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Psychosomatic medicine

Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals. The academic forebear of the modern field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse specialties including psychiatry, neurology, internal medicine, allergy and psychoneuroimmunology. Clinical situations where mental processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence; some physical diseases are believed to have a mental component derived from stresses and strains of everyday living. This has been suggested, for example, of lower back pain and high blood pressure, which some researchers have suggested may be related to stresses in everyday life; the psychosomatic framework additionally sees mental and emotional states as capable of influencing the course of any physical illness.

Psychiatry traditionally distinguishes between psychosomatic disorders, disorders in which mental factors play a significant role in the development, expression, or resolution of a physical illness, somatoform disorders, disorders in which mental factors are the sole cause of a physical illness. It is difficult to establish for certain. A psychosomatic component is inferred when there are some aspects of the patient's presentation that are unaccounted for by biological factors, or some cases where there is no biological explanation at all. For instance, Helicobacter pylori causes 80% of peptic ulcers. However, most people living with Helicobacter pylori do not develop ulcers, 20% of patients with ulcers have no H. pylori infection. Therefore, in these cases, psychological factors could still play some role. In irritable bowel syndrome, there are abnormalities in the behavior of the gut. However, there are no actual structural changes in the gut, so stress and emotions might still play a role.

The strongest perspective on psychosomatic disorders is that attempting to distinguish between purely physical and mixed psychosomatic disorders is obsolete as all physical illness have mental factors that determine their onset, maintenance, susceptibility to treatment, resolution. According to this view the course of serious illnesses, such as cancer, can be influenced by a person's thoughts and general state of mental health. Addressing such factors is the remit of the applied field of behavioral medicine. In modern society, psychosomatic aspects of illness are attributed to stress making the remediation of stress one important factor in the development and prevention of psychosomatic illness. In the field of psychosomatic medicine, the phrase "psychosomatic illness" is used more narrowly than it is within the general population. For example, in lay language, the term encompasses illnesses with no physical basis at all, illnesses that are faked. In contrast, in contemporary psychosomatic medicine, the term is restricted to those illnesses that do have a clear physical basis, but where it is believed that psychological and mental factors play a role.

Some researchers within the field believe that this overly broad interpretation of the term may have caused the discipline to fall into disrepute clinically. For this reason, among others, the field of behavioral medicine has taken over much of the remit of psychosomatic medicine in practice and there exist large areas of overlap in the scientific research. Studies have yielded mixed evidence regarding the impact of psychosomatic factors in illnesses. Early evidence suggested that patients with advanced-stage cancer may be able to survive longer if provided with psychotherapy to improve their social support and outlook. However, a major review published in 2007, which evaluated the evidence for these benefits, concluded that no studies meeting the minimum quality standards required in this field have demonstrated such a benefit; the review further argues that unsubstantiated claims that "positive outlook" or "fighting spirit" can help slow cancer may be harmful to the patients themselves if they come to believe that their poor progress results from "not having the right attitude".

On the other hand, psychosomatic medicine criticizes the current approach of medical doctors disregarding psychodynamic ideas in their daily practice. For example, it questions the broad acceptance of self-proclaimed diseases such as gluten-intolerance, chronic Lyme disease and Fibromyalgia as a gain of illness for patients to avoid the underlying intra-psychic conflicts eliciting the disease, while at the same time, challenging the reasons for this neglect in the doctors’ own avoidance of their emotional intra-psychic conflict. While in the US, psychosomatic medicine is considered a subspecialty of the fields of psychiatry and neurology, in Germany and other European countries it is considered a subspecialty of internal medicine. Thure von Uexküll and contemporary physicians following his thoughts regard the psychosomatic approach as a core attitude of medical doctors, thereby declaring it not as a subspecialty, but rather an integrated part of every specialty. Medical treatments and psychotherapy are used to treat illnesses believed to have a psychosomatic component.

In the medieval Islamic world the Persian psychologist-physicians Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi and Haly Abbas developed an early model of illness that emphasized the interaction of the mind and the body. They proposed that a patient's physiology and psychology can influence one

Andreas Kriezis

Andreas Kriezis was a Greek painter with Arvanite origin. His surname is translated from Albanian, it means "black head", he was the son of a captain in the merchant marine, grew up on the island of Hydra, one of the main strongholds for the Greek fleet during the War of Independence. Some sources claim that he was the brother of Prime Minister Antonios Kriezis, but this seems unlikely and the relationship, if any, remains unclear. Rather than follow his family's traditional maritime occupations, he went to Athens, where he worked as a lithographer at the Royal Printing House. In 1839, he went to Paris, to improve his skills in his chosen field, but turned to painting instead. On his return to Greece in 1851, he taught drawing at the gymnasium in Syros. While there, he became an advocate for the young painter, Konstantinos Volanakis, he became an itinerant artist, travelling throughout the Saronic Gulf while competing in several exhibitions from 1859 to 1875. Although a portrait painter, he is known to have painted murals at the "Church of Saint Irene" on Poros.

