers, including Adolf Hitler. Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels wrote a long and enthusiastic diary entry concerning a private meeting with Hamsun.
In 1940 Hamsun wrote that "the Germans are fighting for us". After Hitler's death, he published a short obituary in which he described him as "a warrior for mankind" and "a preacher of the gospel of justice for all nations." After the war, he was detained by police on June 14, 1945, for the commission of acts of treason, was committed to a hospital in Grimstad "due to his advanced age", according to Einar Kringlen. In 1947 he was tried in Grimstad, fined. Norway's supreme court reduced the fine from 575,000 to 325,000 Norwegian kroner. After the war, Hamsun's views on the Germans during the war was a serio
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
Edith Wharton was an American novelist, short story writer and designer. Wharton drew upon her insider's knowledge of the upper class New York "aristocracy" to realistically portray the lives and morals of the Gilded Age, she was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in 1921. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1996. Edith Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones on January 24, 1862 to George Frederic Jones and Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander at their brownstone at 14 West Twenty-third Street in New York City. To her friends and family she was known as "Pussy Jones." She had two older brothers, Frederic Rhinelander, sixteen, Henry Edward, twelve. She was baptized Easter Sunday, at Grace Church. Wharton's paternal family, the Joneses, were a wealthy and prominent family having made their money in real estate; the saying "keeping up with the Joneses" is said to refer to her father's family. She was related to the Rensselaers, the most prestigious of the old patroon families, who had received land grants from the former Dutch government of New York and New Jersey.
Her father's first cousin was Caroline Schermerhorn Astor. She had a lifelong friendship with her niece, the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand of Reef Point in Bar Harbor, Maine. Fort Stevens in New York was named for Wharton's maternal great-grandfather, Ebenezer Stevens, a Revolutionary War hero and General. Wharton was born during the Civil War. From 1866 to 1872, the Jones family visited France, Italy and Spain. During her travels, the young Edith became fluent in French and Italian. At the age of nine, she suffered from typhoid fever, which nearly killed her, while the family was at a spa in the Black Forest. After the family returned to the United States in 1872, they spent their winters in New York and their summers in Newport, Rhode Island. While in Europe, she was educated by governesses, she rejected the standards of fashion and etiquette that were expected of young girls at the time, which were intended to allow women to marry well and to be put on display at balls and parties. She considered these fashions oppressive.
Edith wanted more education than she received, so she read from her father's library and from the libraries of her father's friends. Her mother forbade her to read novels until she was married, Edith obeyed this command. Wharton early age; when her family moved to Europe and she was just four or five she started what she called "making up." She invented stories for her family and would walk with an open book, turn the pages as if reading and improvise a story. Wharton began writing poetry and fiction as a young girl, attempted to write her first novel at age eleven, her mother's criticism quashed her ambition and she turned to poetry. At age 15, her first published work appeared, a translation of a German poem "Was die Steine Erzählen" by Heinrich Karl Brugsch, for which she was paid $50, her family did not want her name to appear in print, since writing was not considered a proper occupation for a society woman of her time. The poem was published under the name of a friend's father, E. A. Washburn, a cousin of Ralph Waldo Emerson who supported women's education.
In 1877, at the age of 15, she secretly wrote a 30,000 word novella "Fast and Loose." In 1878 her father arranged for a collection of two dozen original poems and five translations, Verses, to be published. Wharton published a poem under a pseudonym in the New York World in 1879. In 1880 she had five poems published anonymously in the Atlantic Monthly, an important literary magazine. Despite these early successes, she was not encouraged by her family or her social circle, though she continued to write, she did not publish anything more until her poem "The Last Giustiniani" was published in Scribner's Magazine in October 1889. Between 1880 and 1890 Wharton put her writing aside to perform as socialite. Wharton keenly observed the social changes happening around her which would appear in her writing. Wharton came out as a debutante to society in 1879. Wharton was allowed to bare her shoulders and wear her hair up for the first time at a December dance given by a wealthy socialite, Anna Morton. Wharton began a courtship with the son of a wealthy businessman.
Wharton's family did not approve of Stevens. In the middle of Wharton's debutante season, the Jones family returned to Europe in 1881 for Wharton's father's health. Wharton's father, George Frederic Jones, died in Cannes in 1882 of a stroke. Stevens was with the Wharton family in Europe during this time. Wharton and her mother returned to the United States and Wharton continued her courtship with Stevens announcing their engagement in August 1882; the month the two were to marry, the engagement abruptly ended. Wharton's mother, Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander, moved back to Paris in 1883 and lived there until her death in 1901. Wharton married in 1885 and began to build upon three interests--American houses and Italy. On April 29, 1885, at age 23, Wharton married Edward Robbins Wharton, 12 years her senior, at the Trinity Chapel Complex. From a well-established Boston family, he was a sportsman and a gentleman of the same social class and shared her love of travel; the Whartons set up house at Pencraig Cottage in Newport.
They bought and moved to Land's End on the other side of Newport in 1893 for $80,000. Wharton decorated Land's End with the help of designer Ogden Cod