As a rule, he did not sign his works, so only a small number of canvases are attributed to him with certainty. His brushwork is similar to that of Francesco Pige, an Italian-born painter, his friend. In fact, many of Pige's early works were attributed to Kriezis, his death is believed to have come in 1880, but after 1877. Media related to Andreas Kriezis at Wikimedia Commons

Philippine, Netherlands

Philippine is a town in the province of Zeeland, Netherlands. It lies about 23 km southeast of Vlissingen, it is located on the border with 5 km southwest of the city of Terneuzen. It received city rights in 1506. Philippine has gained some renown for its mussel restaurants. In the village square there is a fountain in the shape of a mussel. Philippine was a separate municipality until 1970. In 2001, the town of Philippine had 1,970 inhabitants; the built-up area of the town was 0.60 km², contained 853 residences. The statistical area "Philippine", which can include the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 2,180; the landlord, Hieronymus Lauweryn, who founded the town in 1505, named it after Philip I. J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Philippine". Map of the former municipality, around 1868. Historical map from the Special Collections of the Utrecht University Library, with explanation by the conservator of maps, Marco van Egmond

Martin Bosma

Martin Bosma is a Dutch politician and former journalist serving as a member of the House of Representatives for the Party for Freedom since 30 November 2006. He focuses on matters of mass media and culture. Born in Wormer, Bosma studied political science with a specialisation in public administration at the University of Amsterdam and sociology at the New School of Social Research in New York City, he worked many years for several news media, first as a reporter for one of his local papers, De Zaanlander, as one of the principal anchor men for Hoeksteen Live, a monthly cable TV programme in the 1990s described as a "political programme with a cultural supplement", subsequently for outlets including CNN Business News, ABC's Nightline and NOS Journaal. From 2002 to 2004 he was director of Nederlandse Radiogroep and from 2004 to 2006 he was active as a political consultant for the PVV's predecessor Groep Wilders. Bosma was elected to the House of Representatives in the 2006 general election, he was reelected in 2010, 2012 and 2017.

He became a member of the Presidium of the House of Representatives, serving as the Second Deputy Speaker. As such, when Gerdi Verbeet resigned as Speaker on 20 September 2012, Bosma served as Acting Speaker of the House of Representatives until 25 September 2012, he attempted to become Speaker in the 2016 election, but he came fourth, obtaining sixteen votes in the first round of voting. He retained his position of Second Deputy Speaker. De schijn-élite van de valse munters. ISBN 978-90-3513604-5 Minderheid in eigen land. ISBN 978-90-8591202-6 House of Representatives biography Party for Freedom biography

Iron Cove Creek

Iron Cove Creek, a southern tributary of the Parramatta River, is an urban stream west of Sydney Harbour, located in the inner-western Sydney suburbs of Croydon, Ashfield and Five Dock in New South Wales, Australia. Iron Cove Creek traverses through residential areas and parkland, making a 2 kilometres journey from where it surfaces in Croydon to where it empties into Iron Cove, a bay of the Parramatta River, at Five Dock, it forms much of the border between Croydon and Ashfield upstream from Parramatta Road. Once a natural watercourse abound with native vegetation and wildlife, Iron Cove Creek was transformed in the late 19th century into a stormwater channel that drains a large catchment area in Sydney's inner-western suburbs. In the 1860s Iron Cove Creek was a flowing waterway which in places broadened into ponds that made excellent and picturesque swimming holes. Water birds and snakes were abundant in this area and these, like the possums and gliders that inhabited the treetops fell victim to the predations of children with improvised bows and arrows and slingshots and their elders armed with more sophisticated weapons.

During the 1890s the character and appearance of Iron Cove Creek was altered. As early as 1880 Iron Cove Creek was perceived to present hazards both to the health and convenience of the local community. Plans were made to concrete its banks, but major work did not commence until 1891; the construction of the banks was carried out by the Department of Public Works and was supervised by a local resident, William Best Chessell. It had a profound effect on the appearance and future development of Croydon. In his book Between Two Highways: the story of early Croydon, Eric Dunlop points out that as a result of the construction of canals and tunnels: Iron Cove Creek begins as a tiny trickle in a narrow channel near Norton Street in Croydon, where it appears as a stormwater tunnel exiting into daylight. From here, it makes its way through a cement cutting only a few metres wide with high concrete walls on either side and passes under the Main Suburban railway line. From here until Parramatta Road it remains just a small trickle during dry weather.

The canal is bounded by the fences of commercial and residential properties as well as a barbed wire fence along Etonville Parade, is for the most part hidden from the public eye. The creek's character does not change until it reaches the John Street bridge where the concreted channel widens and the height of the banks drops about threefold. From John Street to West Street, Iron Cove Creek is flanked by a wide grass verge covered with various types of vegetation leaving potential for a recreational walking/cycling path beside the creek. There is ample space for bush regeneration to take place by the planting of indigenous species. About 100 metres downstream from West Street is the Parramatta Road bridge, which marks the approximate tidal limit of the creek. Adjacent to the creek on Parramatta Road are popular fast-food restaurants, a council depot and a service station. After flowing under the Parramatta Road bridge, Iron Cove Creek enters public parkland and becomes a broad channel similar to the width of the original channel.

On the right is parkland and running parallel to the creek on the left bank of is Henley Marine Drive. Iron Cove Creek passes beneath Ramsay Street, widens further, proceeds through parkland including Timbrell Park; the creek is tidal here and the water level difference between low and high tide is significant. The tidal limit of Dobroyd Canal is located 100 metres upstream of Parramatta Road. Mullet may be seen in the lower reaches of Iron Cove Creek below Parramatta Road at high tide; the creek empties into Iron Cove as a broad canal at the intersection of Timbrell Drive and Dobroyd Parade at Five Dock, where there is a floating boom across the creek, designed to stop pollution entering Port Jackson. Between Parramatta Road and Iron Cove, Iron Cove Creek forms part of the border between the federal electoral divisions of Reid and Grayndler following a 2009 redistribution; the Church Street bridge spans Iron Cove Creek on the border of the inner-western suburbs of Croydon and Ashfield. The bridge is built of sandstone and steel.

The course of Church Street was defined by the track used by Burwood residents to attend St John's Ashfield, who crossed the Creek at a conveniently-located large fallen tree. Pollution entering Iron Cove from Iron Cove Creek poses as a serious environmental problem as materials such as heavy metals, road dust and various nutrients flow into the creek during rainfall; this problem is enhanced by the fact popular fast-food restaurants and a service station are located adjacent to Iron Cove Creek on Parramatta Road. The concrete lining of the creek prevents the growth of natural vegetation such as mangroves which assist in maintaining water quality. Iron Cove Creek supplies water and sediment enriched in copper and zinc to the Iron Cove under low flow conditions and is a major source of contaminants. Increasing salinity in the lower sections of Iron Cove Creek controls partitioning between the particulate and dissolved phases of copper and zinc. Contaminant loading to Iron Cove may be contingent on extended periods of low flow rather than high flow events during which contaminated material is exported from the estuary in a discrete surface layer.

This unusual characteristic offers attractive possibilities for remediation of stormwater

Stuart Ford

Stuart Ford is an English former professional football goalkeeper. He started his career as an apprentice at Rotherham United in June 1987, he made just five league appearances. Despite serving a promising apprenticeship and helping the club win the Northern Intermediate Cup, he failed to dislodge Kelham O'Hanlon and Billy Mercer as the number one keeper. After a successful loan spell at Scarborough FC at the end of 1991–92 season, he signed a one-year contract with the Seadogs, where he fought for the starting position with Mark Evans. Scarborough's highlight of the 1992–93 season was a League Cup run, which included victories over Bradford City, Coventry City, Plymouth Argyle, before going out to a Nigel Winterburn goal against Arsenal. At the end of that season he was released by Scarborough, but Ford was signed by Doncaster Rovers to be understudy to Andy Beasley. After playing a handful of games at Rovers, Ford moved back to Scarborough, but after an injury plagued season and only a few first team appearances he was to find himself without a contract at a professional club in 1995.

In August 1995 he signed for non-league Gresley Rovers where he stayed for 5 years, helping them win the Southern League Championship. Due to ground grading Gresley couldn't take a place in the Conference. After winning many personal honours and establishing himself as a firm crowd favourite, he moved on to Hednesford Town, Ilkeston Town and Alfreton Town, before finishing his career at AFC Barnsley. Ford helped them to promotion in his first season, losing just one league game and conceding just 18 goals. In 2011, Ford launched a range of retro goalkeeping gloves. Stuart Ford at Soccerbase